Você está na página 1de 40

BASIC WELDING

• COMMON WELDING PROCESSES


• WELDING TERMINOLOGY
• WELD SYMBOLS / JOINT
CONFIGURATION
• WELDER RELATED
• WELDING SAFETY
BASIC WELDING
Common Welding Processes

Listed below are some of the more common welding


processes used :

• SMAW -Shielded Metal Arc Welding (stick)


• GMAW -Gas Metal Arc Welding (mig)
• GTAW -Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (tig)
• SAW -Submerged Arc Welding
BASIC WELDING
Common Welding Processes

• SMAW- Shielded Metal Arc Welding uses the heat of an


electric arc between a covered metal electrode and the
work (pipe, plate, etc). Shielding comes from the
decomposition of the electrode flux coating. Filler is
supplied by the electrode core wire and covering (iron
powder and alloys).
This process is usually done manually. The basic
equipment is a power source, an electrode holder, a work
clamp and the electrode. Electrodes operate variously on
alternating current, direct current electrode positive
(reverse polarity) or direct current electrode negative
(straight polarity).
BASIC WELDING
Common Welding Processes

• SMAW welding metallurgy


– Weld is strengthened by adding alloying elements and by
incorporating iron powder in the electrode covering(flux).
Some ingredients in the covering may attract and hold
moisture (a source of hydrogen) which causes cracking in
certain welds. A group of electrodes specifically formulated
to result in weld deposits having very low levels of hydrogen
are referred to as “Low Hydrogen” electrodes. These have
identification numbers ending in 5,6 or 8. Once removed
from containers they require electrically heated storage in a
vented oven capable of holding the electrodes between 250 –
350 deg F. (Low hydrogen electrodes should be stored in
their original containers until ready for use)
BASIC WELDING
Common Welding Processes

• SMAW ELECTRODE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM

POSITION

E X X X X
STRENGTH COATING /
OPERATING
CHARACTERISTICS

Strength- Tensile strength (I.E. 70, or 60) 70,000 psi / 60,000 psi
Position: 1= all positions. 2= flat and horizontal fillet position only
Example: E-7018, E-6010
BASIC WELDING
Common Welding Processes

• SMAW limiting factors


All of the welding manipulations are controlled by
the welder, such as electrode inclination, arc
length and travel speed. The welder must set the
proper current and select polarity if direct current.
• Discontinuities
Almost any discontinuity can be produced, but the
most common is porosity, and slag inclusions.
BASIC WELDING
Common Welding Processes

• GMAW- Gas Metal Arc Welding, sometimes call Mig


uses the heat of an electric arc between a continuous bare
wire filler metal electrode and the work. Shielding is
obtained entirely from an externally supplied inert gas
(argon or helium) or reactive gases (C02 o 02) or a
combination thereof. This process can be semi-automatic
or automatic. GMAW process deposits the weld metal in
the joint by one of the following modes: spray transfer,
globular transfer and short circuiting transfer.
BASIC WELDING
Common Welding Processes

• GMAW MODES:
• Spray Transfer – Spray transfer occurs with high current
and voltage combinations. Spray transfer mode best
defines the arc and the pool for the welder. Due to high
heat capacity this mode is best suited for flat and
horizontal welding.
• Globular Transfer – Occurs at low currents compared to
spray transfer. Low current at the tip produces large
irregular drops without much direction which results in
increased amounts of spatter compared to spray mode.
BASIC WELDING
Common Welding Processes

• GMAW MODES
• Short Circuiting Transfer (GMAW-S) – The short
circuiting mode is a rather “cold process” and its
misapplication may result in incomplete fusion. It
is mainly used for very light gauge sheet metal
welding. Most refineries and petrochemical plants
do not allow the short circuiting mode of transfer
in their welding specifications to weld on pressure
retaining equipment.
BASIC WELDING
Common Welding Processes

• GMAW Welding Chemistry


Shielded gases protect gas metal arc welds from the
atmosphere. Fluxes are not used in this process. All
deoxidizers and alloying elements are incorporated into the
electrode wire.
• Limiting Factors
The semi-automatic features of gas metal arc welding
simplify the training of the welder and should make work
more consistent, however the short circuiting mode may
lead to incomplete fusion.
BASIC WELDING
Common Welding Processes

• GMAW ELECTRODE IDENTIFICATION CHART


CHEMICAL
STRENGTH COMPOSITION

ERXXS-X
ELECTRODE ROD SOLID
WIRE
BASIC WELDING
Common Welding Processes

• Discontinuities
GMAW may result in any of the common
discontinuities with the exception of slag inclusions.

Porosity which is caused by gas trapped in the weld, is often the


discontinuity found in this process.

Incomplete fusion is possible especially in welds made in the short


circuiting transfer mode.
BASIC WELDING
Common Welding Processes

• GTAW – Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (TIG) uses


an electric arc between a non consumable
electrode (tungsten) and the work. Shielding is
obtained from an inert gas or inert gas mixture.
Filler metal is added as needed. Welds may be
made with or without filler metal as required.
• The most significant feature in GTAW is that the
electrode (tungsten) used is not intended to be
consumed. Only the filler metal is consumed
BASIC WELDING
Common Welding Processes

• Welding Chemistry
The tungsten electrode contributes neither
deoxidation nor fluxing, so it is fortunate that the
melting is essentially slow and that most of the
gases can escape from the weld pool before it
freezes. The filler rod contains the needed
deoxidizers. The slow heating and lower
temperatures combined with slower cooling rates
in GTAW will result in improved weld metal and
heat affected zone mechanical properties.
BASIC WELDING
Common Welding Processes

• Limiting Factors
The outstanding factor of GTAW is the
exceptional cleanliness that can be obtained in the
weld, producing crack free welds in alloys that are
difficult to weld in other process. However the
limiting factor is the high skill level necessary to
produce high quality welds is acquired by long
experience in manipulating the electrode and
feeding the filler wire when used.
BASIC WELDING
Common Welding Processes

• Discontinuities
All of the common types of discontinuities are
possible with the exception of slag inclusions.
Porosity is a common discontinuity due to the
processes low tolerance for contamination.
Tungsten inclusions may also result from
accidental touching (dipping ) of tungsten into the
molten weld pool.
WELDING TERMINOLOGY
LISTED BELOW IS SOME COMMON WELDING TERMS:
• AIR ARC(ARC GOUGE) – The process of removing metal by means of a
carbon arc rod (electrode) connected to a welding machine and air
• BACKWELD – The process of completely welding the one side of a
component, and then back grinding or back gouging the other side and
applying a weld from that side
• BACKING WELD – The process of applying a weld pass to the back side
of the weld to provide a backing. And then completely welding out the
opposite side
• BACKING PLATE OR STRAP – The installation of a plate, strip of plate,
usually of the same material as base metal to the back side of the weldment
to aid in welding up large root openings in a weldment
WELDING TERMINOLOGY
• Cap- The finished portion of the weld (last pass)
• Consumable insert – A type of spacer that is installed in
the root spacing of a pipe or plate to keep the specified
root opening and is made of the same material as the base
metal. This insert acts as the filler metal for the root and is
melted (consumed) with the welding process normally
with GTAW.
• Discontinuity – an imperfection in the weld
• Defect – a discontinuity of sufficient size, length, type that
will render that particular object unsuitable for intended
service base on a criteria in an applicable code
WELDING TERMINOLOGY
• Destructive testing- a sampling of the weld that is actually
taken from the weldment and is subjected to a bend,
tension, or other form of test that usually destroys the test
coupon.
• Essential variables- are those which a change, is
considered to affect the mechanical properties of the
weldment and shall require requalification of the WPS
• Filler metal- The consumable electrode that is used in most
welding processes to fill the weld groove
• Flux- The coating on welding electrodes that when
decomposes during welding forming a shielding gas
around the weld.
WELDING TERMINOLOGY
• Heat Affected Zone (HAZ)- The portion of the base metal
that has not been melted, but whose mechanical properties
or microstructure have been altered by the heat of welding
and cutting
• Preheat- the process of applying heat to a weldment before
welding. This process reduces the thermal gradients within
a weldment and slows down the cooling rates, resulting in
a more ductile structure with lower residual stress. Preheat
also aids in removing moisture and helps remove
hydrogen.
WELDING TERMINOLOGY
• Post Weld Heat (PWHT)- also known as stress relieving in carbon
and low alloy steels. The metals temperature is raised to just below
the lower transformation temperature and held for a prescribed time
and allowed to cool at a controlled rate. This process is done to help
eliminate the residual stress in metals and to reduce the hardness of
the weld and adjacent HAZ after welding to back within acceptable
limits, thereby reducing the possibility of cracking
• Porosity- a discontinuity in a weld when gas is trapped in the
solidifying metal which is caused by gas released in the welding
process or gas released from chemical reactions occurring during the
welding process.
• Repair – any rework on a completed weld that requires re-welding to
correct a fault discovered by visual or non-destructive testing and is
beyond the standard limits of acceptability
WELDING TERMINOLOGY
• Root Bead- The first or stringer bead that initially joins
two sections of pipe, plate or fitting
• Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)- a written
procedure (recipe) prepared to provide direction for
making production welds to a code requirement. It is
supported by a PQR (procedure qualification record)
which is a record of actual variables used in the welding of
the test coupon.
• Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) –documentation of
what occurred during welding the test coupon and the test
results of the coupon
JOINT CONFIGURATION
Butt Weld
• 1= Groove Face 3 6
• 2= Root Opening
• 4
3= Groove Angle
• 4= Root Face 5
• 5=Plate thickness
• 6=Bevel Angle 1 2
JOINT CONFIGURATION
• Root Opening – A separation at the joint root between the two
work pieces
• Root Face – The portion of the groove face adjacent to the joint
root
• Groove Face – The surface of a joint member included in the
groove
• Groove Angle – The total included angle of the groove between
the two work places
• Bevel Angle – The angle formed between the prepared edge of
a member and a plane perpendicular to the surface of the
member
• Groove weld size – The joint penetration of a groove weld
• Plate thickness – The thickness of the base metals to be welded
JOINT CONFIGURATION
Parts of a butt weld

Weld Face Face or Weld


Toe of Weld Reinforcement
both side

Weld Root
JOINT CONFIGURATION
• Parts of a butt weld Weld Metal
Cap
Groove Faces

Base
Metal

Heat Affected
Zone (HAZ)
Root
WELDING SYMBOL

Finish symbol Groove angle


Contour symbol
Root opening
Groove weld size F
B Length of weld
Depth of A
bevel O Pitch (center to center )
T R
S (E) H L-P Weld all around
Tail Other side
omitted symbol
Arrow side
when S
reference I
not used
D (N) Reference line
The weld symbol
both sides or one E
side S Arrow connecting
Number of spot, reference line to arrow
seam or plug welds side member of joint or
arrow side of joint
WELDING SYMBOL
75 deg. groove angle

• Examples: Single V Butt Weld

1/8
75 deg

75 deg
1/8 1/8 root
opening
WELDING SYMBOL
• Staggered intermittent fillet weld

3”

(3/8) 3-10

(3/8) 3-10

10”

3/8” Fillet weld side view


WELDING SYMBOL
Single V Groove

Double V Groove

Single Bevel Groove

Double Bevel Groove


WELDER RELATED
• A Welder Performance Qualification test is given to
determine the ability of the welder or welding operator to
make sound welds.
• When a welder has not welded with a process for a period
of 6 months or more his qualification shall expire, unless
within the six month period prior to his expiration date, the
welder has welded using a manual or semiautomatic
welding process for that process for which he was
qualified. (Recommend to use a welder continuity sheet)
• Or when there is specific reason to question his ability to
make sound welds.
WELDER RELATED
• Welder test positions for pipe
• 1G- Pipe is horizontal and rotated , welding flat on or
near top of pipe
• 2G- Pipe or tube is vertical and not rotated during
welding, welding is horizontal
• 5G- Pipe or tube is horizontal fixed, and not
rotatated, weld is vertical, flat and overhead
• 6G- Pipe is inclined fixed at a 45 deg angle and not
rotated during welding
WELDER RELATED
• Welder test positions for plate
• 1G- Plate is horizontal weld position is flat
• 2G- Plate is vertical axis of weld is horizontal
weld position is horizontal
• 3G- Plate is vertical and axis of weld is vertical
weld position is vertical
• 4G- Plate is horizontal weld position is overhead
WELDER RELATED
Common Discontinuities
• IP- or inadequate penetration without hi-low is defined as
the incomplete filling of the weld root. Inadequate
penetration due to hi-low is the condition that exists when
one edge of the root is exposed or un-bonded because the
adjacent pipe or fitting are misaligned.
• Hi-Low- is the mismatch of either the root or the OD
surface of the pipe, plate or fittings
• Slag Inclusion- is a non metallic solid entrapped in the
weld metal or between the weld metal and parent metal
• Burn Thru- is defined as a portion of the root bead where
excessive penetration has caused the weld puddle to be
blown into the pipe
WELDER RELATED
Common Discontinuities cont.
• Concave Root – a root bead that is properly fused to and completely
penetrates the sides of the pipe or plate wall thickness along both sides
but whose center is somewhat below the the inside surface of the ID wall
• Porosity- can be cluster, wormhole etc. Porosity is entrapped gas pockets
inside the weld
• Undercut- A discontinuity at the edge or toe of the welds where a groove
is created by welding too hot or traveling too fast during welding.
WELDER RELATED
• Tungsten inclusion- is cause when the welder accidentally
dips his tungsten electrode into the weld puddle, and the
tip of the tungsten electrode breaks off and is left un-fused
in the weld metal.
• Incomplete fusion- due to cold lap is defined as an
imperfection between two adjacent weld beads or between
the weld metal and base metal that is not open to the
surface (condition where the two passes or base metal and
weld metal are not fused together)
WELDING SAFETY

• SAFETY IS AN IMPORTANT CONSIDERATION IN ALL


WELDING, CUTTING AND RELATED WORK
• THE MOST IMPORTANT COMPONENT OF AN EFFECTIVE WELDING
SAFETY PROGRAM IS LEADERSHIP SUPPORT AND DIRECTION.
MANAGEMENT MUST CLEARLY STATE OBJECTIVES AND SHOW
IT’S COMMITMENT TO WELDING SAFETY
• Management must be certain that only approved welding, cutting, equipment
are used. Such equipment includes torches, regulators, welding machines,
electrode holders, and personal protective devices.
• Proper use and maintenance of the equipment must be taught
• Personnel in areas next to welding and cutting must also be protected from
radiant energy and hot spatter
WELDING SAFETY
• Where arc welding or cutting is regularly performed next to painted
walls, the walls should be painted with a finish having a low
reflectivity of ultraviolet rays
• Open flame, electric arcs are a ready source of ignition. The best
protection against fire is to do welding and cutting in specially
designated areas or enclosures made of non combustible materials
• Welding helmets containing the appropriate filter plates must be used
by welders and nearby personnel when viewing an arc.
• Sturdy shoes, boots and heavy clothing should be worn to protect the
body from flying sparks, spatter and radiation burns. (cuff less pants
and covered pockets are recommend
• Durable leather gloves or other suitable material should be worn
• Sparks or hot spatter in the ears can be serious, properly fitted , flame
resistant earplugs should be worn whenever such risk is present
• Ear plugs should be worn when performing air arc gouging
WELDING SAFETY
• Personnel should be protected from fumes and gases
performed during welding, cutting etc. Protection from this
exposure is usually accomplished by adequate ventilation
• Where exposure would exceed permissible limits, with
available ventilation, suitable respiratory protection must
be worn
• Last, do not forget x-ray (gamma ray) radiation safety.
Obey all x-ray barrier signs. Do not go into these areas
when radiography is taking place (normally magenta and
yellow tape)

REMEMBER, WELDING SAFETY IS A VERY


IMPORTANT PART OF WELDING
WELDING WRAP UP
• This presentation was only a brief overview of welding,
and was intended to only give a general understanding
and familiarization of some of the more common
processes, safety concerns and terms.
• If you have any questions I will try to answer them
now, if I cannot I will research and look up. I can be
reached at ext. 4083
Thank you for your attendance