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# 5

Trigonometric
Functions

5.2-1

5 Trigonometric Functions
5.1 Angles
5.2 Trigonometric Functions
5.3 Evaluating Trigonometric Functions
5.4 Solving Right Triangles

5.2-2

## 5.2 Trigonometric Functions

Identities Signs and Ranges of Function Values Pythagorean
Identities Quotient Identities

5.2-3

Trigonometric Functions
Let (x, y) be a point other the origin on the terminal
side of an angle in standard position. The
distance from the point to the origin is

5.2-4

Trigonometric Functions
The six trigonometric functions of are
defined as follows:

5.2-5

Example 1

ANGLE

## The terminal side of angle in standard position

passes through the point (8, 15). Find the values of
the six trigonometric functions of angle .

5.2-6

Example 1

## FINDING FUNCTION VALUES OF AN

ANGLE (continued)

5.2-7

Example 2

ANGLE

## The terminal side of angle in standard position

passes through the point (3, 4). Find the values of
the six trigonometric functions of angle .

5.2-8

Example 2

## FINDING FUNCTION VALUES OF AN

ANGLE (continued)

5.2-9

Example 3

ANGLE

## Find the six trigonometric function values of the

angle in standard position, if the terminal side of
is defined by x + 2y = 0, x 0.
We can use any point on
the terminal side of to
find the trigonometric
function values.
Choose x = 2.

5.2-10

Example 3

## FINDING FUNCTION VALUES OF AN

ANGLE (continued)

## The point (2, 1) lies on the terminal side, and the

corresponding value of r is
Multiply by

to rationalize

the denominators.

5.2-11

## Find the values of the six trigonometric functions for

an angle of 90.
The terminal side passes
through (0, 1). So x = 0, y = 1,
and r = 1.

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5.2-12

## Find the values of the six

trigonometric functions for an
angle in standard position
with terminal side through
(3, 0).
x = 3, y = 0, and r = 3.

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5.2-13

## Undefined Function Values

If the terminal side of a quadrantal angle lies along
the y-axis, then the tangent and secant functions
are undefined.
If the terminal side of a quadrantal angle lies along
the x-axis, then the cotangent and cosecant
functions are undefined.

5.2-14

## Commonly Used Function

Values

sin

cos

tan

cot

sec

csc

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90

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180

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270

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360

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5.2-15

Using a Calculator
A calculator in degree mode
returns the correct values
for sin 90 and cos 90.
The second screen shows
an ERROR message for tan
90 because 90 is not in
the domain of the tangent
function.

5.2-16

Caution
One of the most common errors
involving calculators in trigonometry
occurs when the calculator is set for
measure.

5.2-17

Reciprocal Identities
For all angles for which both functions are
defined,

5.2-18

Example 5(a)

5.2-19

Example 5(b)

Rationalize the
denominator.

5.2-20

in

tan

cot

sec

csc

II

III

IV

5.2-21

5.2-22

Example 6

## IDENTIFYING THE QUADRANT OF AN

ANGLE

that satisfies the given conditions.

## (a) sin > 0, tan < 0.

Since sin > 0 in quadrants I and II, and tan < 0 in
quadrants II and IV, both conditions are met only in
(b) cos < 0, sec < 0
The cosine and secant functions are both negative
in quadrants II and III, so could be in either of

5.2-23

Ranges of Trigonometric
Functions

5.2-24

Example 7

## DECIDING WHETHER A VALUE IS IN

THE RANGE OF A TRIGONOMETRIC
FUNCTION

impossible.

Impossible

## (b) tan = 110.47

Possible

(c) sec = .6

Impossible

5.2-25

Pythagorean Identities
For all angles for which the function values are
defined,

5.2-26

Quotient Identities
For all angles for which the denominators are
not zero,

5.2-27

Example 8

## FINDING OTHER FUNCTION VALUES

GIVEN ONE VALUE AND THE

and is in

negative.

5.2-28

Example 8

## FINDING OTHER FUNCTION VALUES

GIVEN ONE VALUE AND THE

Caution

## It is incorrect to say that sin = 4

and cos = 3, since both sin and
cos must be in the interval [1, 1].

5.2-29

Example 8

## FINDING OTHER FUNCTION VALUES

GIVEN ONE VALUE AND THE

## Use the identity

to find sec . Then
use the reciprocal identity to find cos .

## Choose the negative

square root since sec <0
Secant and cosine are
reciprocals.

5.2-30

Example 8

## FINDING OTHER FUNCTION VALUES

GIVEN ONE VALUE AND THE

## Choose the negative

square root since sin <0

5.2-31

Example 8

## FINDING OTHER FUNCTION VALUES

GIVEN ONE VALUE AND THE

## This example can also be

worked by drawing in