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Tejas Networks

SDH Alarms

Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information Rev1.2 Last update 12 Dec 07 Reviewed by:

Organisation of Slides

SDH section hierarchy

SDH objects, nomenclature

Downstream and Upstream

Alarms understanding rules

RS alarms

MS alarms

HP / LP alarms

Description of Alarms

Alarm Masking and Suppressed Secondary Alarms

Tejas Networks
India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information Rev1.2 Last update 12 Dec 07
Alarm propagation
examples

Reviewed by:

SDH Section Hierarchy

There are four sections Regenerator Section (RS), Multiplex Section (MS), Higher
Order Path Section (HP), and Lower Order Path Section (LP)

RS is a part (section) of the optical fibre network, within which RSOH part of SDH frame
is NOT opened

MS is a part (section) of the optical fibre network, within which MSOH part of SDH frame
is NOT opened

HP is a part (section) of the optical fibre network, within which higher order VC part of
SDH frame is NOT opened (it may be opened only for interpreting HOPOH)

LP is a part (section) of the optical fibre network, within which lower order VC part of
SDH frame is NOT opened (it may be opened only for interpreting LOPOH)

Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information Rev1.2 Last update 12 Dec 07 Reviewed by:

SDH Section Hierarchy (contd.)

Points to Remember:

Without opening RS, one can not do operation with MS and/or open MS
Without opening MS, one can not do operation with HP and/or open HP
Without opening HP, one can not do operation with LP and/or open LP
Consequences

So, for Tejas nodes, even if one is making a VC4 level pass-through (an operation with HP
without opening it), he/she is opening MS & therefore terminating the MS

One can change any HPOH field (e.g., J1 transmitted trace) only when one is opening HP (e.g., VC12
level cross-connect exists on AU4 mapping), but not when HP is not disturbed (e.g., VC4 level
pass-through on AU4 mapping)

Points to Remember:

For Tejas nodes, for AU4 mapping, one can make VC4 and VC12/VC11 level and not VC3 level
pass-through for E1/DS1 traffic
Consequences

If in a STM-1 node, multiple (say, 18) E1/DS1 traffic have to be passed-through with some other traffic
added/dropped from that node, one has to make multiple (18) VC12 level pass-through
Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information Rev1.2 Last update 12 Dec 07 Reviewed by:

Section Hierarchy (examples)

Example 1
RS

RS

Reg.
ADM 1

ADM 2
MS

Example 2

RS

RS
(VC4)

ADM 1

ADM 2
MS

(STM 1)

ADM 3
MS

Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information Rev1.2 Last update 12 Dec 07 Reviewed by:

Section Hierarchy (examples) ( contd.)

E1

Example 3 (for AU4 mapping only)

RS

RS

RS

MS

MS

MS

VC12

VC4

VC12

VC12

HP

HP

LP

Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information Rev1.2 Last update 12 Dec 07 Reviewed by:

E1

Section Hierarchy (examples) ( contd.)

Example 4a (for STM1 capacity & AU4 mapping only)


F
12

E3
V
C

VC

#1 E1 between A & E
#2 E1 between F & H

E1

E3 between F & G

RS A-B, B-C, C-D, D-E, F-B, C-G, E-H


MS A-B, B-C, C-E, F-B, C-G, E-H

Reg.

E
E1

VC12

HP A-B, B-C, C-E

V
3

LP F-H

HP F-B, B-C, C-E, E-H

E3

HP F-B, B-C, C-G


LP F-G

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E1

12

LP A-E

VC

E1

VC12

Section Hierarchy (examples) ( contd.)

Example 4b (for STM4 capacity & AU4 mapping only)


F
12

E3
V
C

VC

#1 E1 between A & E
#2 E1 between F & H

E1

E3 between F & G

RS A-B, B-C, C-D, D-E, F-B, C-G, E-H


----- VC 4

MS A-B, B-C, C-E, F-B, C-G, E-H


Within STM # 1

STM # 1

Reg.

E
E1

VC12

STM # 2

STM # 2

STM # 1

HP A-E

V
3

LP F-H

HP F-C, C-H

E3

HP F-C, C-G
LP F-G

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E1

12

LP A-E

VC

E1

VC12

SDH objects, nomenclature

3 different kinds of objects:


STM port (STM-1 / STM-4 / STM-16)
AU (AU-3 / AU-4 / AU-4-4c / AU-4-16c) Higher-order object
(present even if no HO cross-connect)
TU (TU-11 / TU-12 / TU-2 / TU-3)
Lower-order object
(present only if LO cross-connect exists)
Nomenclature
STM-1 chassis slot port (these fields are product specific)
AU-4
AU-3

chassis slot port STM # 1


chassis slot port STM # K (for AU-3 mapping)

chassis slot port STM #


chassis slot port STM #
chassis slot port STM #
chassis slot port STM #

TU-3
TU-2
TU-12
TU-11

K (for AU-4 mapping)


KL
K L M (M = 1 to 3)
K L M (M = 1 to 4)

Note: STM # = 1 (for STM-1)


= 1 to 4 (for STM-4) like that,

K = 1 to 3, L = 1 to 7

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Downstream & Upstream


Downstream direction for a fault condition
Along
the direction of fault condition received
OR Towards the Back-plane of the node receiving fault condition
Upstream direction for a fault condition
Opposite of the direction of fault condition received
OR Away from the Back-plane of the node receiving fault condition
Downstream & Upstream direction for a node not fixed
Depends on direction of fault condition (abbreviated as FC)
Downstream
Upstream
FC 1
FC 2

ADM 1

Downstream
Upstream

ADM 2

ADM 3

Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information Rev1.2 Last update 12 Dec 07 Reviewed by:

Alarm Understanding Rules


Rule 1

Alarms reported are alarms received

Alarm reported

FC 1
ex. a

ADM 1

ADM 2
Alarm reported

FC 1
ex. b
ADM 1

ADM 2

Rule 2

Alarms are reported on SDH Objects


Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information Rev1.2 Last update 12 Dec 07 Reviewed by:

Alarm Understanding Rules (contd.)


Rule 3

3a. No Object => No Alarms reported


ex.

NO TU12
(1-1-1)

Note:

FC on TU12 (1-1-1)

ADM 1

NO Alarm reported for


FC on TU12 (1-1-1)

ADM 2

3b. Object Mismatch => No Alarms reported


ex.

WHY?

TU11

See slide 9

(1-1-1)
FC on TU12 (1-1-1)

ADM 1

These two
examples are
not possible
for AU object

NO Alarm reported for


FC on TU12 (1-1-1)

ADM 2

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Alarm Understanding Rules (contd.)


Rule 4

4a. No PT XC => No Alarms pass-through


NO VC4

ex. a

PT (1)
FC on AU4 (1)

ADM 1

NO Alarm pass-through

ADM 2

ADM 3
Alarm reported for FC
on AU4 (1)

NO VC12

ex. b

PT (1-1-1)

ADM 1

NO Alarm pass-through

FC on TU12 (1-1-1)

ADM 2

ADM 3
NO Alarm reported for
FC on TU12 (1-1-1)

Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information Rev1.2 Last update 12 Dec 07 Reviewed by:

Alarm Understanding Rules (contd.)

4b. Bigger PT XC => No Alarms reported & Alarm pass-through


STM-1

VC4

ex. a

links
FC on TU12 (1-1-1)

ADM 1

Alarm pass-through for

ADM 2

ADM 3
NO Alarm reported

FC on TU12 (1-1-1)

for FC on TU12 (1-1-1)

4c. Smaller PT XC => No Alarms reported (always ??) &


Alarm pass-through but on smaller object
STM-1

VC12

ex. b

(1-1-1)

ADM 1

Alarm pass-through for


FC on TU12 (1-1-1)

What if Same size PT XC ?

links

FC on TU3 (1)

ADM 2

ADM 3
NO Alarm reported
for FC on TU3 (1)

Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information Rev1.2 Last update 12 Dec 07 Reviewed by:

RS Alarms
RS alarms are those, which can be reported even by a pure Regenerator
(who has privilege of opening (interpreting & rewriting) only RSOH)
LOS (Loss of Signal)
based on whole RSOH
LOF (Loss of Frame)
based on A1, A2 bytes
TIM (Trace Identifier Mismatch)
based on J0 byte

RSOH bytes

A1 A2 J0
B1 E1 F1
D1 D2 D3

SF (Signal Fail)
based on B1 byte
SD (Signal Degrade)
based on B1 byte

Note: The order in which the alarms are written is important,


as we will see later while discussing Alarm masking

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MS Alarms
MS alarms are those, which can be reported by a Add-Drop Multiplexer, irrespective of
cross-connect configuration
(who has privilege of opening (interpreting & rewriting) RSOH, MSOH, AU pointers plus
opening HOPOH(s) / TU Pointers / LOPOH(s) depending upon cross-connect configuration)
AIS (Alarm Indication Signal)
reported based on K2 byte -- bits 6,7,8
SF (Signal Fail)
based on B2 bytes
SD (Signal Degrade)
based on B2 bytes
RDI (Remote Defect Indication)
based on K2 byte -- bits 6,7,8

MSOH bytes

B2 K1 K2
D4 D5 D6
D7 D8 D9
D10 D11 D12
S1 M1 E2

Note 1: The order in which the alarms are written is important, we will see later while discussing Alarm masking
Note 2: MS-AIS is also called Line-AIS or AIS on STM port
MS-RDI is also called Line-RDI or RDI on STM port
Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information Rev1.2 Last update 12 Dec 07 Reviewed by:

HP / LP Alarms
HP / LP alarms are those, which can be reported by a Add-Drop Multiplexer, having
HO / HO & LO object (LO object => LO cross-connect)
(who has privilege of opening (interpreting & rewriting) RSOH, MSOH, AU Pointers plus at
least interpreting HOPOH(s) / opening (interpreting & rewriting) RSOH, MSOH, AU
Pointers, HOPOH(s), TU Pointers plus at least interpreting LOPOH(s)
depending upon cross-connect configuration)

H1, H2, H3 AU
Pointer bytes

HP-AIS reported based on H1, H2 bytes


HP-LOP (Loss of Pointer) based on H1, H2 bytes

Note 1: Same as before

HP-UNEQ (unequipped) based on C2 byte

Note 2: HP-Alarm is also

HP-TIM based on J1 byte

called AU-Alarm
or Alarm on AU

HP-SF based on B3 byte

LP-Alarm is also

HP-SD based on B3 byte

called TU-Alarm
or Alarm on TU

HP-RDI based on G1 byte -- bit 5

Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information Rev1.2 Last update 12 Dec 07 Reviewed by:

J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
N1

H
O
P
O
H
b
y
t
e
s

HP / LP Alarms (contd.)
Note 1: Same as before

LP-AIS reported based on V1, V2 bytes

Note 2: Whole of this slide assumes

LP-LOP based on V1, V2 bytes

TU2/TU12/TU11 for LP. If there

LOM (Loss of Multiframe) based on H4 byte bits 7,8

is TU3 with AU4 mapping, then


also it is LP but Pointers & POH

HP-PLM / SLM (Payload / Signal Label Mismatch)


bytes will be like HO
based on C2 byte
LP-UNEQ based on V5 byte bits 5,6,7

LOPOH bytes

V1, V2, V3 TU
Pointer bytes

V5
J2
N2
K4

LP-TIM based on J2 byte


LP-SF based on V5 byte bits 1,2
LP-SD based on V5 byte bits 1,2
LP-RDI based on V5 byte -- bit 8
LP-PLM / SLM based on V5 byte bits 5,6,7

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Description of Alarms
LOS
Received power is less than Laser receiver sensitivity (All bits interpreted as 0)
Tx off / misconnectivity

ex.

Fiber Cut

Rx off / misconnectivity

Tx
Rx

ADM 1

LOS

Rx
Received power is less than
Laser receiver sensitivity
(Low power transmitted, Span is longer than
specified, Fiber gets deformed etc. etc.)

Tx

ADM 2

LOS clears when 2 consecutive framing patterns are received & no new LOS condition is detected

LOF
Anything other than F6 28 (Hex) in any (?) of the A1 A2 bytes (within a STM frame)
-- for consecutive 5 frames (625 s) OOF (Out of Frame) clearing 2 frames
-- for consecutive 24 frames (3 ms) LOF clearing 24 frames
Note: Prolonged LOS => LOF, but not always LOF => LOS
(this fact will be used as one of the Alarm Masking logic later)
Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information Rev1.2 Last update 12 Dec 07 Reviewed by:

Description of Alarms (contd.)


TIM (J0)
Received J0 trace (1/16 byte(s)) != Expected J0 trace (1/16 byte(s))
Exp trace = A to B
P1
Tx trace = A to B

Exp trace = C to B

Rx trace = C to B

P2

Tx trace = C to B

Rx trace = A to B

SF (B1/B2/B3/V5)
3
4
5
Equivalent BER exceeds alarm generation threshold ( 1 in 10 / 1 in 10 / 1 in 10 )
SD (B1/B2/B3/V5)

Equivalent BER exceeds alarm generation threshold ( 1 in 10 to 1 in 10 )


Note: For both SF & SD, alarm clearing threshold is 1 decade lower than generation
threshold, e.g., Gen. Thr. is 1 in 1000 or higher => Clg. Thr. is 1 in 10000 or lower
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Description of Alarms (contd.)


Generation of AIS & RDI
Upon Receiving traffic affecting RS alarm, a Reg.
generates AIS towards downstream side
(all 1 in whole STM frame)
Upon Receiving traffic affecting RS alarm, a ADM
generates MS-AIS towards downstream side
(all 1 in whole STM frame minus RSOH)
& generates MS-RDI towards upstream side
(in K2 byte b6 -- b8 set as 110)
Upon Receiving traffic affecting HP alarm, a ADM
generates AU-AIS towards downstream side
(all 1 in whole AU)
& generates HP-RDI towards upstream side
(in G1 byte b5 set as 1)
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Description of Alarms (contd.)


Upon Receiving traffic affecting LP alarm, a ADM
generates TU-AIS towards downstream side
(all 1 in whole TU)
& generates LP-RDI towards upstream side
(in G1 byte b5 set as 1 for TU3 || in V5 byte b8 set as 1 for TU2/12/11)

Reception of AIS & RDI (condition should persist for consecutive 3 to 5 frames)
Bytes and bits involved in Reception for RDIs remain unchanged
Reception for MS-AIS in K2 byte b6 -- b8 received as 111
for AU-AIS All 1 in H1, H2 bytes (for TU3 AIS also)
for TU-AIS All 1 in V1, V2 bytes (TU2/12/11)
Note: 1) For generating MS-AIS / AU-AIS / TU-AIS, the ADM need not be a term. equip. for MS / HP / LP
2) Upon receiving MS-AIS / AU-AIS / TU-AIS also, the ADM generates MS-AIS / AU-AIS / TU-AIS
towards downstream & generates MS-RDI/HP-RDI/LP-RDI towards upstream
3) Some alarms are by default traffic affecting or non traffic affecting, whereas
some alarms can be made traffic affecting by user action
Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information Rev1.2 Last update 12 Dec 07 Reviewed by:

Description of Alarms (contd.)


Example of generation of AIS, RDI
MS-AIS (Gen)
AU-AIS
TU-AIS
(Gen)
Any traffic affecting LP
RS Alarm
HP
Alarm or
or TU-AIS
MS-AIS
AU-AIS (Rx)
(Rx)

MS-RDI
HP-RDI
LP-RDI

ADM

Example of reception of TU-AIS, LP-RDI


TU-AIS (Rx)
Any traffic affecting RS/HP/LP Alarm
VC12

VC12

VC12

E1

E1
ADM 1

LP-RDI (Rx)

ADM 2

ADM 3

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Description of Alarms (contd.)


AU/TU-LOP (AU-LOP is not reported in Tejas nodes, as always valid AU pointer values are sent)
8/9/10 consecutive invalid AU/TU pointers received or
8/9/10 consecutive NDF (New Data Flag) received (other than in a concatenation indicator)
(cleared when 3 equal valid pointers received)

AU-LOP

Ex.
VC4

VC4

E4

E4
ADM 1

AU-LOP

ADM 2

ADM 3
TU-LOP

Ex.
VC12

VC12

E1

E1
ADM 1

TU-LOP

ADM 2

ADM 3

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Description of Alarms (contd.)


HP/LP-UNEQ
All 0 in C2 byte for at least 5 frames (for AU4/AU3/TU3)
000 in V5 byte, bits 5,6,7 for at least 5 multi-frames (for TU2/12/11)
AU Sig. Label UNEQuipped

ex.

HP-UNEQ

AU has

AU has

no XC

no XC
ADM 1

HP-UNEQ

UNEQuipped AU Sig. Label

ADM 2

AU Sig. Label TUG-structured

ex.

AU has
VC12

no XC

E1
ADM 1

HP-UNEQ

UNEQuipped AU Sig. Label

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ADM 2

Description of Alarms (contd.)


LOM
Multiframe information not recovered from H4 byte (bits 7,8) for 1 to 5 ms
(i.e., 2 to 10 multi-frames)
Note: LOM is an alarm concerning LP, but inferred from HOPOH byte so,
it will be reported on a HO object
TIM (J1/J2) (Default action is to Ignore TIM)
Concept is like TIM (J0), but
a) Remember Section Hierarchy Tx trace (J1/J2) can not be edited within a HP/LP

E1

VC12

VC4

VC12

VC12

Tx trace can be edited


for J0, J1, J2 all

Tx trace can be edited


for J0 only

Tx trace can be edited


for J0, J1 only

b) All trace lengths are now 16/64 bytes


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E1

Description of Alarms (contd.)


HP/LP-PLM (SLM) (Default action is to Report PLM, but no Downstream AIS)
Mismatch in own and received signal label
in C2 byte for at least 5 frames (for AU4/AU3/TU3)
in V5 byte, bits 5,6,7 for at least 5 multi-frames (for TU2/12/11)
HP-PLM (SLM)

AU Sig. Label TUG-structured

ex.

TUG-ST

UNEQ

UNEQ

AU has

VC12

E1
ADM 1

ex.

TUG-ST

HP-PLM (SLM) UNEQuipped AU Sig. Label


TUG
ST

ADM 1

Asynch.
C4

TUG
ST

VC12

E1

no XC

Asynch.
C4

VC4
Asynch.
C4

Asynch.
C4

ADM 2

ADM 2

VC12
TUG
ST

TUG
ST

HP-PLM (SLM) on all ports


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E1
ADM 3

Masking of Alarms
Why?
Do not want to crowd the alarm reporting page ( and thereby confuse the user) with those
alarms, not required for unearthing the root cause
When? (The logics)
Logic 1 (when the alarms are related)
if ( FC1 ==> FC2 but FC2 =/=> FC1 )
then ( Mask FC2 in presence of FC1 )

Note: When FC1 clears, FC2 may or may


not clear in the later case FC2 will be
reported now

ex. 1a) LOS ==> LOF but LOF =/=> LOS 1b) LOS ==> HP-UNEQ but HP-UNEQ =/=> LOS
2) AU-AIS reported because of MS/AU-AIS generated
==> HP-RDI and
TU-AIS & LP-RDI(s) reported (if TU object(s) are there)
3) HP-UNEQ because of no XC at other end
==> TU-LOP(s) (if TU object(s) are there)
4) AU/TU-AIS reported ==> AU/TU-LOP

but not vice-versa


but not vice-versa

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but not vice-versa

Masking of Alarms (contd.)


Logic 2 (when the alarms are not related)
if ( FC1 has higher priority than FC2 )

Note: When FC1 clears, FC2 will be reported

then ( Mask FC2 in presence of FC1 )


ex. 1) AU/TU-LOP has higher priority than HP/LP-UNEQ
(if one is not getting the starting location of VC, how to look at what is happening within VC)
2) HP/LP-TIM, if action is chosen as Report TIM, Downstream AIS (i.e. traffic affecting)
has higher priority than HP/LP-RDI
(first correct received problem, then only look for problem in other direction)
3) HP/LP-TIM has higher priority than HP/LP-PLM
(first correct mis-connection, then see signal label problem within correct correction)
4) HP/LP-UNEQ has higher priority than HP/LP-TIM (even if traffic affecting)
(what to gain by correcting mis-connection, if even after that traffic can not be carried)

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Secondary Suppressed Alarms (SSA)


AIS and RDI are secondary alarms they are indications, not root causes
These alarms on a pass-through node is normally not reported in the main alarm page,
they are reported in a separate page called suppressed secondary alarms page
These alarms on a path terminating node is reported in the main alarm page as
terminating alarms
AU-AIS and HP-RDI are not suppressed, even for pass-through nodes, for Tejas products
Traffic affecting FC
ex.

VC12

TU-AIS (terminating)

VC12

VC12
E1

E1
ADM 1

ADM 2
LP-RDI (terminating)

ADM 3
LP-RDI (SSA)

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Alarm Propagation Examples

For every example,


Assumption(s) is/are stated
Root Cause(s) is/are stated
Diagrammatic representation is made (OFCs are shown in cyan)
Alarm(s) generated / condition(s) generated for reporting alarms is/are
shown in black
Alarm(s) existing at a port is/are shown in red
Alarm(s) masked at a port is/are covered with
Alarm(s) reported at secondary supprressed alarm page is/are shown
in pink, italicised
Note(s), whenever required is/are mentioned in green
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Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 1
Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on both ports

Root Cause: NO XConnect on both ports

AU4 Signal Label Unequipped


HP-RDI
HP- UNEQ
HP-RDI

HP- UNEQ

HP-RDI
HP-RDI
AU4 Signal Label Unequipped

Note: 1) if AU-3 mapping, then what happens?


2) In newer version of Tejas software, UNEQ is not reported for this root cause

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Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 2
Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on both ports,
HP-SLM default action is report
SLM, no downstream AIS

Root Cause: NO XConnect on the port of B

Signal Label TUG-structure


HP-RDI
LP-RDI
HP-RDI
HP-SLM

VC12
E1

HP- UNEQ

TU-LOP

AU4 Signal Label Unequipped


Invalid TU Pointer value

Note: LP-RDI is not reported on B (See Rule 3a)

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Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 3
Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on both ports of A & C
Root Cause: Fiber cut in the link from A to B
MS-AIS
AIS
LOS

AU-AIS
TU-AIS

VC-12

VC-12
E1

MS-RDI

E1

HP-RDI
LP-RDI

B
(Reg.)

C
MS-RDI
HP-RDI

Note: The Reg. can not generate any RDI

LP-RDI

Actually at C, AU-AIS & TU-AIS conditions are also received


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Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 4
Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports

Root Cause: Fiber cut in the link from A to B

ADM B VC-12 PT

MS-AIS
LOS
VC-12
E1

TU AIS
VC-12
LP RDI

MS-RDI

HP-RDI
LP RDI

VC-12
E1

B
MS-RDI

LP RDI

HP-RDI

Note: Only TU-AIS is reported on Node C (See Rule 4c)


LP-RDI on B is SSA
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Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 5
Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports

Root Cause: Fiber cut in the link from A to B

ADM B VC-4 PT

MS-AIS
AU AIS
LOS
VC-12
E1

TU AIS
VC-4

VC-12

MS-RDI

E1

HP-RDI
LP RDI

B
MS-RDI

LP RDI

HP-RDI

Note: Only AU-AIS is reported on Node C (See Rule 4c)


LP-RDI on B is not reported (See Rule 3b)
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Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 6
Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports

Root cause: NO XConnect on B, C & D for (1-1-2)

E1 (1)

E1 (1)

VC-12 (1-1-1)
LP RDI
(1-1-2)

E1

VC-12 (1-1-2)

(2)

TU-LOP
(1-1-2)

B
Invalid TU Pointers
1-2)

C
(1-

Note: Why E1(1) is shown?


LP-RDI is not reported on B (See Rule 3a)
Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information Rev1.2 Last update 12 Dec 07 Reviewed by:

Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 7
Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports

Root cause: NO XConnect on C & D for (1-1-2)

E1 (1)

E1 (1)

VC-12 (1-1-1)
LP RDI
(1-1-2)

LP RDI
(1-1-2)
LP-RDI
(1-1-2)

E1

VC-12 (1-1-2)

(2)

VC-12 (1-1-2)
TU-AIS
(1-1-2)

TU-LOP
(1-1-2)

TU AIS (1-1-2)

C
Invalid TU Pointers
1-2)

D
(1-

Note: LP-RDI at node B is secondary suppressed


TU-AIS at node A is reported as terminating alarm
Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information Rev1.2 Last update 12 Dec 07 Reviewed by:

Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 8
Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports

Root cause: NO XConnect on C for (1-1-2)

E1 (1)

E1 (1)

VC-12 (1-1-1)
LP RDI
(1-1-2)

LP RDI
(1-1-2)

Invalid TU Pointers
(1-1-2)

LP-RDI
(1-1-2)
E1

VC-12 (1-1-2)

(2)

TU-LOP
(1-1-2)
VC-12 (1-1-2)

TU-AIS
(1-1-2)

VC12(1-1-2)
TU-LOP
(1-1-2)

TU AIS (1-1-2)

E1
(2)

C
Invalid TU Pointers
1-2)

D
(1-

LP RDI (1-1-2)

Note: K-L-M value need not remain same throughout a particular LP, alarms will
be reported accordingly on different objects
Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information Rev1.2 Last update 12 Dec 07 Reviewed by:

Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 9
Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports,

Root cause: NO XConnect on C for (1-1-1)

VC4 PT at node B,
For each port, HP-SLM default action is ignore SLM
LP-RDI
(1-1-1)

VC-12(1-1-1)

E1 (1)

VC-4

VC-12(1-1-2)

VC-12(1-1-2)
E1(2)

TU-LOP

E1 (2)

(1-1-1)

C
Invalid TU Pointers

Note: LP-RDI from A is not reported on B (See Rule 3b).

(1-1-1)

Why assumption on SLM?


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Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 10 (with SNCP)
Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports
W A-B-C, P A-D-C

Root cause: Fiber-cut in the link from A to B


MS-AIS
TU AIS

LOS
E1

VC-12

VC-12
MS-RDI

LP RDI

HP-RDI

LP RDI

VC-12

MS-RDI

LP RDI

HP-RDI

Note: SNCP is always


uni-directional & for

VC-12

Tejas, it is 1+1
D
Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information Rev1.2 Last update 12 Dec 07 Reviewed by:

E1

Thank You

Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information Rev1.2 Last update 12 Dec 07 Reviewed by: