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Methods

and
Equipment

Equipment for Moving or Handling


Concrete

Equipment should be carefully selected to move


concrete from its point of production to point of
delivery and into place in the finished structure. The
slump, sand content, maximum size of aggregate, or
concrete mix should not be governed by the
equipment; rather the equipment should be capable of
expeditiously handling, moving, and discharging
concrete of such slump, sand content, maximum
aggregate size, or mix proportions considered
otherwise suitable and which can be placed by
vibration or other suitable placing methods.

Chutes
- are simple and expenditious way of transferring or moving
concrete to a lower elevation. Chutes must have sufficient slope
so that concrete at the specified slump will readily move down
them by gravity.

Wheelbarrows, Concrete Buggies or Motorized carts


-transport concrete at short distances. These vehicles may be
used on small jobs on level ground.

Buckets
- is aheavy equipmentmachine used inconstructionto move
aside or load materials such asasphalt, demolition
debris,dirt,snow,feed,gravel,logs, rawminerals, recycled
material,rock,sand,woodchips, etc. into or onto another type of
machinery (such as adump truck,conveyor belt, feed-hopper,
orrailroad car).

Conveyor
-used to transfer concrete horizontally and modest distances
vertically. Conveyors are particularly useful in areas
of limited room , such as in tunnels, but widely used on large
areas such as floor slabs and bridge decks.

Concrete Pumps
- most commonly used to move concrete from the delivery
truck to the place where it is used. Ther are two types of
concrete pumps, the first type of concrete pump is attached to a
truck. or longer units are on semi-trailers. It is known as a boom
concrete pump because it uses aremotecontrolledarticulatingroboticarm (called aboom) to place
concrete accurately. The second main type of concrete pump is
either mounted on a truck or placed on a trailer, and it is
commonly referred to as aline pumpor trailer-mounted concrete
pump. This pump requiressteelorflexibleconcrete
placinghosesto be manually attached to the outlet of the
machine

BOOM
CONCRETE
PUMP

TRAILERMOUNTED
CONCRETE
PUMP

Placing Concrete in Forms

Before any concrete is placed the entire placing programme


consisting of equipment, layout, proposed procedures and
methods is planned and no concrete is placed until formwork is
inspected and found suitable for placement.

Equipment for conveying concrete should be of such size and


design as to ensure a practically continuous flow of concrete
during depositing without segregation of materials considering
the size of the job and placement location.

Concrete is placed in its final position before the cement reaches


its initial set and concrete is compacted in its final position within
30 minutes of leaving the mixer and once compacted it should
not be disturbed.

In all cases the concrete is deposited as nearly as practicable directly in its final
position and should not be re-handled or caused to flow in a manner which may
cause segregation, loss of materials, displacement of reinforcement, shuttering
or embedded inserts or impair its strength.

For locations where direct placement is not possible and in narrow forms suitable
drop and Elephant Trunks to confine the movement of concrete is provided.
Special care is taken where concrete is dropped from a height especially if
reinforcement is in the way particularly in columns and thin walls.

Concrete should be placed in the shuttering by shovels or other methods and


should not be dropped from a height more than one metre or handle in a
manner which will cause segregation.

Concreting once started should be continuous until the pour is completed.


Concrete should be placed in successive horizontal layers of uniform thickness
ranging from 150 mm to 900 mm. These should be placed as rapidly as
practicable to prevent the formation of cold joints or planes of weakness
between each succeeding layers within the pour.

Internal Vibrator or Immersion Vibrators


It essentially consists of a steel tube (with one end closed and rounded)
having an eccentric vibrating element inside it. This steel tube called
poker is connected to an electric motor or a diesel engine through a
flexible tube. They are available in size varying from 40 to 100 mm
diameter. The frequency of vibration varies upto 15000 rpm. However a
range between 3000 to 6000 rpm is suggested as a desirable minimum
with an acceleration of 4g to 10g The period of vibration required may
be of the order of 30 seconds to 2 minute. The concrete should be
placed in layers not more than 600mm high.

External or Shutter Vibrators


These vibrators are clamped rigidly to the form work at the predetermined points so th These vibrators can compact up to 450mm
from the face but have to be moved from one place to another as
concrete progresses. These vibrators operate at a frequency of 3000 to
9000 rpm at an acceleration of 4g. at the form and concrete are
vibrated.

Surface Vibrators

These are placed directly on the concrete mass. These best suited for
compaction of shallow elements and should not be used when the
depth of concrete to be vibrated is more than 250 mm. Very dry mixes
can be most effectively compacted with surface vibrators. The surface
vibrators commonly used are pan vibrators and vibrating screeds. The
main application of this type of vibrator is in the compaction of small
slabs, not exceeding 150 mm in thickness, and patching and repair
work of pavement slabs. The operating frequency is about 4000 rpm at
an acceleration of 4g to 9g.

Consolidating Concrete with Vibration


Most engineers would say as water-cement ratio increases strength
decreases. Unless concrete is properly consolidated, voids reduce
strength regardless of the water-cement ratio. Right after its
placed, concrete contains as much as 20% entrapped air. At a
constant water- cement ratio, each percent of air decreases
compressive strength by about 3% to 5%. Consolidating the
concrete, usually by vibration, increases concrete strength by
driving out entrapped air. It also improves bond strength and
decreases concrete permeability.

Consolidating Concrete without Vibration


When vibration is not used concrete can be adequately placed
but with more physical effort. The concrete will need to be
more workable for hand-placing methods with more slump
and perhaps a higher sand content, although excessive high
slumps and sand contents are not necessary and are
undesirable as they result in lower-quality concrete with
greater potential for shrinkage, lower strength and less
durability. Simply dumping concrete into a form from a readymixed concrete truck without some means being taken to
consolidate it,even with high-slump concrete, cannot achieve
a satisfactory job.

Preparation
For Placing
Concrete

Foundation Preparation

Excavation rocks should be excavated to sound material and be


completely exposed and rock surfaces should be normal to the
direction of load.Controlled blasting, supervised by specialist in
this field, can minimize rock problems caused by careless
blasting and result in much better construction. Good practices,
such as closer and better spacing of drill holes, controlled powder
charges and delays, can result in closer control of rock
excavation to required line and grade and less damage to the
rock.Overexcavation may be corrected by backfill with suitable
earth material adequately compacted or controlled low-strength
material.

Drainage such drains are usually designed as part as part


of the job and are provided for in the plans and
specifications. Drains may be constructed by placing the
concrete or clay pipe on a clean gravel or crushed-stone
blanket in a trench or depression in the foundation,
backfilling, around it with the same clean gravel or crush
stone (3/4 X 3/8 in. or 1 X in. (20 to 10 mm or 40 to 20
mm)). Usually the concrete is covered with burlap to
prevent mortar from infiltrating the gravel when concrete is
place over it, and it may be covered with a thin layer (1 to 2
in) (25 to 50 mm) of in (20 mm)) maximum size
aggregate concrete to protect it from the hazards of
construction if some time will elapse before the concrete it
place over it.

Construction-Joint Preparation

When fresh concrete is placed on or adjacent to previously


placed concrete, whether old or new concrete , and where a
bond between the two surfaces is required, it is essential that the
surface of the previously placed concrete be clean and properly
prepared. The surface should be free of laitance, carbonation,
scum, dirt, oil, grease, paint, curing compound, and loose or
disintegrated concrete and should be slightly roughened. Several
methods of cleanup are available, depending on the size of areas
to be cleaned, age of the concrete, skills of the workers, and
availability of equipment.

The Mortar Layer

A rock surface or a construction joint in previously placed


concrete should be properly prepare to receive the concrete
placement as discussed previously. Research by the Corps of
engineers indicates that it may not make much difference
whether or not a layer of mortar broomed onto a properly
prepared surface of either structural or mass concrete prior to
placed concrete upon the surface. This research does indicate
that a thin mortar either flowed or broomed onto the surface is
superior to a thick mortar. In some case superior joints were
obtained without mortar. Also dry joints appeared to give superior
results to wet joints.

FORMWORKS

FORMWORK
- is the term given to either temporary or permanent support moulds
into which concrete or similar material are poured.
TYPES OF FORMWORK

Foundation formwork

Wall formwork

Ceiling formwork

Beam formwork

Column formwork

FORMWORK
Form Preparation

The design and construction of forms are discussed in Sec. 22.2.2


and in Refs. 6 through 8.

Details of form construction are covered in Sec. 25.2.2, but


certain details are important to those concerned with preparation
for placing concrete. Particular care must be taken with forms for
concrete that will permanently exposed to view or in which special
architectural effects are required.

A good formwork should satisfy the following


requirements:

It should be strong enough to withstand all types of dead and live loads.

It should be rigidly constructed and efficiently propped and braced both


horizontally and vertically, so as to retain its shape.

The joints in the formwork should be tight against leakage of cement


grout.

Construction of formwork should permit removal of various parts in


desired sequences without damage to the concrete.

The material of the formwork should be cheap, easily available and


should be suitable for reuse.

The formwork should be set accurately to the desired line and levels
should have plane surface.

It should be as light as possible.

The material of the formwork should not warp or get distorted when
exposed to the elements.

It should rest on firm base.

WOOD
FORMWORK

STEEL
FORMWORK

Steel forms compared with timber


formwork:

Steel forms are stronger, durable and have longer life than
timber formwork and their reuses are more in number.

Steel forms can be installed and dismantled with greater ease


and speed.

The quality of exposed concrete surface by using steel forms is


good and such surfaces need no further treatment.

Steel formwork does not absorb moisture from concrete.

Steel formwork does not shrink or warp.

Use of Forms
Safety Provision

Provision should be made, particularly on wall forms, for safe working conditions
for the placing crew. Ladders, working platforms, hand railing, kick boards, and
other safety necessities should be provided, as required by all safety codes.

Form Coating

dorms must be treated with a form oil or other coating material to prevent
adhesion to the concrete. Many form oils and parting compounds, such as
plastic, lacquer, or shellac, are available. The form coating should be formulated
for the particular usage and material to which it is to be applied and should
protect the form from water, strip readily from the concrete, not interfere with
subsequent curing, painting, or other surface treatments, or stain or cause
softening of the surface. And form oil or coating must be applied before the
forms are erected.

Cleaning with Forms

All dirt, sawdust, shavings, tie wire, loose nails, and other debris
should be removed from within the forms before concrete placing
is started. Provision should be made in wall or similar forms,
particularly those for thin sections, for washing or blowing out all
such debris, by leaving a panel or the bottom of the form loose or
otherwise providing an opening at the bottom or end of the form
for washout. Sometimes nails and wire clippings can be picked up
by a magnet on a pole. The ends of reinforcing steel tie wires
should not rest against the form where they will cause unsightly
rust stains.

Concrete Placing

The placing inspectors and contractors form watcher should


carefully watch the forms during the concrete placing for any
signs of difficulties. Should any develop, placing should be
immediately stopped or slowed as conditions warrant so that the
conditions can be inspected and corrected.

Form Removal

Factors to be considered in determining when forms are to be


removed are the effect of the form-removal operations in
damaging the concrete, the structural strength or deflection of
the concrete, curing and protection, finishing requirements, and
requirements for reuse of the forms. Forms may be removed from
a few minutes to days after the concrete is placed.

Forms should be removed using tools and equipment that will not
damage either the concrete or the forms if the forms are to be
reused or salvaged.

Strength of the concrete and structural requirements determine


the form-stripping time for arches, beams, girders and similar
load carrying structural members.

Order and method of removing formwork:

The sequence of orders and method of removal of formwork are


as follows:

Shuttering forming the vertical faces of walls, beams and column


sides should be removed first as they bear no load but only retain
the concrete.

Shuttering forming soffit of slabs should be removed next.

Shuttering forming soffit of beams, girders or other heavily


loaded shuttering should be removed in the end.

Reuse of Forms

Forms should be designed to permit easy removal and reuse.


Forms should be carefully remove, cleaned, repaired, handled
and stored so that they are not damaged.

Reinforcement

Reinforcing steel, commonly called resteel or rebars, is placed


in concrete to reinforce the concrete structure adequately so that
it will support expected loads.

Concrete is weak in tension, and most reinforcing is use to


provide tensile reinforcement.

Steel is also used to provide compressive reinforcement, in


columns and in arches, for example, and to resist shrinkage and
temperature stresses.

Reinforcement

Reinforcing should be accurately placed.

Inaccuracies can reduce the strength of the structural unit


containing the steel or, if the steel is placed in the wrong place
(the wrong side of a cantilever beam, for example), might lead to
failure of the structure.

It is particularly important that reinforcing steel be properly


placed in areas subject to earthquakes, tornadoes, and
hurricanes.

Investigation of structural failures following such disasters shows


many violation of specification and good practice in placing the
reinforcing steel and making adequate connections between
structural elements. This cause or contribute to the failure. Also
indicated is a lack of competent inspections.

Spacing of Bars

Design and detailing should provide for proper spacing of the


reinforcing steel in accord with the ACI 318 Bldg. code or other
requirements.

This limits the closeness of the bars to each other in various


situation.

This conditions have been provided for the reinforcing-steel


detailer. Sometime bars are bundled: for instance, up to four bars
may be placed together. Sometimes temporary removal of
moving of bars, particularly in heavily reinforced match, may be
done to facilitate placement of the concrete.

Splices

Splices are frequently necessary because of manufacturing,


fabrication, handling, or transportation considerations. Splices
should be located as shown on the design or detailing drawings.
Splices should occur at location at minimum stresses in the
structure.

Splices may be made by lapping the bars a distance determined


by the bar size, grade of steel, and concrete strength as given in
the ACI 318 Building Code or by the designer.

Cover

Concrete protects reinforcing steel from corrosion and serves as


fire-proofing. Adequate cover or embedment of the steel in the
concrete to provide this protection is specified in the ACI 318
Bldg. code.

The following minimum concrete cover for cast=in=place


concrete is given. Cover for present and prestressed concrete
may vary from this, consult the ACI 318 Bldg. Code.

Bar Supports, Spacers and Ties

Bars should be supported, anchored and tied to hold them in


place before and during concrete placing.

Supports, anchors or ties should not permit subsequent entrance


of water or moist air into the hardened concrete which could
initiate corrosion.

In footing, mats of bars can be supported by precast concreted


blocks made for this purpose or chairs.

Cleaning Reinforcement

Reinforcement at the time of placing concrete should be free of mud,


oil or other foreign matter that will reduce or prevent bond. Mill scale
or a light coating of rust tightly bonded to the steel is not
objectionable.

Loose, flaky, scaly rust which would affect the bond, should be
removed by scrapping, shock treatment (dropping, hammering,
vibration), wire brushing or possibly sandblasting.

Grease or oil should be removed by a propane torch, using care not to


overheat the bars, or washed off with kerosene or gasoline with the
adequate safety precaution for using such materials.

When oiling forms, oil may get onto the bars. If the form oil
evaporates or is a very thin coating, it will do harm. If it is a thick
coating, it should be removed.

Reporters:
BARANGAY, JAY-AR
GALLA, JOHN ZENDRES
BACUD, PATRICK ARCHIE
TUMBAGA, ROSVIN JOHN
ALMAREZ, DARNELL JAKE