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Structural mitigation

measures

Structural mitigation
measures
(i) buildings, including multi-purpose
cyclone
shelters;
(ii) road links, culverts and bridges;
(iii) canals, drains, and surface water
tanks, etc.;
(iv) saline embankments; and
(v) communication towers and power
transmission networks.

Design Considerations of Structures


General Design Considerations for Buildings

i) The design to be carried out for 1.3


times the basic wind speed as
recommended in the IS 875 - 1987 part 3.
The basic wind speed as per the code in
most parts of the coastal zone is 50 m/s
(180 km/hour) up to 10 m above ground
level. Further, a number of corrections are
to be applied based on the importance of
the structure (risk assessment),
topography, size and shape of the building.

ii) The design will also be able to withstand


seismic forces in regions which are
additionally vulnerable to earthquake
hazard, such as Kandla, etc
iii) The local community will be encouraged
to construct houses which will be cyclone
resistant. Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) and
Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) will be
asked to ensure this.

Road Links, Culverts and


Bridges

3) Canals, Drains, Surface Water Tanks


Design and Maintenance Considerations for Canals, Drains and Tanks

i) The reinforcement cover of the foundations,


substructure locking gates/sluices will be at the level
specified in IRC: SP: 33-1989 to achieve the expected level
of durability. For steel structures, IS-800 will be followed.
ii) To ensure proper functioning of canals/ drains/tanks
during storm surge due to cyclone, the following measures
are required:
a) Branches to the canal drain are to be closed.
b) The embankments will be strengthened.
c) The condition of the passage-bridge and channels will
be checked.
d) Obstructions in the canals/drains will be removed
periodically to enable free flow of water.

e) The blocks and shutters of the canals are to be checked for satisfactory
performance.
f) The instruments and materials required for attending to immediate repairs,
breach of closures, etc., will be stacked in advance at places where they may be
required.
g) Navigation in the canal will be stopped.
h) Water supply into canals will be cut out off by closing the sluices.
i) The canals and drains will be free from constructions and they will be made
available for free discharge of drain water.
j) The link drains will be lined to minimize maintenance and overflowing during the
monsoon.
k) The water tanks used for drinking water supply are likely to become saline and
will even get contaminated during a cyclone. Adequate embankment of atleast 0.5
m above the flood level will
be provided to such tanks.
l) The growth of water hyacinth, etc. is a major problem in many areas as they
obstruct and affect the carrying capacity of drains, canals and tanks. A regular
maintenance mechanism will be institutionalised.

4. Saline Embankments
Construction of saline embankments is one
of the structural mitigation measures to
protect habitation, agriculture crop and
important installations along the coast. These
embankments are designed to protect the
coastal population and property from regular
phenomena such high tides, low intensity
cyclone and normal rainfall but, are not
adequate or suitable to protect the coast
from high intensity cyclones generating high
surge.

5. Communication Towers and Power


Transmission Networks

Communications and power


transmission towers will be designed
on the basis of 100-year return
period wind velocity of cyclone.

Design and Maintenance considerations


of Communication and Transmission Line
Towers
i) Transmission line and communication towers and elevated
water tanks located in the cyclone prone areas will be designed
with wind speed 1.3 times that specified by IS: 875/(part
3)/1987. The open area in the zone and its topography will be
given due consideration in selecting the correction factors.
ii) The towers will be designed using their dynamic analysis with
suitable wind gust loading.
iii) The structural steel used in the towers will be galvanized to
withstand the corrosive exposure condition.
iv) The foundation depth will be taken at least 1 m below the
scour level and the stability of the towers will be standalone
without depending on the filling weight of the soil.
v) The design of a communication/transmission tower, including
its foundation, is checked by a competent authority.

The relevant BIS Codes are:


i. IS 456 : 2000 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Code of Practice (reaffirmed 2005).
ii. IS 875 : Part 3 : 1987 Code of Practice for Design
Loads (other than Earthquake) for Buildings and
Structures - Part 3 : Wind Loads (reaffirmed 2003).
iii. IS 800 : 1984 Code of practice for general
construction in steel (reaffirmed 2003) IS 8237 :
1985 Code of Practice for Protection of Slope for
Reservoir Embankment (reaffirmed 2002).
iv. IS 10635 : 1993 Freeboard requirements in
embankment dams guidelines (reaffirmed 2003).

v. IS 11532 : 1995 Construction and


maintenance of river embankments
(levees) guidelines (reaffirmed
2005).
vi. IS 12094 : 2000 Guidelines for
Planning and Design of River
Embankments (Levees) (reaffirmed
2005).
vii. IS 12169 : 1987 Criteria for
design of small embankment dams

Cyclone disaster management plan:


Before the event
Timely accurate warnings
Community preparedness to meet the eventuality
Awareness about the disaster / crisis or education about
natural disasters
Construction of cyclone shelters
Protection barriers against floods, storm surges, lightning
Plantation of shelter beds
Stocking of food, emergency medicines and potable
water
Evacuation of the people, who are likely to be affected to
safer places

During the event


Organizing the affected people to be shifted the
cyclone shelters or camps
Motivate the people to be bold and organize them to
help one another

After the event


Conduct survey of the affected area to asses loss of
life an damage to property. Recommend assistance
Organise the affected people staying in the camps /
cyclone shelter to send them back to their places
Render help / assistance to the affected to
rehabilitate