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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

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Siddharth Jain
Raghavi Aggarwal
Chirutha Kalra

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INDEX

Meaning
History
Advantages
Applications In Business
Major Breakthroughs
Intelligent Personal Assistant
Siri And Cortana
How Virtual Assistant Works?
Autonomous Cars
The Good Chauffeur
Working Of Google's SDC
Humanoid
Asimo And Its Features
R&D In AI
Google's Deep Mind
IBM's Watson For Healthcare
Drawbacks
AI In Defence
Other Fears

Meaning
The theory and development of computer
systems able to perform tasks normally
requiring human intelligence, such as
visual perception, speech recognition,
decision-making, and translation between
languages.
The term was coined in 1956 by John
McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology.

HISTORY

ADVANTAGES
Can take on stressful and complex work that
humans may struggle/can not do.
Can complete task faster than a human can
most likely
To discover unexplored things. i.e. outer space
Less errors and defects
Function is infinite
No risk of harm
Increase Our Technological Growth Rate

APPLICATIONS IN BUSINESS

Medical Diagnosis
Stock Trading
Robot Control
Remote Sensing
Scientific Discovery
Smart Toys
Banks
Game Playing
Speech Recognition

Major breakthroughs
For almost 60 years, Artificial intelligence
researchers have predicted that AI is right
around the corner, yet until a few years ago it
seemed as stuck in the future as ever. There
was even a term coined to describe this era of
meagre results and even more such research
finding: The AI winter.
Has anything really changed?
Yes. recent breakthroughs have unleashed the
long-awaited arrival of artificial intelligence

Intelligent Personal Assistant


Anintelligent personal assistantis
asoftware agentthat can perform tasks or
services for an individual. These tasks or
services are based on user input, location
awareness, and the ability to access
information from a variety of online sources
(such as weather or traffic conditions, news,
stock prices, user schedules, retail prices,
etc.). Examples of such an agent
areApple'sSiri,Google'sGoogle
Now,Amazon
Echo,Microsoft'sCortana,Braina(applicatio
n developed by Brainasoft forMicrosoft
Windows),Samsung'sS Voice,LG'sVoice
Mate,BlackBerry'sSILVIA,HTC's Hidi,

Siri and Cortana


In the world of smartphones, most of the devices are now
equipped with virtual voice assistant with Siri and Cortana
being the most prominent. Made by Apple and Microsoft
respectively, the virtual assistants are able to do thetasks only
with the voice commands.
Cortanais the name for the intelligent personal assistant and
knowledge navigator for Windows Phone 8.1 and Windows
10.Cortanabuilds off Microsoft's previous voice technology
called TellMe, purchased by Microsoft in 2009.Cortana has
passive voice listening capabilities, it allows hands-free access
to the assistant. All you need to say is Hey Cortanato fire your
query.
Siriis a built-in "intelligent assistant" that enables users of
Apple iPhone 4S and later and newer iPad and iPod Touch

How Virtual Assistant Works?


The sounds of the speech are immediately
encoded into a compact digital form that
preserves its information.
The signal from the connected phone was
relayed wirelessly to your Internet Service
Provider where it then communicated with a
server in the cloud.
Simultaneously, speech was evaluated
locally, on device. A recognizer installed on
your phone communicates with that server
in the cloud to see whether the command
can be best handled locally or if it must
connect to the network .
The speech is now understood and
estimated of what words the speech is
comprised of.
The computer then creates a candidate list
of interpretations for what the sequence of

Autonomous cars
Anautonomous car, also known as adriverless car,self-driving
carandrobotic car, is a vehiclecapable of fulfilling the main
transportation capabilities of a traditional car. As an autonomous
vehicle, it is capable of sensing its environment and navigating
without human input. Robotic cars exist mainly as prototypes and
demonstration systems. As of 2014, the only self-driving vehicles
that are commercially available are open-air shuttles for pedestrian
zones that operate at 20.1km/h
Autonomous vehicles sense their surroundings with such techniques
asradar,lidar, GPS, andcomputer vision. Advanced control systems
interpret sensory information to identify appropriate navigation
paths, as well as obstacles and relevant signage. Autonomous
vehicles are capable ofupdating their maps based on sensory input,
allowing the vehicles to keep track of their position even when
conditions change or when they enter uncharted environments.

The Google Chauffeur


TheGoogle Self-Driving Car, commonly abbreviated as SDC, is a
project byGoogle X that involves developing technology
forautonomous cars, mainlyelectric cars. The software powering
Google's cars is called Google Chauffeur. Lettering on the side of
each car identifies it as a "self-driving car". The project is currently
being led by Google engineerSebastian Thrun, former director of
theStanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratoryand co-inventor
ofGoogle Street View.
In May 2014, Google presented a new concept for their driverless
car that had neither a steering wheel nor pedals, and unveiled a
fully functioning prototype in December of that year that they
planned to test onSan Francisco Bay Arearoads beginning in
2015.Google plans to make these cars available to the public in
2020.

Working of Googles SDC


The car processes both map and
sensor information to determine
where it is in the world. The car
knows what street it's on and
which lane it's in.
Sensors help detect objects all
around us. The software
classifies objects based on their
size, shape and movement
pattern.
The software predicts what all
the objects around us might do
next.

Humanoid Robots
Ahumanoid robotis arobotwith its body shape built
to resemble that of thehuman body. A humanoid
design might be for functional purposes, such as
interacting with human tools and environments, for
experimental purposes, such as the study ofbipedal
locomotion, or for other purposes. Androidsare
humanoid robots built to aesthetically resemble
humans.
Humanoid robots are used as a research tool in
several scientific areas, they are being developed to
perform human tasks like personal assistance, where
they should be able to assist the sick and elderly, and
dirty or dangerous jobs. Regular jobs like being a
receptionist or a worker of an automotive
manufacturing line are also suitable for humanoids.
In essence, since they can use tools and operate
equipment and vehicles designed for the human
form.

Humanoid Robot Project


TheHumanoid Robotics Project(HRP) is a project for
development of general domestic helper robots, sponsored
byJapan'sMinistry of Economy, Trade and Industry(METI)
andNew Energy and Industrial Technology Development
Organization(NEDO), spearheaded byKawada Industriesand
supported by theNational Institute of Advanced Industrial
Science and Technology(AIST) andKawasaki Heavy Industries,
Inc. The HRP series also goes by the name Promet.
The project started with threeHonda P3which were bought
fromHonda.And, the project developed them as the HRP-1 with
original features, such asa tele-commandsystem.
Currently, they are working on HRP-4,it is a life-size "platform for
research and development of working humanoid robots"
.Incorporating to the external design the "slim athlete" concept
pursuing affinity with humans. HRP-4 has achieved the new,
light-weighted and slim body while succeeding the concept of the

ASIMO and Its Features


ASIMO (Advanced Step in Innovative
Mobility)is the culmination of two decades of
humanoid robotics research by Honda
engineers.
Honda has unveiled a new version of ASIMO
that understands human gestures and
movements.
Capable of following the moves of nearby
people.
It uses a camera to recognize ten different
preprogrammed faces and respond with a
vocal welcome.
It can use common sense in the new
environment.
It has the ability to take decisions.

Research and Development


in
Artificial Intelligence

In todays technologically driven age, Artificial


Intelligence is highly esteemed amongst the top
business groups. Top notch companies
worldwide are investing heavily in AI.

Googles DeepMind
Google acquired DeepMind led by Demis
Hassabis for $628 million.
It is a startup that uses the techniques of
Deep Learning to process data through a
network of layered neurons.
Its technology can be used to optimise
Googles search engine, YouTubes
recommendations software and even robotics.
In the coming era it can revolutionise the role
that computers play in the lives of humans.

Facebook hired LeCun, a master of Machine Learning


to run this research group.
DeepFace is an algorithm in which facebook has
invested heavily to facilitate the recognition of
individual human faces.

Through this it will be able to recognise images and


faces without any heavy programming.

IBMs Watson for Healthcare:


Deep learning also
has applications in
medicine to identify
and cure ailments.
IBM acquired Merge
to bring access to
image archives and
30 billion MRIs from
hospitals for
ushering an era of
computer-assisted
care.

This technique requires huge amounts of


data. The more you feed them, the smarter
they get.

IBM also acquired Phytel Inc. and Explorys


Inc., which yielded 50 million medical records
to extract and decipher.

Drawbacks:
AI is integrated with number-crunching
force and lacks in approximating how
desires and autonomy in human minds work.
Computers are far from attaining the smooth
ability to decipher and take action in unexpected
circumstances and emergency.
For example: Googles software cant use social cues like
eye contact or waving to other drivers and pedestrians
as
a human driver might to clear up a misunderstanding.

The development of full artificial intelligence could


spell the end
of the human race, Stephen Hawking warns.
Elon Musk fears that the development of artificial
intelligence,
or AI, may be the biggest existential threat humanity
faces.
Bill Gates urges people to beware of it.
- The Economist

Technological Singularity:
A hypothetical event where smart machines design
successive generations of increasingly powerful
machines, creating intelligence far exceeding human
intellectual capacity and control.
The technological singularity is the point beyond
which events may become unpredictable or even
unfathomable to human intelligence. This may prove
to become a doomsday for humanity.

AI in Defence:
An open letter was signed by
leading scientists and
technologists calling for a ban
on lethal weapons controlled
by artificially intelligent
machines
Fears of making killing more
efficient, and less
accountable, both on the
battlefield and off.
The signatories included
prominent scientists and
entrepreneurs like Elon Musk,
Stephen Hawking, and Steve
Wozniak.

Other fears:
Our instincts about privacy must change now that
machines can decipher images.
Our personal data could be used to create intelligent
digital doppelgangers with a kind of life of their own.
Although intelligent software could never be conscious,
it could still harm us if not designed correctly.
The capacity to monitor billions of conversations and to
pick out every citizen from the crowd by his voice or her
face poses grave threats to liberty.