Você está na página 1de 14

Classification of

Class Aves

Classification adapted from Sturer & Usinger


(1957)

Class Aves is divide into two sub classes


:
I Sub class : Archaeornithes

II Sub class : Neornithes

I Sub class : Archaeornithes

Extinct Jurassic birds of Mesozoic era


Tail long with more than 13 caudal
vertebrae bearing retrices (tail feathers)
arranged in two lateral rows
Pygostyle absent
Vertebrae amphicoelous
Three digits ,metacarpals free each with a
claw
Teeth embedded in sockets in both jaws

Archaeopteryx

II Sub class : Neornithes

Living as well as exinct birds


Tail is usually short ,ends in a pygostyle
The retrices are arranged in a semi-circle
around the pygostyle
Teeth are absent except in few forms
The meta carpals are fused with distal
carpals to form carpo-metacarpals
Claws absent in the fore limbs
The sternum is well developed and usually
provided with a keel or carina
Vertebrae are heterocoelous in living forms
Caudal vertebrae are 13 or less

Sub class Neornithes is divided into :


4 Super orders
I

Odontognathae

II

Impennae

III

Palaeognathae

IV

Neognathae

I Super order : Odontognathae


*Extinct cretaceous birds
*Teeth present in furrows on jaws
Example : Ichthyornis ,Hesperornis

Ichthyornis

Hesperornis

II Super order : Impennae


Modern aquatic , flight less birds with
paddle-like wings or flippers
Feet are webbed
Example :Penguin

Super order : Palaeognathae (Ratitae)


Modern, big-sized, flightless, running birds, without teeth.
Wings vestigial or rudimentary, feathers devoid of interlocking
mechanism.
The rectrices are absent or irregularly arranged but without
hooked barbules.
Sternum without keel but raft-like.
Uncinate processes are vestigial or absent.
Tail vertebrae free. Pygostyle small or absent.
Pectoral muscles poorly developed.
Syrinx is absent.
Male has a large and erectile penis; female has a clitoris.
Young ones are precocious,born with feathers can move and feed
on their own just after hatching .
Oil gland is absent, except in Titanus and kiwi
Includes six orders.
Ex: Apertyx (kiwis) & Rhea, Casuaris etc.

Super order: Neornithes( Carinatae)


Most

modern, usually small-sized, flying birds.


Wings well-developed; feathers with interlocking mechanism.
Rectrices present and arranged regularly.
Oil gland is present.
Sternum with a well-developed keel.
Uncinate processes are present.
Pygostyle is present.
Pectoral muscles large.
Male has no copulatory organ.
Young are altricial ,born without feathers ,need parental care
Distributed all over the world.
This super order is distinguished into 22 orders.
Example: Sparrow, pigeon, parrot, fowl, cuckoo, duck, kingfisher,
pelicans, heron, crane, kite, owl, hawks, vulture etc.

Outline classification of Class Aves

Class AVES
Sub class

ARCHAEORNITHES
(Jurassic birds)
Ex: Archaeopteryx

NEORNITHES
(Modern and a few
extinct post Jurassic birds)
Super order

Odontognathae
Ratitae
Extinct
Modern
Cretaceous birds flightless
Jaws with teeth
large birds
Ex: Emu

Impennae Carinatae
Modern
Mostly
aquatic
modern
flightless
small birds
Ex;Penguin Ex: Parrot

Credits :
Chordate Zoology by E.L.Jordan &
P.S.Verma
2004 edition
Wikipedia