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BMED 3106

Integrated Body Systems


III
Renal System, Fluids, & Electrolytes

Department of Health &


Biomedical Sciences

Anatomy of
Renal/Urinary System

Kidneys
2 kidneys
One on each side
of the vertebral
column at the
level of T12-L3
vertebrae

Lie
retroperitoneally
on the posterior
abdominal wall

Kidneys
Enclosed by the renal fascia
Surrounded by perinephric fat

Kidneys
Superiorly, the posterior aspect of the
kidneys are associated with the:
diaphragm, which separates them from the
pleural cavities and the 12th pair of ribs.

Inferiorly, the posterior aspect of the


kidneys are related to the:
Psoas muscle medially and quadratus
lumborum muscle

Kidneys

Right kidney slightly lower than left kidney


At the hilum: renal artery, renal vein, and renal pelvis
Blood supply: Renal arteries (branches of abdominal
aorta) and renal veins (drain into IVC)

The medial surface of the kidney is concave


with a hilum carrying renal nerves and
blood vessels.

The renal parenchyma is divided into an


outer cortex and inner medulla.

Extensions of the
cortex (renal
columns) project
toward the sinus,
dividing the
medulla into 6-10
renal pyramids.
Each pyramid is
conical with a
blunt point called
the papilla facing
the sinus.

The papilla is
nestled into a cup
called a minor calyx,
which collects its
urine. Two or three
minor calyces
merge to form a
major calyx. The
major calyces
merge to form the
renal pelvis.

The Nephron
Functional unit of the
kidney
Each kidney contains
~ 1 million nephrons
Glomerulus
Filters blood and
eventually all waste
carried away (filtered)
in the urine, and a small
blood vessel returns all
filtered substance back to
the body.

Nephrons are connected to renal artery/vein


and ureter.

The Nephron

glomerulus
efferent arteriole

proximal
convolute
d tubule

A nephron consists of :
A.

distal
blood vessels
convolute
afferent arteriole d tubule

glomerulus
efferent arterioleafferent arteriole

B. renal tubules

proximal convoluted
tubule

loop of Henle

distal convoluted
tubule

Loop of Henle

Urinary Organs
Include:
Ureters: carry
urine from the
kidneys
Urinary bladder:
temporarily stores
urine
Urethra: conducts
urine from the
bladder to the
exterior

Ureters

Muscular ducts
Transport urine to the urinary
bladder
Normally constricted to a variable
degree in three places:
1.Ureteroplevic junction
2.Where cross external iliac

Ureters
Posteriorly
Surface marking of the ureter is lateral to L1
spinous process and posterior aspect of superior
iliac spine

Branches off inferiorly from apex of renal


pelvis at the hila of the kidneys, passing over
the pelvic brim at the bifurcation of the
common iliac arteries.
Continues to run along lateral wall of pelvis and
enter the urinary bladder

Urinary Bladder
Hollow viscus with muscular walls
composed of detrusor muscle
When empty its location is in
the lesser pelvis and when filled
its located in the greater pelvis
Consists of:
Apex
Fundus
Body
Neck

Arterial and Venous supply


Superior and inferior vesical arteries

Innervation
Parasympathetic and sympathetic
fibers

Urethra
Male
18-22 cm long
Function:
Conveys urine from internal
urethral orifice to external urethral
orifice
Exit for semen

Two parts:
Intermediate part
Spongy urethra

Arterial and Venous supply


Prostatic branches of rectal
arteries and prostatic venous
plexus

Innervation
Prostatic plexus (sympathetic and
parasympathetic fibers)

Female
4 cm long and 6 mm
diameter
Function:
Conveys urine from internal
urethral orifice to external
urethral orifice

Arterial and venous


supply:
Internal pudendal and
vaginal arteries

Innervation:
Vesical nerve plexus and
pudendal nerve

Difference between
Female and Male Urethra

Suprarenal Glands
Also referred to as
adrenal glands
Yellowish appearance
Pyramid shaped
Sit above the kidneys
Surrounded by
connective tissue
containing perinephric
fat.

Suprarenal Glands
Enclosed by renal

fascia
Separated from the
kidneys by CT
Divisions: Cortex &
Medulla
Blood supply:
Suprarenal arteries &
veins
Nerves: celiac plexus
and abdominopelvic

Renal Arteries and Veins


Renal arteries
Arise between L1 and L2 vertebrae
Longer right renal artery passes posterior to the IVC
At the hilum, the renal arteries divided into 5
segmental arteries
Superior segmental artery
Anterosuperior segmental artery
Anteroinferior segmental arteries
Inferior segmental artery
Posterior segmental artery
Renal veins drain into each kidney
Unite to form the right and left renal veins

Renal Arteries and


Veins

Arterial Supply and Venous Drainage


of Ureters

Arterial branches to the abdominal


portion of the ureter arise
consistently from the renal arteries.
Form anastomoses

Veins draining the abdominal part of


the ureters drain into the renal and
gonadal veins.

Suprarenal Arteries and


Veins
Suprarenal arteries branch freely before
entering each adrenal gland
Arteries arise from 3 sources
Superior suprarenal arteries
Middle suprarenal arteries
Inferior suprarenal arteries

Suprarenal veins
Large and serve as the venous drainage of
suprarenal glands
Right suprarenal vein and left suprarenal vein

Lymphatics of Kidneys, Ureters,


and Suprarenal Glands
The lymphatics follow the
path of the renal veins and
drain into:
Right and left lumbar lymph
nodes

Lymphatics of ureters
Drain into common, external,
internal iliac lymph nodes

Lymphatics of suprarenal
glands
Drains into the lumbar lymph
nodes

Nerves of Kidneys, Ureters, and


Suprarenal Glands
Kidneys are primarily supplied by:
Renal nerve plexus
Sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers
Supplied by fibers from abdominopelvic
splanchnic nerves

Ureters are primarily supplied by:


Renal, abdominal, aortic, and
superior hypogastric plexuses
Visceral afferent fibers
Convey pain sensation

Suprarenal glands are primarily


supplied by:
Celiac plexus and abdominopelvic
splanchnic nerves

Questions