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Submarines

Contents
i. Background
ii. Introduction
iii. History
iv. Scope of Submarine Geography
v. Types of Submarines
vi. U-Boat Bunkers
vii. Submersibles
viii. Life on submarines
ix. Top 10 countries in the world(having max

submarines)

i. Background:
Ships and boats are one of the oldest means

of transportation as the first ships were made


and used thousands of years ago. Ships are
used for various purposes like transportation
of passengers, cargo, for leisure, sports, etc.
The most apparent difference between a ship
and a submarine is that a ship floats on the
surface of water, whereas submarines are
capable of operating underwater.
it is not affected by the surface waves.

ii. Introduction
Submarine, naval craft capable of operating

for an extended period of time underwater.


Submarines are almost always warships,
although a few are used for scientific,
business, or other purposes.
Submarines are completely different from
boats as they have the capability of operating
completely underwater

iii.The History

History
In 1580 First published description of how a submarine could work, by a
Englishman, William Bourne
In 1623 The first working submarine was made and was powered by 12
oarsmen. It was first tested in the River Thames
In 1776 - David Bushnell built the first submarine to actually make an
attack on an enemy warship. It, called the "Turtle" because it looked
like a sea-turtle floating in the water. It was operated by Sergeant Ezra
Lee.
This a sketch of the
Turtle

1862 The "Alligator" was the first


submarine in the U. S. Navy

History
In 1885, Nordenfeldt I was
launched, a steam
powered submarine with
an external torpedo tube

In 1906, the first German u-boat was


launched

iv. Scope of Submarine Geography


While used in WWI, submarine warfare

developed dramatically during WWII


Will give States, Statistics, Base Locations

The Cold War saw many developments as well


Submarine Warfare Tactics from WWII to
present

The rise off World War 1


Submarines were a
recent invention but
they were advanced
nevertheless.
German U Boats were
the first truly effective
submarines. They
wrecked havoc on
British and Allied
warships and shipping.

This is the final German UBoat

World War 2
1939 1945-When the Second World War broke out submarines
were used often.
Italy joined Germany in June, bringing 105 submarines to the
Mediterranean theatre. Luckily they did not have much impact.
In August 1941, U-570 became the first and the only submarine
ever captured by an aircraft; under attack, she was forced to
the surface and surrendered.

1935 the first of


a new series, U1, entered
service and there
was soon 16 uboats in service

TOTAL MERCHANT SHIP LOSSES - SEPTEMBER 1939 to AUGUST


1945
Location
North Atlantic
South Atlantic
UK waters
Mediterranean
Indian Ocean
Pacific Ocean
Causes in order of
tonnage sunk
1. Submarines
4. Aircraft
2. Mines
5. Other causes
6. Raiders
3. Warships
7. Coastal forces

Number of British, Allied,


neutral ships
2,232
174
1,431
413
385
515

Total Gross Registered


Tonnage
11,900,000 tons
1,024,000 tons
3,768,000 tons
1,740,000 tons
1,790,000 tons
1,348,000 tons

Number of British, Allied,


neutral ships

Total Gross Registered


Tonnage

2,828
820
534
632
133
104
99

14,686,000 tons
2,890,000 tons
1,406,000 tons
1,030,000 tons
830,000 tons
498,000 tons
230,000 tons

United States Became Just as


Effective!

v. Types of Submarines
Pleasure Submarine: Pleasuresubmarinesare generally very

small and expensive, used by the rich people to admire marine


life.
Scientific submarines: Scientificsubmarinesare used to

investigate the bottom of oceans or lakes


One of the most popular scientific submarines is DSV Alvin,
Military submarines: Militarysubmarinesare used for naval

wars, recon, and to hold nuclear weaponry, making up an


essential node of the nuclear chord along with ballistic missiles
and heavy bombers. The largest and top most expensive
submarines are all used by the militaries of the world, especially
the US, UK, and Russian military..

vi. U-Boat Bunkers


(U-Boot-Bunkerin German) is abunkerthat is

designed to protectsubmarinesfrom air


attack. The term is generally applied to
submarine bases constructed during World
War II.

German U-Boat Bunkers


U-Boat Bunkers in Germany, 1939 - 1941
Roof
Location

Name

Size (m)

Hamburg

Elbe II

137 x 62

Hamburg

Fink II

Heligoland Nordsee II

No. of Docks

Capacity

When Constructed

0 dry, 2 wet = 2

6 boats

Dec 1940 - 1941

151 x 153

3.6

0 dry, 5 wet = 5

15 boats

Mar 1941 - 1944

156 x 88

0 dry, 3 wet = 3

9 boats

Jan 1940 - Jun 1943

Thickness

Kiel

Kilian

176 x 79

4.8

0 dry, 2 wet = 2

12 boats

Nov 1941 - Nov 1943

Kiel

Konrad

163 x 35

3.5

1 dry, 0 wet = 1

5 boats

Apr 1943 - Oct 1944

Bremen

Hornisse

362 x 68

4.5

Mar 1944 (incomplete)

Bremen

Valentin

450 x 100

7.3

Feb 1943 (incomplete)

German U-Boat Bunkers

U-Boat Bunkers in France, 1941 - 1944


Roof
Location

Name

Size (m)

No. of Docks

Capacity

When Constructed

Brest

192 x 333

6.2

10 dry, 5 wet =
15

20 boats

Jan 1941 - Jul 1942

Lorient

Dom

81 x 16

1.5

2 dry, 0 wet = 2

2 boats

Feb 1941 - May 1941

Scorff

129 x 51

3.5

0 dry, 2 wet = 2

4 boats

Apr 1941 - Aug 1941

Keroman I

403 x 146

3.5

5 dry, 0 wet = 5

5 boats

Mar 1941 - Sep 1941

Keroman II 403 x 146

3.5

7 dry, 0 wet = 7

7 boats

May 1941 - dec 1941

Thickness

Keroman
III

168 x 142

7.5

5 dry, 2 wet = 7

13 boats

Oct 1941 - Jul 1943

Keroman
IVa

160 x 130

4 dry, 1 wet = 5

24 boats

Jul 1943 (incomplete)

Keroman
IVb

95 x 150

3 dry, 0 wet = 3

St. Nazaire

291 x 124

8 dry, 6 wet =
14

20 boats

Mar 1941 - Jan 1942

La Pallice

195 x 165

7.3

7 dry, 3 wet =
10

13 boats

Apr 1941 - Mar 1943

Bordeaux

232 x 160

5.6

15 boats

Sep 1941 - May 1943

Marseille

Martha

??? x 230

Unknown

20 boats

Jan 1943 (incomplete)

7 dry, 4 wet =
11
Unknown = 13
total

(incomplete)

German U-Boat Bunkers


U-Boat Bunkers in Norway, 1941 1944
Roof
Location

Name

Size (m)

No. of Docks

Capacity

When Constructed

Thickness

Bergen

Bruno

131 x 143

3 dry, 3 wet = 6

9 boats

Nov 1941 - Jul 1944

Trondheim

Dora I

153 x 105

3.5

3 dry, 2 wet = 5

7 boats

Apr 1941 - Jul 1943

Dora II

167 x 102

3.5

2 dry, 2 wet = 4

6 boats

Jan 1942 (imcomplete)

Submarine Tactics Have Changed


Since WWII technology increased the capabilities of
submarines as well as their roles. During this time
the United States developed the concept of Triad
Defense. Land based nuclear missiles, Long range
bombers, and Ballistic Missile Submarines.
Nuclear reactors enabled submarines to only be
limited to the amount of food they can carry for their
crews.

A Sub at Periscope Depth Can


be Seen from the Air

Characteristics
According to the U.S. government, the top speed of
Los Angeles-class submarines is over 25 knots (46
km/h, 29 mph), although the precise maximum is
classified. Government sources give the maximum
operating
depth
as 650 are
feetroughly
(200 m).an accurate size
The two
diagrams
comparison

Thermoclines / Sound Channels


How a submarine
uses the ocean
itself to hide.
Factors include:
temperature and
depth.

Components of Submarine Warfare


Detection

4) After breaking the surface of the waves, the


missile continues being propelled vertically by
the plume of steam another 50 feet above the
oceans surface where the first stage rocket fires

3) The steam surrounds each missile rapidly


shooting it towards the surface of the ocean
which is approximately 100 feet above the top of
the sub

2) A separate rocket motor at the base of each


silo fires instantaneously boiling the water in
the bottom of the launch tube, creating huge
volumes of steam

1) During the firing sequence, the hatch door


on top of the submarine is opened exposing the
domed shape of the Trident Missile nose section

Submerged Missile
s
Launch Basics

1. The missile launches out of its silo by firing its 1st stage boost motor

(A).
2. About 60 seconds after launch, the 1st stage drops off and the 2nd
stage motor (B) ignites. The missile shroud is ejected.
3. About 120 seconds after launch, the 3rd stage motor (C) ignites and
separates from the 2nd stage.
4. About 180 seconds after launch, 3rd stage thrust terminates and the
Post-Boost Vehicle (D) separates from the rocket.
5. The Post-Boost Vehicle maneuvers itself and prepares for re-entry
vehicle (RV) deployment.
6. The RVs, as well as decoys and chaf, are deployed during backaway. f
7. The RVs and chaff re-enter the atmosphere at high speeds and are
armed in flight.
8. The nuclear warheads detonate, either as air bursts or groundbursts.

viii. Submersibles
A submersible is a submarine that is mainly
used for exploration and can only go a limited
depth under water or will be crushed by the
force of water pressure

How a Submarine
Works

How it submerges
Subs are powered

by a diesel or
nuclear engine. It
drives propellers.
The sub dives by

filling its ballast


tanks full of water
and the weight pulls
the sub down.
Dive Dive
Dive!

How Submarines See

Submarines generally dont have windows to look out


of
Instead, they are piloted with the use of Sonar (sound
navigation and ranging)
A pulse of sound is sent out from the submarine
If there is an object in the way, the sound waves are
reflected back to the submarine the time taken for
the pulse to return to the submarine is used to
calculate the distance to the object.

Periscope
A periscope is on
nearly every
submarine.
Using a series
of mirrors, it
allows
submarines to
see things
above water so
they do not
have to rise to
the surface.

Torpedoes
Around the year 1900 submarines started using
Torpedoes. But they werent very effective. Once a
torpedo was fired from a sub but it curved round
and hit the sub that fired it.
Now subs have much more advanced systems and
torpedoes hardly ever miss let alone hit the sub
that fired it.

ix. Life on a Submarine

Life on a submarine is actually quite dull:


Very cramped living conditions
No windows, no fresh air
Underwater for sometimes months at a time

Ballistic Missile Submarine

Ballistic Missile Submarine

U.S. Attack Submarine

What One Mk-48 can do

Akula Class Soviet Attack Submarine

Typhoon Class Soviet Submarine

Anti-Submarine Warfare (Defensive)

x.Top list of 10 Countries

1.Typoon
Name:

Akula (Typoon)

Builders:

Rubin Design
Bureau

Operators:

Soviet Navy
Russian Navy

Preceded by:

Delta class
submarine

Succeeded by:

Borei class
submarine

In commission:

December 12,
1981

Completed:

Active:

Scrapped:

Preserved:

2.Vanguard class submarine


Builders:

Vickers
Shipbuilding
and
Engineering
Ltd, Barrowin-Furness

Operators:

Royal Navy

Preceded by:

Resolutionclass

Succeeded by:

N/A

In service:

1993 - present

Completed:

Active:

Vanguard (S28)
Victorious
(S29)
Vigilant (S30)
Vengeance

3.The Virginia

Name:

Virginia

Builders:

General
Dynamics
Electric Boat
Northrop
Grumman
Newport News

Operators:

United States
Navy

Preceded by:

Seawolf class
attack
submarine

Cost:

$2.8 billion

Built:

2000 present

In commission:

2004 present

Building:

Planned:

30

Completed:

4.Foxtrot class
submarine
Builders:

Sudomekh,
Leningrad

Operators:

Soviet
Navy/Russian
Navy
Polish Navy
Ukrainian
Navy
Indian Navy
Libyan Navy
Cuban Navy

Preceded by:

Zulu-class
submarine

Succeeded
by:

Tango-class
submarine

Built:

19571983

In
commission:

19582000