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SAMEER GUPTA

Transmission Line
Def. A transmission line basically consists of 2 or more
parallel conductors used to connect a source to a load.
What is a transmission line?

Uniform transmission line is one which has its electrical


parameters remaining constant along its length of the line.
In which voltage to current ratio does not vary with distance if
the line is terminated in its characteristics impedance.
Electrical parameters of lines are R-L-C-G (ResistanceInductance-Capacitance-Conductance).
These parameters are defined per unit length of the conductor
and are called Primary constants of the line.

Uses of Transmission lines:-

To transfer the energy or signal or power from the


transmitter to the receiver.
It acts as communication media.
In most cases, transmission lines are metallic
conductors.
Few e.g. of Transmission lines are: Parallel wires
Twisted pair wires
Ribbon type
Co-axial cables
Micro-strip lines
Wave guides

REASONS FOR AC GENERATION AND TRANSMISSION

Due to ease of transformation of voltage levels and rough collector


cage motors, ALTERNATING CURRENT is universally utilised. Both
for GENERATION and LOADS and hence for TRANSMISSION.
Generators are at distant places, away from the populated areas i.e.
the load centers
They are either PIT HEAD THERMAL or HYDEL
Turbines drive synchronous generators giving an output at 15-25
kV.
To reach the loads at homes/industry at required safe levels,
transformers step down voltage.

COMPARISION OF HVAC & HVDC SYSTEMS


CONVENTIONALLY POWER TRANSMISSION IS EFFECTED
THROUGH HVAC SYSTEMS ALL OVER THE WORLD.

HVAC TRANSMISSION IS HAVING SEVER LIMITATIONS LIKE


LINE LENGTH , UNCONTROLLED POWER FLOW, OVER/LOW
VOLTAGES

DURING

LIGHTLY

OVER

LOADED

CONDITIONS,STABILITY PROBLEMS,FAULT ISOLATION ETC

CONSIDERING THE DISADVANTAGES OF HVAC SYSTEM


AND THE ADVANTAGES OF HVDC TRANSMISSION ,
POWERGRID HAS CHOOSEN HVDC TRANSMISSION FOR
TRANSFERRING 2000 MW FROM ER TO SR

ADVANTAGES OF HVDC OVER HVAC


TRANSMISSION

COST: AC vs DC
Transmission
Line Cost AC

Line Cost DC

Terminal Cost DC
Terminal Cost AC
Break Even Distance

HVDC IN INDIA
Back-to-Back
HVDC LINK CONNECTING CAPACITY
REGION
(MW)
Vindyachal

North West

2 x 250

Chandrapur

West South

2 x 500

Vizag I

East South

500

Sasaram

East North

500

Vizag II

East South

500

BASIC PRINCIPLES
OF
HVDC TRANSMISSION

USE OF DC
Direct current is put to use in common life for driving our
portable devices, UPSs, battery systems and vastly in railway
locomotives.

DC AS A MEANS OF TRANSMISSION
This has been possible with beginning of

High power/ high current capability thyristor.


&
Fast acting computerized controls

If DC is required to be used for transmission


&
since our primary source of power is A.C,

The following are three basic steps:1. Convert AC into DC (rectifier)


2. Transmit DC
3. Convert DC into AC ( inverter)