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Chapter 1

Theories of Development

Theories of Development

What do you think


would be an
interesting question
regarding a childs
development?

Theories of Development Question


Do

early attachment
experiences during infancy
play a role on the adolescent
years?

Why

or why not? When and


how? So what?

Theories of Development

Developmental researchers use theories


to understand their observations/ collected
information.

Developmental science provides a


framework to understand what has been
observed. Helps understand particular
patterns of development through the life
span. How can we explain different
developmental problems? Helps
understand changes in individuals

Psychoanalytic Theory

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

Dreams and fantasies

Stages characterized by sexual pleasure


centered on a particular part of the body.

Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, and Genital


stages

Sensual satisfaction major


developmental needs and challenges.

Conflicts determine personality


patterns.

Psychoanalytic Theory
Through

these series of stages,


individual deals with different
conflicts.
Biological drives vs. social
expectations
Resolution ability to learn, get
along with others, and cope with
anxiety.

Psychosocial Theory

Erik Erikson (1902 1994)

Follower and based his theory off of


Sigmund Freud.

Interested in cultural diversity, social


change and psychological crises. How did
social factors play a role on childs
development?

Eight developmental stages. Challenging


developmental crisis. Two polarities.

Psychosocial Theory
Trust

vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Integrity vs. Despair.

Psychosocial Theory
Emphasized

culture.

role of family and

Believed

that current problems


were due to not resolving conflicts
during childhood.

Conflicts/crisis

due to interaction
between individual and social
environment which is constructed
by family and culture.

Social Learning Theory


Humans

learn from observing others.


Do not need to experience
reinforcement or punishment.
Humans are social beings.
Modeling observes and copies the
actions of others.
Relationship between the modeler and
model. Is there an interest in the
task? Who is model?

Cognitive- Developmental Theory


Jean

Piaget (1896 1980)

Thoughts,

memory, information
processing, mental processes,
language, and affect etc

Children

actively construct
knowledge as they manipulate and
explore the world. What do
children use and how?

Cognitive- Developmental
Theory

Humans

aim to achieve cognitive


equilibrium state of mental balance.
Use what know from the past to
understand current experiences.

Four

major period/stages
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete
operational, and formal operations.
Each period includes particular way
individual thinks and acts.

Socio-cultural Theory
Lev

Vygotsky (1896 1934)


How do you put the baby to sleep?
Interaction between person and
society.
Culture beliefs, customs, skills of
a social group
Answer may be based on cultural
beliefs. Tools and theories.

Ecological Systems Approach


(Bronfenbrenner) child develops within a
complex system of relationships affected by
an environment that has multiple levels.
Microsystem immediate surroundings
Mesosystem connections between
microsystems: home, school, neighborhood.
Exosystem social settings that do not
directly contain children but are influential.
Macrosystem cultural values, laws,
customs and resources.

Observation
Naturalistic
Structured
Self Report
Structured Interview
Clinical interview flexible conversation
Ethnography
Understanding a culture or social group
through in-depth method/observation.
Months of participating in daily life.

Correlational Design
Studying natural life
circumstances. No alterations.
Positive
Negative
CORRELATION DOES NOT
MEAN CAUSATION!!!!

Correlation does not mean


causation
https://www.youtube.com/watch?

v=FYNW_7gugrw

Experiment
Understand cause and
effect
Independent Variable
(cause)
Dependent Variable (effect)

Cross

Sectional - 18 vs. 80
year olds

Longitudinal

- 18 wait
62 years 80 year olds

Ethics in Research on Children


Why

is ethical research important


especially with children as
participants?
Institutional Review boards
balance the risks and benefits of a
study.
Informed consent specifically in
writing. What about the role of age?

Unethical Research
https://www.youtube.com/watch?

v=yi5RNp2XS3k

Chapter 2
Genetic and Environmental
Foundations

GENETIC COUNSELING
Counseling

process to help parents


evaluate their chances of giving birth to a
child with a hereditary disorder.
Choose the best course of action
Assess risks
Understand family goals
For those who have had difficulty bearing
children (ex: repeated miscarriages)
Who else would benefit from genetic
counseling?

PRENATAL DIAGNOSTIC METHODS


Testing

procedures to detect any


developmental problems before child is
born
Amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling,
fetoscopy, ultrasound, maternal blood
analysis, pre-implantation genetic
diagnosis
Procedures have led to the advancement of
fetal medicine. Can administer drugs to the
fetus, blood transfusions, or bone marrow
transplants. May result in complications
such as premature labor and miscarriages.
Parents still will to take the risk. What
advice would you give to families?

ADOPTION
Couples

who are infertile, may have a genetic


disorder or older and single but want a family
Couples who already have own children
Adoption agencies try to seek a good fit
between parents and children of the same
ethnic and religious background. Same age as
typical biological parents. Do you agree or
disagree?
Adopting children from other countries,
accepting children past infancy or who have
known developmental problems
How can an adoption agency tell if a family is
a good fit?

ADOPTION
http://youtu.be/wBraT8F4mQ0

Steps Prospective Parents Can Take Before


Conception to Increase the Chances of a
Healthy Baby
Recommendation
Arrange for a physical exam

Consider your genetic makeup

Reduce or eliminate toxins under your control

Ensure proper nutrition

Consult a physical after 12 months of unsuccessful


efforts at conception

Explanation
A physical exam before conception permits
detection of diseases and other medical problems
that might reduce fertility be difficult to treat during
pregnancy or affect the developing organism
Find out if anyone in your family has had a child with
a genetic disease or disability. If so, seek genetic
counseling before conception
Because the developing organism is highly sensitive
to damaging environmental agents during the early
weeks of pregnancy, couples trying to conceive
should avoid drugs, alcohol, cigarette smoke,
radiation, pollution, chemicals in the home and
work, and infectious diseases. Furthermore, stay
away from radiation and industrial chemicals that
are known to cause mutations.
A doctor recommended vitamin mineral supplement
begun before conception helps prevent many
prenatal problems. It should include folic acid, which
reduces the chances of neural tube defects,
prematurity and low birth weight.
Long periods of infertility may be due to genetic
defects in either partner. If a physical exam reveals
healthy reproductive system, seek genetic
counseling.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXTS FOR DEVELOPMENT


Family

Co-parenting: Parents mutually


supporting each others parenting
behaviors. Is this always mother
and father?
Divorce rate
https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=josZkNl34NM

STEP FAMILIES/STEP PARENTING


https://www.youtube.com/watch?

v=NkG1O0P-vMo

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXTS
FOR DEVELOPMENT
Socio-economic status and functioning
Factors that determine the person or
familys social position and economic wellbeing.
Along a continuum
Three factors (1) years of education;
(2) prestige of job and skill it requires
both of which measure social status; and
(3) income measures economic status.
Linked to timing of parenthood and family
size. Skilled and manual occupations more
like to marry and have children early and
have more children than people in
professional and technical occupations.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXTS
FOR DEVELOPMENT
Also

differ in child-rearing values and


expectations. Lower SES families want
child to be obedient, polite, neat and
clean. Higher SES families want child to
be curious, happy, self-directed and
cognitive/social maturity.

High

SES: talk to, read to, and


stimulate infants and preschoolers more
and give them more time to explore. To
older children more warmth,
explanations, and verbal praise. Set
higher academic and other
developmental goals and allow their
children to make more decisions.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXTS FOR


DEVELOPMENT
Affluence/Poverty

Joblessness how do you think the


role of the current economic
recession plays on parenting and a
childs development?

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXTS FOR


DEVELOPMENT
Neighborhoods

Resources and social ties that play an


important part of a childs development
Physical, mental health and school
achievement why?
Schools 6 hrs a day, 5 days a week, 36
weeks per year = 14,000 hrs on average
before high school graduation. A social
system that is varying in educational
philosophies, environment, student body size,
number of students per class,
student/teacher ratio. Variability in students
demographics and parent-teacher
relationships.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXTS FOR


DEVELOPMENT
Cultural

Values and Practices


Extended family households: parent and child
live with one or more adult relatives
Collectivist society: people define themselves
as part of a group and stress group over
individualistic goals.
Individualistic society: people think of
themselves as separate entities and are largely
concerned with their own personal needs.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXTS FOR


DEVELOPMENT
Public

policies
Laws and government programs
designed to improve current
conditions (low-cost housing,
increase welfare benefits, providing
schools with more tax money

SECRET OF THE WILD CHILD


GENIE
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dEnkY2iaKis
http://www.youtube.com/watch?

v=jqqanfbK1H0&NR

What
What

do you think of the video clip?

would you say is the cause of


Genies developmental delays: nature or
nurture?