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The Impact of High Performance Computing and Computational Fluid Dynamics on Aircraft Development Edward N. Tinoco

The Impact of High Performance Computing and Computational Fluid Dynamics on Aircraft Development

Edward N. Tinoco

Technical Fellow Enabling Technology & Research Airplane Configuration, Integration & Performance Boeing Commercial Airplanes

Tools for Aerodynamic Development of Aircraft Configurations Flight Test Wind Tunnel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Copyright

Tools for Aerodynamic Development of Aircraft Configurations

Tools for Aerodynamic Development of Aircraft Configurations Flight Test Wind Tunnel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Copyright
Tools for Aerodynamic Development of Aircraft Configurations Flight Test Wind Tunnel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Copyright

Flight Test

Tools for Aerodynamic Development of Aircraft Configurations Flight Test Wind Tunnel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Copyright
Tools for Aerodynamic Development of Aircraft Configurations Flight Test Wind Tunnel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Copyright

Wind Tunnel

Tools for Aerodynamic Development of Aircraft Configurations Flight Test Wind Tunnel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Copyright
Tools for Aerodynamic Development of Aircraft Configurations Flight Test Wind Tunnel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Copyright
Tools for Aerodynamic Development of Aircraft Configurations Flight Test Wind Tunnel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Copyright

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

Tools for Aerodynamic Development of Aircraft Configurations Flight Test Wind Tunnel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Copyright

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Computational Fluid Dynamics

Computational Fluid Dynamics

Computational Fluid Dynamics
Computational Fluid Dynamics

Aerodynamic flows are characterized as compressible, viscous (high Reynolds number turbulent) flows.

Direct Numerical Simulation 2080 Large Eddy Simulation 2045 Detached Eddy Simulation w/RANS 2000’s Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes
Direct Numerical Simulation
2080
Large Eddy Simulation
2045
Detached Eddy Simulation w/RANS
2000’s
Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes
1990’s
Euler
1980’s
Increasing Computational Complexity,
Full Potential
With Coupled Boundary Layer
Practical
Limit for
Complete
Airplane
Applications
1970-80’s
Decreasing Empiricism
1960’s
Linear Potential (Panel Methods)
Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Timeline of the Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics in Aircraft Development 2-D Linear General 3-D Linearized

Timeline of the Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics in Aircraft Development

Timeline of the Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics in Aircraft Development 2-D Linear General 3-D Linearized
Timeline of the Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics in Aircraft Development 2-D Linear General 3-D Linearized
2-D Linear General 3-D Linearized Potential Linear Potential Supersonic Wing-Body Full-Potential Transonic Analysis 1 MFLOP 10
2-D Linear
General 3-D
Linearized
Potential
Linear Potential
Supersonic
Wing-Body
Full-Potential
Transonic Analysis
1 MFLOP
10 MFLOP
100 MFLOP
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
2-D Airfoil
Supersonic
Joint CFD/Wind Tunnel
Studies unlock the secret
of nacelle/wing interfer-
ence drag
767 757
737-300
Development
Transport
x
c
h
1980 state of the art
Modern close coupled
nacelle installation, 0.02
Mach faster than 737-200
Enabled by CFD
General 3-D
Full-Potential
Transonic Analysis
Wing-Body
Reynolds Averaged
Navier-Stokes
Multipoint
Full-Potential
Transonic Design
optimization
design
General 3-D
Reynolds Averaged
Navier-Stokes
Unstructured
Adaptive Grid
3-D N-S
1 GFLOP
10 GFLOP
100 GFLOP
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
777
737NG
787
747-8

21% thicker faster wing than 757, 767 technology. Best economics in class

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Highly constrained wing design. Faster wing than 737-300. Highest selling commercial airplane ever

Faster and more effi- cient than previous medium size aircraft

lowest operating costs and best economics of any large airplane

What is the Measure of Value in Computational Fluid Dynamics? • The value of reduced wind

What is the Measure of Value in Computational Fluid Dynamics?

What is the Measure of Value in Computational Fluid Dynamics? • The value of reduced wind
What is the Measure of Value in Computational Fluid Dynamics? • The value of reduced wind

The value of reduced wind tunnel testing due to the use of CFD

In the past 20 years the use of CFD has provided significant cost savings

Wind Tunnel Hours Wind Tunnel Hours
Wind Tunnel Hours
Wind Tunnel Hours

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

The Challenge • One complete airplane development requires about 50,000 to 100,000 aerodynamic simulations. • Flight

The Challenge

The Challenge • One complete airplane development requires about 50,000 to 100,000 aerodynamic simulations. • Flight
The Challenge • One complete airplane development requires about 50,000 to 100,000 aerodynamic simulations. • Flight

One complete airplane development requires about 50,000 to 100,000 aerodynamic simulations.

Flight test is used to validate and certify that the aircraft is safe over the entire range flight conditions mandated by law.

The challenge is to further push the use of CFD into the edges of the flight envelope.

The Flight Envelope

Velocity - V EAS
Velocity - V EAS

Higher quality data earlier in the design phase for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization – big driver on reducing cost

“Good enough” aerodynamic data base to reduce number of design cycles

Higher quality full scale flight simulation – avoid costly surprises in flight test

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

What is the Measure of Value in Computational Fluid Dynamics? • The value of reduced wind

What is the Measure of Value in Computational Fluid Dynamics?

What is the Measure of Value in Computational Fluid Dynamics? • The value of reduced wind
What is the Measure of Value in Computational Fluid Dynamics? • The value of reduced wind

The value of reduced wind tunnel testing due to the use of CFD

In the past 20 years the use of CFD has provided significant cost

savings. This is a small fraction of the value CFD delivered.

A much greater value of CFD in the Commercial arena is……… ..

The added value of the product due to the use of CFD

Achieving design solutions that are otherwise unreachable. Shortening the design development process. Getting it right the first time. NOT getting it right the first time results in:

Very lengthy and costly development to fix it Possible cancelation/termination of the program Putting the Company at risk

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Extra Material Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.
Extra Material Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Extra Material

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Boeing Puget Sound HPC Environment 2001 2009 • Cray T916 • Cray X1 • SGI Origin

Boeing Puget Sound HPC Environment

Boeing Puget Sound HPC Environment 2001 2009 • Cray T916 • Cray X1 • SGI Origin
Boeing Puget Sound HPC Environment 2001 2009 • Cray T916 • Cray X1 • SGI Origin
 

2001

2009

Cray T916

Cray X1

SGI Origin

• PC clusters

~0.100 Tflops

• ~50 Tflops

Full Potential + BL

• Navier-Stokes

– e.g. Tranair

Boeing Puget Sound HPC Environment 2001 2009 • Cray T916 • Cray X1 • SGI Origin

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

– e.g. CFD++, CFL3D, OVERFLOW

Boeing Puget Sound HPC Environment 2001 2009 • Cray T916 • Cray X1 • SGI Origin
CFD Contributions to 787 Wind-Tunnel Design Validation Reynolds-Number Corrections Wing Wing-Tip Design Controls Planform Vertical Tail

CFD Contributions to 787

CFD Contributions to 787 Wind-Tunnel Design Validation Reynolds-Number Corrections Wing Wing-Tip Design Controls Planform Vertical Tail
CFD Contributions to 787 Wind-Tunnel Design Validation Reynolds-Number Corrections Wing Wing-Tip Design Controls Planform Vertical Tail
Wind-Tunnel Design Validation Reynolds-Number Corrections Wing Wing-Tip Design Controls Planform Vertical Tail and Aft Body Design
Wind-Tunnel Design Validation
Reynolds-Number Corrections
Wing
Wing-Tip Design
Controls
Planform
Vertical Tail and
Aft Body Design
Design
High-Speed Wing
Design
Flutter
Cab Design
Aeroelastics
Vortex Generators
Interior
High-Lift Wing
Design
Control-Surface
Failure Analysis
Air
Cabin
Icing
Quality
Noise
APU Inlet
And Ducting
Wing-Body
ECS Inlet
Air-Data
APU and Propulsion
Fire Suppression
Design
Fairing Design
Exhaust-
System
Avionics Cooling
Buffet
Boundary
System Design
Thrust-Reverser
Inlet Design
Inlet Certification
Location
Design For
Design
Stability &
Community
Design for FOD
Control
Noise
Engine/Airframe
Integration
Nacelle Design
Engine-Bay Thermal
Analysis
Prevention

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Cost and Flowtime Characteristics of Wind Tunnels and CFD The use of new CFD is driven

Cost and Flowtime Characteristics of Wind Tunnels and CFD

Cost and Flowtime Characteristics of Wind Tunnels and CFD The use of new CFD is driven
Cost and Flowtime Characteristics of Wind Tunnels and CFD The use of new CFD is driven

The use of new CFD is driven by desperation.

Desperation to remain competitive!

One

One complete

complete airplane

airplane development

development requires

requires about

about 50,000

50,000 toto

100,000

100,000 aerodynamic

aerodynamic simulations

simulations

Today

Cost,

Flowtime

Wind Tunnel Data Base Building 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 CFD
Wind Tunnel
Data Base
Building
10
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
CFD

Number of Simulations

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Desired Future State

CFD – Design, Most Data Base Building Wind Tunnel – Validation Special Conditions 10 100 1,000
CFD – Design, Most
Data Base Building
Wind Tunnel –
Validation
Special
Conditions
10
100
1,000
10,000
100,000

Number of Simulations

Closing Thoughts • CFD exists to enable new solutions to problems, reduce airplane development cost, and
Closing Thoughts • CFD exists to enable new solutions to problems, reduce airplane development cost, and

Closing Thoughts

Closing Thoughts • CFD exists to enable new solutions to problems, reduce airplane development cost, and

CFD exists to enable new solutions to problems, reduce airplane

development cost, and reduce time to market

CFD can allow you to safely explore areas of the flight regime

without putting a pilot at risk

CFD can allow you to analyze conditions for which physical

simulation is either very expensive or not possible, such as

hypersonic propulsion systems and full flight Reynolds number

testing

Accuracy, robustness and timeliness are the keys to acceptance

and use in an industrial environment

Impediments: applications that do not scale well (to 1000’s of

processors with sufficient memory) – this is science; resources to

run 1000s of flight conditions on 100’s of processors – this is the

business of engineering

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.