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5

Trigonometric
Functions

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5.2-1

5 Trigonometric Functions
5.1 Angles
5.2 Trigonometric Functions
5.3 Evaluating Trigonometric Functions
5.4 Solving Right Triangles

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5.2-2

5.2 Trigonometric Functions


Trigonometric Functions Quadrantal Angles Reciprocal
Identities Signs and Ranges of Function Values Pythagorean
Identities Quotient Identities

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5.2-3

Trigonometric Functions
Let (x, y) be a point other the origin on the terminal
side of an angle in standard position. The
distance from the point to the origin is

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5.2-4

Trigonometric Functions
The six trigonometric functions of are
defined as follows:

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5.2-5

Example 1

FINDING FUNCTION VALUES OF AN


ANGLE

The terminal side of angle in standard position


passes through the point (8, 15). Find the values of
the six trigonometric functions of angle .

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5.2-6

Example 1

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FINDING FUNCTION VALUES OF AN


ANGLE (continued)

5.2-7

Example 2

FINDING FUNCTION VALUES OF AN


ANGLE

The terminal side of angle in standard position


passes through the point (3, 4). Find the values of
the six trigonometric functions of angle .

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5.2-8

Example 2

FINDING FUNCTION VALUES OF AN


ANGLE (continued)

Use the definitions of the trigonometric functions.

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5.2-9

Example 3

FINDING FUNCTION VALUES OF AN


ANGLE

Find the six trigonometric function values of the


angle in standard position, if the terminal side of
is defined by x + 2y = 0, x 0.
We can use any point on
the terminal side of to
find the trigonometric
function values.
Choose x = 2.

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5.2-10

Example 3

FINDING FUNCTION VALUES OF AN


ANGLE (continued)

The point (2, 1) lies on the terminal side, and the


corresponding value of r is
Multiply by

to rationalize

the denominators.

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5.2-11

Example 4(a) FINDING FUNCTION VALUES OF


QUADRANTAL ANGLES

Find the values of the six trigonometric functions for


an angle of 90.
The terminal side passes
through (0, 1). So x = 0, y = 1,
and r = 1.

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5.2-12

Example 4(b) FINDING FUNCTION VALUES OF


QUADRANTAL ANGLES

Find the values of the six


trigonometric functions for an
angle in standard position
with terminal side through
(3, 0).
x = 3, y = 0, and r = 3.

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5.2-13

Undefined Function Values


If the terminal side of a quadrantal angle lies along
the y-axis, then the tangent and secant functions
are undefined.
If the terminal side of a quadrantal angle lies along
the x-axis, then the cotangent and cosecant
functions are undefined.

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5.2-14

Commonly Used Function


Values

sin

cos

tan

cot

sec

csc

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90

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180

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270

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360

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5.2-15

Using a Calculator
A calculator in degree mode
returns the correct values
for sin 90 and cos 90.
The second screen shows
an ERROR message for tan
90 because 90 is not in
the domain of the tangent
function.

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5.2-16

Caution
One of the most common errors
involving calculators in trigonometry
occurs when the calculator is set for
radian measure, rather than degree
measure.

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5.2-17

Reciprocal Identities
For all angles for which both functions are
defined,

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5.2-18

Example 5(a)

USING THE RECIPROCAL IDENTITIES

Since cos is the reciprocal of sec ,

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5.2-19

Example 5(b)

USING THE RECIPROCAL IDENTITIES

Since sin is the reciprocal of csc ,

Rationalize the
denominator.

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5.2-20

Signs of Function Values


in
Quadrant sin cos

tan

cot

sec

csc

II

III

IV

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5.2-21

Signs of Function Values

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5.2-22

Example 6

IDENTIFYING THE QUADRANT OF AN


ANGLE

Identify the quadrant (or quadrants) of any angle


that satisfies the given conditions.

(a) sin > 0, tan < 0.


Since sin > 0 in quadrants I and II, and tan < 0 in
quadrants II and IV, both conditions are met only in
quadrant II.
(b) cos < 0, sec < 0
The cosine and secant functions are both negative
in quadrants II and III, so could be in either of
these two quadrants.
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5.2-23

Ranges of Trigonometric
Functions

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5.2-24

Example 7

DECIDING WHETHER A VALUE IS IN


THE RANGE OF A TRIGONOMETRIC
FUNCTION

Decide whether each statement is possible or


impossible.

(a) sin = 2.5

Impossible

(b) tan = 110.47

Possible

(c) sec = .6

Impossible

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5.2-25

Pythagorean Identities
For all angles for which the function values are
defined,

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5.2-26

Quotient Identities
For all angles for which the denominators are
not zero,

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5.2-27

Example 8

FINDING OTHER FUNCTION VALUES


GIVEN ONE VALUE AND THE
QUADRANT

Find sin and cos , given that


quadrant III.

and is in

Since is in quadrant III, both sin and cos are


negative.

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5.2-28

Example 8

FINDING OTHER FUNCTION VALUES


GIVEN ONE VALUE AND THE
QUADRANT (continued)

Caution

It is incorrect to say that sin = 4


and cos = 3, since both sin and
cos must be in the interval [1, 1].

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5.2-29

Example 8

FINDING OTHER FUNCTION VALUES


GIVEN ONE VALUE AND THE
QUADRANT (continued)

Use the identity


to find sec . Then
use the reciprocal identity to find cos .

Choose the negative


square root since sec <0
for in quadrant III.
Secant and cosine are
reciprocals.

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5.2-30

Example 8

FINDING OTHER FUNCTION VALUES


GIVEN ONE VALUE AND THE
QUADRANT (continued)

Choose the negative


square root since sin <0
for in quadrant III.

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5.2-31

Example 8

FINDING OTHER FUNCTION VALUES


GIVEN ONE VALUE AND THE
QUADRANT (continued)

This example can also be


worked by drawing in
standard position in quadrant
III, finding r to be 5, and then
using the definitions of sin
and cos in terms of x, y,
and r.

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5.2-32