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At the end of this session you are expected to be able to:

Define the partogram


Explain the importance of using partogram in labour.


Describe the principles that are used to design the


Describe the principles of using the partogram at the
basic and comprehensive health facilities.


Describe the protocol for labour management with
the WHO partogram

What is a partogram
(partograph) ?

maternal and fetal wellbeing. and treatment administration .Definition The partogram Is a graph used in labour to monitor the parameters of progress of labour.


PRACTICAL VALUE OF USING THE PARTOGRAM  Offers an objective basis for overtime monitoring the progress of labour. .  Enables early detection of abnormalities of labour  Prevention of obstructed labour and ruptured uterus. maternal and fetal wellbeing.

 Proper use of partogram has proved so useful in reduction of both maternal and perinatal mortalities and morbidities .PRACTICAL VALUE OF PARTOGRAM cont  Complications of obstructed labour and ruptured uterus contribute up to 30% of maternal deaths in some areas.

WHO Recommends its use in all labour wards and for all women (WHO 1994) Tanzania Its use is obligatory at all levels of obstetric care .RECOMMENDATIONS ON THE USE OF PARTOGRAM Based on the evidence-based reports on its effectiveness in monitoring of labour.

The latent phase ends and active phase starts when the cervix is 3cm (4cm is sometimes used) 3. During active phase – the cervix should dilate at not less than 1 cm per hour . The latent phase should not last longer than 8 hours 2. 1.PRINCIPLES USED TO DESIGN THE PARTOGRAM The partogram depends on the principles that.

A lag time of 4 hours is usually acceptable the slowing of labour and the need to intervene. .PRINCIPLES cont 4. this is the distance between alert line and the action line.

 Those with risk factors should already have been referred.PRINCIPLES OF USING THE PARTOGRAM 1.  Basic health facilities Used to monitor labour which is expected to be normal. Health facilities with comprehensive EmOC. 2. Referral is decided when the progress line of the cervical dilatation deviates to the right of an alert line.   Used to monitor both high and low risk labour .


EXCLUSIONS Don’t complete the partogram in case of:  Prematurity (<34/40)  Cervical dilatation 9 -10 cm on admission  Elective CS  Emergency CS on admission .

STARTING THE PARTOGRAM 1. . lasting ≥ 20 sec SRM but no contractions  4. lasting ≥ 20 sec When oxytocin is started or when labour commences Inductions   At ARM ± oxytocin When induction is medical start when labour commences (see 1 and 2) or membranes rapture. Active phase  3. Contractions at least 2 in 10. Contractions at least 1 in 10. Latent phase  2.

each lasting 40-50 seconds.5 in 10 minute.DESIRED UTERINE CONTRACTIONS  The desired rates of uterine contractions in labour = 4 .  It may be maintained at that rate throughout 2nd and 3rd stage of labour .

TIMING OBSERVATIONS IN LATENT PHASE AND ACTIVE PHASE UP TO ACTION LINE Parameter Vaginal examination Descent of head Contractions Fetal heart beats Temperature. BP. urine Ideal in both phases (hrs) 4 4 ½ ½ 4 Minimum acceptable Latent phase Active phase 8 8 4 4 4 4 4 2 1 4 . PR.

TIMING OBSERVATIONS IN LATENT PHASE AND ACTIVE PHASE  Vaginal examination may be carried out more frequently in advanced first stage 7+cm or if problems develop .

MANAGEMENT OF LABOUR BETWEEN ALERT AND ACTION LINES  Known as Alert or Referral zone 1. Health facilities with Basic EmOC  Transfer the woman to hospital unless the cervix is almost fully dilated  ARM may be performed if membranes are still intact and first stage of labour is advanced and delivery is expected soon. .

Health Facility with Comprehensive EmOC  Perform ARM at vaginal examination  Continue routine monitoring  Repeat vaginal examination 4 hrs or earlier if delivery is expected sooner  Do not intervene or augment – unless complications develop .MANAGEMENT OF LABOUR BETWEEN ALERT AND ACTION LINES 2.

MANAGEMENT OF LABOUR AT OR BEYOND THE ACTION LINE 1.  Oxytoxin – if no contraindications  Supportive therapy only – if satisfactory progress is established and dilatation could be anticipated at 1cm/hr or faster. Full medical and obstetric assessment 2. Options  Perform CS .if fetal distress or obstructed labour or operative vaginal delivery if in 2 nd stage without severe fetal distress and/or obstructed. Consider IV infusions/ catheterization/ analgesics (pethidine) 3. .

FURTHER REVIEW . measured as cervical dilatation of < 1cm/hr between these examinations. means delivery is indicated  Fetal heart while on oxytocin must be checked at least every ½ hour .in cases continuing in labour  Vaginal exam after 2 hours. then in 2 more hours  Failure to make satisfactory progress. then in 2 more hours.

INTERVENTION OF LABOUR Considerable factors for intervention of labour 1. Fetal condition e. Moulding/caput formation score . Maternal condition 5. fetal distress 4.g. Cervical dilatation and descent 2. Strength and frequency of uterine contractions 6. 3. Presentation.

do not be guided only by the dilatation of the cervix in relation to the action line and by the descent of the fetal head. critical though these are.  Some partograms have two action lines one at 3 hours for multips and one at 4 hours for prims .INTERVENTION OF LABOUR cont  Consider all these factors.  Intervention needs to be earlier in a multip than in a prim.

Prolonged second stage of labour . Protracted descent of the presenting part 5. Arrested dilatation of cervix 4. Protracted dilatation of cervix 3. Arrested descent of the presenting part 6.ABNORMAL PARTOGRAPM Include the following 1. Prolonged latent phase 2.

vagina and perineum: Contracted pelvis . hydrocephaly.CPD . o Refers to the expulsive efforts of the uterus and mother: Poor uterine contractions etc Passage related 3.CAUSES OF ABNORMAL PARTOGRAPM Divided into 3 Ps Passenger related 1. o Refers to the bony and soft tissue of the pelvis. Power related 2. o Refers to the fetus: Big baby.

SPECIAL CASES ON THE PARTOGRAM  Breech  Twins  IUFD  Pre-eclampsia  Previous scar  Diabetes  Cardiac diseases NOTE:  Plot the labour on the partograph but specific WHO partogram may not apply  Such cases are managed individually .

      BREECH Exclude reasons for immediate CS  previous CS.MANAGEMENT OF LABOUR IN SPECIAL CASES 1. contracted pelvis Manage latent phase normally CS may be indicated if the 8 hour latent phase “action line” is reached In the active phase. dilatation slower than 1cm/hr is a worrying sign Consider oxytocin if dilatation moves to the right of the alert line Reaching the action line is normally the indication for CS .

augmentation and ARM may be indicted early i.MANAGEMENT OF LABOUR IN SPECIAL CASES cont 2. Multiple pregnancy  Guidelines for breech apply i. prolonged latent phase or reaching the action line is indication for CS 3. in the latent phase before 8 hours or before the action line .e.e. Pre-eclampsia  Induction .

IUFD  Usually the WHO protocol can be followed  Only perform ARM in the active phase  When intervention is indicated as per WHO protocol– consider destructive delivery rather than CS .MANAGEMENT OF LABOUR IN SPECIAL CASES cont 4.

Previous scar  2 previous CS or classical CS → immediate CS  Otherwise use WHO protocol but do not use oxytocin  Reaching the action line usually an indication for CS .MANAGEMENT OF LABOUR IN SPECIAL CASES cont 5.

SUMMARY Proper use of partogram is associated with prevention of abnormalities of labour as associated complications and consequently reduction of both maternal and perinatal mortalities and morbidities .