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If 1=2

a=b

EXAMPLE 2.5 - DIFFERENTIAL MANOMETER


Fluid density,
Fluid density,

Two pipes containing


the same fluid of density
= 1000 kg m-3 are
connected using a
differential manometer.
What is the pressure
between the two pipes if
the manometer contains
fluid of relative density
13.6?

A
B
E
h a= 1.5
m

h b = 0.75 m

h = 0.5 m

Manometric fluid density, man

PA- PB = 1g(b-a) + gh(man - 1)


= 9.81x103(0.75-1.5)+ 0.5(13.6 x 9.81x103 9.81 x 103)
= 9.81 x 103 (-0.75+0.5 x 12.6)
= 54.4 x 103 N/m2

EXAMPLE 2.6 - DIFFERENTIAL MANOMETER


A differential manometer containing mercury is connected to
two pipes A and B. The pipe A contains a liquid of specific
gravity 1.4 and the other pipe B, contains oil of specific
gravity 0.85. If the pressure between the two pipes is 1.2 x
105 N/m2, determine the different in mercury levels, x.

In the figure:

Pz = PA + liquidg (5) + Hgg(x)

Pz = PB + oilg(1.5 + x)

But

Pz = Pz (same horizontal level)

Thus PA + liquidg (5) + Hgg(x) = PB + oilg(1.5 + x)

Given PA - PB = 1.2 x 105 N/m2

Differential Manometer

Used for measuring pressure differences between


points along a pipe.

2.6. ADVANCES TO THE INVERTED


DIFFERENTIAL MANOMETER

The "U"-tube manometer has the disadvantage that the change in height of
the liquid in both sides must be read. This can be avoided by making the
diameter of one side very large compared to the other. In this case the side
with the large area moves very little when the small area side move
considerably more.

2.6.4 ADVANCES TO THE U-TUBE


MANOMETER

Assume the manometer is arranged as above to measure the pressure


difference of a gas of (negligible density) and that pressure difference is
p1-p2. If the datum line indicates the level of the manometric fluid when
the pressure difference is zero and the height differences when pressure is
applied is as shown, the volume of liquid transferred from the left side to
the right = z2 x (d2 / 4)
And the fall in level of the left side is
volume moved
area of left side
z 2 ( d 2 / 4)
=
D 2 / 42
= z 2 ( d / D)

z1 =

2.6.4 ADVANCES TO THE U-TUBE


MANOMETER

We know from the theory of the "U" tube manometer that the height
different in the two columns gives the pressure difference so,
p1 - p 2 g(z1 z 2 )
g z 2 d / D z 2

2
gz 2 d / D 1

if D is very much larger than d then (d/D) 2 is very small so p1 p2 = gz2

So only one reading need to be taken to measure the pressure difference.

10

Quiz 1 CMT 574


The left leg of a U-tube mercury manometer is connected to a pipe line
conveying water, the level of mercury (specific gravity 13.6) in the leg
being 60 cm below the centre of pipe line and the right leg is open to
atmosphere. The level of mercury in the right leg is 45 cm above that in
the left leg and the space above mercury in the right leg contains
Benzene (specific gravity 0.88) to a height of 30 cm. Find the pressure
in the pipe.

QUIZ 1 CMT 574

March 2014

In figure, fluid A is water and fluid B is mercury. What will be


the difference in level h1 if the pressure at X is 140 kN/m2
and h2 = 1.5 m.