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Audit of Waste

Contamination caused by waste poses


problems to mankind
It is critical
Even Developed nations are concerned
about this menace.
Wastes are of many categorieschemical
wastes, medical wastes, municipal wastes,
non-hazardous wastes, radio active wastes
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Effects of wastes

Chemical and radio active wastes can be lethal


Hazardous wastes can cause deaths, illness
Wastes can contaminate air , land and water
Wastes and its contamination have no boundaries
It goes beyond the boundaries and pollute other
regions and premises
Trans boundary movements of wastes cause
pollution problems not in ones own country but
others also.
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What is waste?
Waste is a product that is no longer suited
for its original use
May be worn out, a by product, unwanted
Waste is also usable material for some one
else than the original user or owner
By product one user some times becomes
the raw material for production of another
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Classification of wastes
There are 2 categories-hazardous and nonhazardous
Special kinds of hazardous wastes include
municipal waste, medical waste, chemical
waste, electronic waste, electrical waste etc.
Depending upon the nature the treatment
differs
Unless treated properly they cause damages to
the environment.
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Steps in waste management


Steps in wastes management-- Generation, prevention, recycle, reuse, recover,
collection,transport,export, treatment,disposal,
Wastes generate leachate,an hazardous
substance that can damage land, soil, air and
water.
Leachate is to be controlled or treated to make
it harmless
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Illegal dumping
Laws should be made to control illegal
dumping
Proper treatment will minimise or control
pollution of the waste materials
Treatment is to be cost effective
Concept of sustainable development plays
an important role in controlling the wastes.
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Waste a global issue


International awareness
Wastes have got international ramifications
Wastes are generated and then cost of
prevention or disposal in a safe manner
becomes costly to generators.
They therefore, conveniently avoid waste
management and cause damage to the
nature and human kind
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International Awareness
contd.
At the Rio Conference,1992Agenda 21
adopted--- Action contemplated globally for
environmental protection 178 Governments
adopted the agenda
Waste is one of the subjects and priorities for
action
Global concern for environmentally managing
the toxic chemicals including the prevention of
illegal and international traffic of toxic and
dangerous products and materials.
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Concern in World Summit 2002


Focus Sustainable Development Sustainable
consumption and production
Reduction of Resource degradation, pollution and
waste
It was decided to prevent and minimise waste and
maximise reuse , recycling,and use of
environmentally friendly,alternative materials with
the participation of government authorities and all
stake holders, in order to minimise the adverse
effects of waste on the environment and improve
resource efficiency, with financial, technical and
RTIdeveloping
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other assistance for
countries.

Contd
Through technical innovation the generation of
waste can be reduced the concept of SOP
instead of EOP
Reduction of waste may initially cause large
sum capital expenditure, but in the long run
may be cost effective in terms of environmental
expenditure
The initial cost may be for capital expenditure
or for raw material cost
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Contd
Units having clean environment and with
reduced wastes will have an upper hand in
matters of contracting etc.
Normally during contracting units having
ISO 14001 certificate gets preference as all
are concerned about the environment.
Even the industries want to show that they
comply with environmental regulations
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Auditing waste
Environmental problems
Odor, littering, unsightliness
Odor unpleasant smell that creates irritation
and health problems
Road side wastes unless handled properly
emit bad smell
They have to be removed
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Land fills
Land fills are places where wastes are
stored for safe and timely destruction or
treatment of wastes
Littering from waste can create secondary
environmental problems such as blocking of
pipes and pumps
Drainage problems
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Contd..
Landfills are procedures for treating the
hazardous wastes in a scientific manner
Hazardous wastes have to be segregated,
tagged and safely transported to a safe place
for land filling
Land fills are properly arranged places for
storing and disposing the hazardous wastes
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Contd
Land fills are protected so that animals or
human beings do not get the effect of the
hazardous material stored.
The land fills are scientifically designed and
the storing is also done scientifically
The hazardous material is incinerated

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Soil
Dust, leachate water, pesticides cause
contamination of soil
Heavy metals create health problems if
dumped in the soil without treating
It can affect the human being, flora fauna
Organic pollutants affect the food chain if
left in the soil
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Contd
Some who keep the hazardous wastes under
the soil without proper treatment actually
damage the environment
The effect gets mixed with the ground water
and the ground water when used for
drinking or other domestic purposes spoil
the health and transmit the hazardous wastes
in to the water system
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Surface water, ground water


Seeping through wastes will absorb
hazardous components
They go to ground water and surface water
If such water is used for drinking and other
agriculture purposes they can create health
hazards
They have to be treated to be safe
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Surface water, ground water


Uncontrolled burningIts effects
Un controlled burning of wastes emit toxic
gases in large quantities in the air
Land fills wastes are burned to get metals
Results in incomplete combustion
Emits gases rich in methane, CO2, nitrogen
Emission is a contributor to GHG-green
house gas
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Storage collection and transport


Wastes are to be stored, collected and
transported to a safe places for its disposal
Storage before collectionTo avoid access
to rodents, ants, and other animals
Should be stored in special containers to
enable easy transport
The nature of containers depends upon the
nature of wastes
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Collection and transport


It is expensive
Requires special types of vehicles
Can be collected in various ways
At the receiving stations
At the land fills itself
Collections through precaution, no slippage,
no sliping
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Transportation
Transportation In special vehicles
Protected so that the vehicles do not create
any further problems
Special procedures for loading
Special procedures for unloading
Special procedures for cleaning the vehicles
Special procedures for segregating/tagging
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Communal collection, door to


door collection
Transportation of wastes, hazardous wastes is
done with care so that it does not fill or spill
on the road and pollute

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Precautions to be taken for


transportation of hazardous wastes
Hazardous wastes have to be separated
from other wastes
They have to be properly collected, stored
and incinerated
Bigger wastes have to be collected and
transported.
Smaller wastes can be given to local
collection centres and transported
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Knowledge of the hazardous


waste essential
Before handling, the nature of the waste is to be
known
Because they can react vigorously when they
come in contact with air or other materials
The storage of materials should be specific to
each hazardous substance so that there is no
reaction of chemicals
The stored materials should be labeled
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Waste handling--Control

Waste control methods


Avoid
Minimise
Recover-recycle
Treat and process
Dispose
Open uncontrolled dump
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Avoid
This is through improved technology where
no waste is produced
Cost effective methods to be used
This is an ideal situation
Not always possible
Certain specific process only is included in
this
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Minimise

Again involves high technology


May not be cost effective
May not be always possible
Process becomes environmentally friendly
This is effected through EA-measuring the
by products and controlling the process
Not very popular method
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Recover --recycle

Most popular method


Through further process recover or recycle
This reduces large quantity of waste
Cost effective
More environmentally friendly
Recycling industry flourishes
Economic criteria
Egs:Bottles are melted down and compost produced

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Recycle--Incineration
Wastes are burned down
Egs: production of hot water, steam or
electricity form such burning
Use directly as fuel
Gasification produce gas that can be used
to produce hot water etc.

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Energy from waste

Waste is useful some times


When burned by products come out
Organic matter, paper , card board etc.
Energy is produced during burning
This is useful
Some hazardous wastes can act as fuel
substitute
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Treatment of hazardous wastes

Methods
Thermal destruction
Chemical treatment
Commonly used for inorganic waste
Thermal destruction for organic waste
Commonly applied to inseparable
solutions paints mixed with solvents etc.
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Neutralization
Commonly used on corrosivesacids and
alkalis
By adding together they react and salt and
water are produced
The residue can be useful
the effect is reduced

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Stabilization

In this process the waste is locked in place


Mixes with gypsum or concrete
Blocks are prepared
Wastes` effect is controlled
The blocks are then land filled and
controlled
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Land filling
Disposal of waste land filling
Methods sanitary land fills, controlled
dump, and uncontrolled dump
Covering the land fills
Incineration
Fencing the land fills to prevent access of
the land fills and to avoid contamination
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Audit of waste management


Waste policy
To check whether a national policy in
alignment with international accords is in
place
SAI may raise an issue if it not in place
Policy is the starting issue for SAI

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Waste policy to be in tune with


Environmental policy
SAI would have analysed the national
Environmental policy
To check whether the Environmental policy
and the waste policy are in agreement
If contradictory , comment
Whether the policy is specific or distinct
and takes care of the waste issues
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Data availability
Whether adequate data is available on the
existence of various types of wastes
Whether categorization into, hazardous,
non-hazardous, municipal, hospital wastes
etc are available.
Whether the information is accessible by
the concerned or the same is disseminated
to all concerned.
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Funding
Whether the concerned have been provided
with adequate funds
Lack of funds hamper waste management
projects/programmes at the implementation
level
Whether the key players are identified
such as governments, NGOs, other
authorities, Pollution Control boards
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Co-ordination
At project level and planning level required
co-ordination is there or not
All levels of consultation and problem
solving mechanism working or not?
Regular meetings of the concerned
ministries, other authorities such as PCBs
are taking place or not?
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Risk assessment
Whether the Govt. is fully aware of the risk
involved
National plan for addressing the risk issue
Analyse the plan and assess the adequacy of
addressing the national policy and
international accords on wastes
Check the adequacy of legislation to take care
of the environmental issues arising out of the
waste management problems
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Goal achievement
Assess the adequacy of the goals set for the waste
management by the executive
Assess its achievement and any deficiency to be
commented
See the targets for different types of management
water, air, solid and hazardous
Compare with the actual and comment on the deficiency
See the working of the regulators and their roles

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Types of audits
Regularity and performance
Performance audits of major programmes and
projects
Criteria for audits--- Project reports, plans and
mile stones
See the implementation of the programmes and
projects are undertaken : economically
efficiently and effectively
All targets are met
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Time frame
The projects are undertaken on time frame
basis
There was no delay
There was no nugatory and wasteful
expenditure
The target population has received the
benefits
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Monitoring
Regulatory authorities are empowered to
handle the environmental issues
In India Central pollution Control Board
and State Pollution Control Boards play a
major role in controlling the waste
management
They measure the effects of various wastes
and their impacts on the environment
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Contd..
They implement the legislative frame work of
the country
In India under the EPA Act, 1986
Manufacture, Storage and Import of
Hazardous chemicals Rules, 1989 were framed
to control the impact of hazardous chemical
wastes.
The regulators implement various provisions of
the rules
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Wastes its effects- direct


The effect of the wastes from direct
activities
Effect of other activities not directly
connected with environment
Both impacts have to be considered and
measures taken to abate pollution
Audit to check the impacts and the
measures taken
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Auditing contd..
SAI to see:
That the legislative guidelines are complied
That the regulators are aware of the
existence of various wastes management
issues
They check the impact and take measures to
avoid or abate pollution
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Contd..
Wastes are identified and proper handling
systems are in place
In case of default by any unit preventive
measures are taken to contain the impact of
the effect
Hazardous wastes are treated properly
before disposal etc.
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Thanks
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