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Project Management in Practice ISV

Fourth Edition
2-1

Mantel, Meredith, Shafer, and Sutton


Prepared by
Scott M. Shafer,
Updated by
William E. Matthews and
Thomas G. Roberts,
William Paterson University

John Wiley and Sons, Inc.


Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Project Managers Roles


2-2

Manager-as-facilitator versus manager as supervisor


Use of a systems approach as opposed to an
analytical approach
sub-optimization
Avoid micromanagement

micromanagement

is a management style whereby a


manager closely observes or controls the work of
subordinates or employees. Micromanagement generally has
a negative implication

Communicate ensure that project team members


have appropriate knowledge and resources

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Supervisor
2-3

An employee is a supervisor if he has the power and authority to


do the following actions:
Give instructions and/or orders to subordinates.
Be held responsible for the work and actions of other
employees.
If an employee cannot do the above, legally he or she is
probably not a supervisor, but in some other category, such as
lead hand.
A supervisor is first and foremost an overseer whose main
responsibility is to ensure that a group of subordinates get out
the assigned amount of production, when they are supposed to
do it and within acceptable levels of quality, costs and safety.
Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Supervisor..
2-4

A supervisor is responsible for the productivity and

actions of a small group of employees. The


supervisor has several manager-like roles,
responsibilities, and powers. Two of the key
differences between a supervisor and a manager are
(1) the supervisor does not typically have "hire and
fire" authority, and (2) the supervisor does not have
budget authority.
As a member of management, a supervisor's main
job is more concerned with arranging and
controlling work rather than performing it directly.
Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Facilitator
2-5

The facilitator's job is to support everyone to do their best thinking


and practice. To do this, the facilitator encourages full
participation, promotes mutual understanding and promotes shared
responsibility. By supporting everyone to do their best thinking, a
facilitator enables group members to search for inclusive solutions
and build sustainable agreements.
So, facilitators necessarily require authority to chair a meeting.

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

2-6

Teacher is one whose occupation is to instruct,


Supervisor is an administrative officer in charge of a business, government, or
school unit or operation,
Manager is a person who conducts business or household affairs; a person who
directs a team,
Facilitator is one that helps to bring about an outcome (as learning,
productivity, or communication) by providing indirect or unobtrusive
assistance, guidance, or supervision.

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Manager as Communicator
2-7

Communication paths between a projects


parties-at-interest
Senior
Management

Client

Manager

Outside
Interested
Parties

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Project Team

Virtual Project Manager


2-8

Geographically dispersed projects


Communication via

email
web
telephone
video conferencing

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Project Managers Golden Rule


2-9

Never

let the boss be surprised.

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Project Managers Responsibilities to the Project


2-10

Acquiring resources

getting necessary quantity and quality can be


key challenges

Fighting fires and obstacles


Leadership and making trade-offs

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Essential Skills of Project Manager


2-11

Ability to:
negotiate
resolve conflicts
persuade
avoid irrational optimism

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Characteristics of a Successful Project Manager


2-12

Credibility he/she is believable

technical credibility
administrative credibility

Sensitivity - politically smart and aware

of interpersonal conflict
Leadership, Style, Ethics able to
direct project in an ethical manner
Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Growing Importance of Multicultural Projects


2-13

Project managers have to be aware of cultural

differences between countries


Common practice in one country may be illegal in
another

Paying a government official to fast track an approval,


leaving out obvious information in a bid, inviting a client to
dinner, etc.
Project managers have to be trained to the highest ethical
standards

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Project Management As A Profession


2-14

Project Management Institute (PMI) is


a project-oriented organization with
more than 300,000 members
worldwide
PMI publishes The Project
Management Body of Knowledge
(PMBOK)

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Factors Increasing The Importance of Projects


2-15

Importance of time-to-market
Need for specialized knowledge
from
a variety of areas
Explosive rate of technological change
Need for responsibility and control
Rapid growth of globalized industry

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

The Pure Project Organization


2-16

President

Project Manager

Manager
Project A

Manager
Project B

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

VP Marketing

VP
Manufacturing

Marketing
Manufacturing
R&D
Human Resources
Marketing
Manufacturing
R&D
Human Resources

VP
R&D

The Pure Project Organization


2-17

Advantages
effective and efficient for large projects
resources available as needed
broad range of specialists
short lines of communication

Drawbacks

expensive for small projects


specialists may have limited technological depth
may require high levels of duplication for certain
specialties
Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Functional Project Organization


2-18

President

Manufacturing

Marketing

Project

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

R&D

Human Resources

Finance

The Functional Project Organization


2-19

Advantages

technological depth

Drawbacks

lines of communication outside functional


department can be slow
technological breadth (extent or range) can be
missing
project rarely given high priority

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Matrix Project Organization


2-20

President

Program
Manager

Manufacturin
g

Marketing

Finance

Human
Resources

R&D

PM1

PM2

PM3

1/2

1/2

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Matrix Project Organization


2-21

Advantages
flexibility in way it can interface with parent organization
strong focus on the project itself
contact with functional groups minimizes projectitis: This
occurs when the project manager and the project team develop
a strong attachment to the project
ability to manage fundamental trade-offs across several
projects
Drawbacks
violation of the unity of command principle
complexity of managing the organizations full set of projects
Intra-team conflict mistakes in redirecting the team
members
Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Matrix Team Problems


2-22

The smaller the project, the more likely it is


to be organized as a weak (functional) matrix.
As a result:

PM may have no direct reports


his/her ability to communicate directly with
team members will be critical
important to maintain good morale since
team loyalty may be limited
a project war room may be helpful
Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Causes of Intrateam Conflict


2-23

Life cycle phase conflicts vary with the


different stages of the project
Name-only team in which individuals
work essentially independently
Interpersonal conflict which tends to
impact on the ways groups work together

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Mixed Project Organization


2-24

President

Project
M

Finance

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Engineering

Project
Z

Manufacturing

Project Management Offices


2-25

There can be several different types of PMOs

in large firms with different and


sometimes overlapping areas of operations
CPMO (corporate project management office)
EPMO (enterprise project management office)

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Characteristics of Effective Project Team Members


2-26

Team members must be/have:

technically competent
politically sensitive
problem oriented
goal oriented
high self-esteem (confidence)

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Copyright
2-27

Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


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