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Lightning Protection
An Essential Risk
Management Element

Statistical Data on
Insurance Claims

Source: NLSI, USA

World Thunderstorm Days

Indonesia ~ 160 Thunderstorm Days

US National Space & Science


Technology Centre
Two instruments were
used to gather data for
the aerial map. The
Optical Transient
detector was launched
aboard NASA's Microlab
satellite in 1995 and the
Lightning Imaging
Sensor is fitted to a joint
NASA-Japan satellite
launched in 1997 to
measure tropical rainfall
levels.

The sensors gathered lightning


data over periods of five and
three years respectively.

Lightning Strikes

Lightning Strikes

Lightning Strikes

Typical formation of
Lightning - Step 1
Negative electrical
charges build up
within clouds

Electric field

intensification

Positive charges

gather on ground

Air breakdown leads


to stepped leader

Typical formation of
Lightning - Step 2
Continuation of

downward step leader

Further

electric field
intensification

Strong upward

positive streamer
generation

Streamer racing

towards downward
step leader

Typical formation of
Lightning - Step 3
Positive upward

streamer meets the


downward step leader

Conducting path forms


Potential is equalised
by the "return stroke"

Visible lightning flash

Lightning
Strike
Main Discharge
Step Leaders

Streamers

National Geographic July 1993

Typical characteristics of
Lightning Pulse
Typical
50 kA

LONG TAIL

=> flow
HIGH VOLTAGE
di & dv
dt
dt
VERY FAST
RISE TIME

=> fhigh

HIGH ENERGY

Typical Lightning Strike

How Transients enter your


Equipment

Capacitive
coupling is where
the transient voltage
is coupled due to the
inherent capacitance
between two circuits

Magnetic coupling
occurs when magnetic
field of a current
carrying conductor
induces lightning
current on to an
adjacent conductor

Galvanic
coupling is a
direct electrical
connection

Direct Lightning Damage

Direct Lightning Damage

Transient Damage

Transient Damage

LPIs 4 Step Approach

Risk Assessment
Many standards have essential risk assessment
methods
AS1768
IEC61024
NF C 17-102

LPI Step 1

Definition and Provision of Area


Protection

Conventional Methods

ROLLING SPHERE
CONE OF PROTECTION

Electrical Field Modelling


Originally developed by AJ
Ericksson
LPI CAD software forms
three dimensional
representation of the
structure to be protected
and the air terminals to
be used.
Based on this
representation the
software determines if
protection is achieved to
the required level of risk.

Electric Field Modelling

B u ild in g S trik in g
D is t a n c e S u r f a c e

Te rm in a l S t rik in g
D is ta n c e S u rf a c e

Striking distance is
influenced by geometry
and dimensions such as
height, width, radius and
altitude all have effect.
Corners and edges cause
an up-leader to be
launched when the downleader is at a greater
distance than flat
surfaces.
This striking distance is
calculated for all
directions from the
terminal and from the
structure resulting in two
surfaces.

Electric Field Modelling

D o w n - Le a d e r
Te rm in a l S trik in g
D is ta n c e S u rf a c e

x
y
z
B u ild in g S trik in g
D is t a n c e S u r f a c e

The software
determines if
coverage is
successfully
achieved based on
the relative
distances between
the surfaces and
typical leader
velocities based on
the site & location
conditions

LPI GuardianTerminals

LPI Guardian Terminals

LPI Guardian Terminals

LPI Guardian Terminals

Finial with blunt tip


A triggering procedure
floating
Electrically
medium consisting of 4
electrically isolated
panels

voltage
High
connection at the base

CAT Air Terminal

Re-acts to Atmospheric Changes


Corona Reducing Terminal
Controlled Streamer Emission
Due to the geometric shape and Controlled Advanced
Triggering procedure, the LPI Guardian reliably ensures
a timely launch of an upward leader, into an electric
field conducive to continual propagation

Lab Tests of CAT Terminals

All critical components of LPI Guardian System 5


has under gone independent Tests carried out in
accordance with IEC 60-1 standards.

IEC Test Certificate

Test Certificate issued by


The University of
Tasmania, Australia

Central Plaza - Hong Kong

Height of building:
370m - 78 storeys
Lightning Protection Terminal:
LPI Guardian CAT III
Year of Installation:
2006

LPI HVSC Downconductor


L
Z0 C

LPI HVSC

Characteristics of HVSC
Description
Concentric conductor
- Nominal cross-section
- No. / diameter of wire
Cable diameter
Electrical Characteristics
- DC. Resistance of
conductor
- DC. Resistance of screen
- Insulation resistance

Technical Data
50 mm
34 / 1.38 mm
37 mm
0.387 /km
0.448 /km
1,890 M-km

Benefits of HVSC

Reduced risk of side flashing


Selection of route to ground
Single Earth System
Bonding of building not required
Most of energy contained in core
Relatively easy to retrofit
Reduced induction to nearby
electronic equipment

LPI Step 2

Creation of a Bonded Earthing


System

Why Grounding?

By CODE Required
Personnel Safety ( Touch and step potential)
Protection (Operate over current
Equipment
device during a ground fault 50/60Hz event)
Lightning Dissipation (5kHz - 50kHz)
Electro-Static Discharge (ESD)
Noise Control (Computer Grounding)

Objective of Lightning
Protection Earth

To dissipate the
lightning energy with
minimum voltage rise
that may affect people
or equipment

Earth Potential Rise

Consider only R
Earth
rise:potential
V =IxR
= 50 000 x
10
= 500 kV

Earthing
Lightning Frequency: 5 50KHz

SHUNT CONDUCTANCE G
is related to soil conductivity p
and contact resistance

CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE
Z0 =

R+jwL
G+jwC

We want: Z low = R low, L low, C high

Lightning Strike to Ground

Types of Lightning Earth

Earthing System
Combination of
horizontal strip
and
vertical rods
- Linea
- Radial
Optimum spacing
L>2xD

LPI GRIP with


Radius Conductors

LPI GRIP with Earth


Rods

Exothermic Welding

Why LPI Exoweld


Welding?
Permanent bonding and eliminates
joints
Bonding at over 2,000 C
Any type of connection is possible
No corrosion and bonding of different
metals are possible
Easy, fast and safe to use
Cost effective solution

LPI Step 3

Protection of Power Lines

Consequences of
Unprotected System
Electrical Hazards

Unsafe for staff


Equipment damage
Fire

Operational Issues

System

downtime
Loss of data
Data corruption

Result = Loss of Revenue

Types of Power Problems

Surges and transients over voltages


Temporary over and under voltages
Brown-outs / black-outs
Frequency variations
LPI offers solutions to
ALL above problems

Types of Power Line


Protection
SHUNT
PROTECTION

SERIES
PROTECTION

Also known as

Also known as

PARALLEL PROTECTION

SURGE FILTER

LPI Shunt Protection


High let-through voltage
Wavefront unaltered
(very sharp and large)

Energy diversion only


Point of entry protection
Ideal for robust
equipment (Air-con,
pumps, motors etc)

Not based on load


current

LPI Shunt Products

LPI Series Protection


Low let-through voltage
Wavefront slowed (low)
Energy diverted and filtered
Poor power conditions
Based on load current
Vital for sensitive electronics
Fine protection
Common & differential mode

LPI Series Filter

Applied Pulse 6kV 1.2/50s, 3kA


8/20s

LPI Series Filter

Typical 3Ph Filter Circuit

LPI 3Ph Filter

LPI Also Offers

Over and Under Voltage Disconnect


Voltage Regulators
Voltage Stabilizers (Servo Controlled)
UPS through reputed manufactures
Rectifiers
Sealed Maintenance Batteries

LPI Step 4

Protection of Signal, Data, RF and


Communications Lines

LPI Signal, Data


Comms & RF

Data Line Protection for LAN, WAN,


Serial Port & RJ45

Signal Line Protection (6v up to


150vdc)

Levels, Pressure etc typical 4-20mA

Comms Analogue, ISDN & ADSL

LPI Signal, Data & Comms

LPI Installations

LPI Installations

LPI Installations

Thank You for Your Attention


For any further details, kindly contact your local LPI
authorized distributor or LPI Australia:

Paul Hollingsworth
CEO

Lightning Protection International Pty Ltd


16 Mertonvale Circuit,
Kingston, Tasmania 7050, Australia
Phone: +61 3 6227 1944
Fax:
+61 3 6229 1900
Email: phollingsworth@lpi.com.au
Web: www.lpi.com.au