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SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY (SCT)

&
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION (SLA)

Topics to present
1. Language in SCT
2. The methodology of sociocultural research
3. Key constructs in SCT SLA
4. Activity theory
5. SLA studies based on SCT
6. Discussion in SLA : SCT perspective

1. Language in SCT
Language a semiotic tool to achieve someones goal in the context of
social living
THEREFORE
Studying semantic properties is important in SLA SCT rather than studying
formal properties of language, such as: syntax and grammar (Ellis p. 519).
An example of semantic properties - Mr Smith pushing a machine accross his
lawn

2. The methodology of sociocultural research

SLA researchers has


adopted the vygotskian
tradition

PHYLOGENESIS

how the human species has


evolved

SOCIOCULTURAL
HISTORY

how a particular culture


has developed over time

ONTOGENESIS

a lifelong human
development in the context
of SLA

MICROGENESIS

changes that occur in a


relatively short time after
having particular
interaction in sociocultural
setting

GENETIC METHOD

Ellis p. 521

2. The methodology of sociocultural research

SLA researchers has


adopted the vygotskian
tradition

PHYLOGENESIS

how the human species has


evolved

SOCIOCULTURAL
HISTORY

how a particular culture


has developed over time

ONTOGENESIS

a lifelong human
development in the context
of SLA

MICROGENESIS

changes that occur in a


relatively short time after
having particular
interaction in sociocultural
setting

GENETIC METHOD

Ellis p. 521
The study on how corrective feedback assists the
internalization of linguistic form (i.e imitation) is
one of examples of microgenetic method.

3.1 Key constructs in SCT SLA mediated learning


Vygotskys model of mediated action (from lantolf and thorne 2006)

Artefact Concrete
(dictionary) or Symbolic
(language)

Subject - L2 learner

Object to read and


understand a text in the L2

3.2 Key constructs in SCT SLA mediation through social interaction

Mediation
through social
interaction

The generalist
approach

Scaffolding

Dynamic
assessment

Corrrective
feedback

3.3 Key constructs in SCT SLA mediation through private speech


Private speech is self
directed speech

Types of private speech


that might assist learning

Vicarious response

learner covertly answers a


question addressed to
another student; complete
utterance of other; repair
anothers error

Repetition

learner repeats words,


phrases, or sentence in
whole or in part to
internalize

Manipulation

L2 learner manipulates
sentence structure or words

3.4 Key constructs in SCT SLA the zone of proximal development

Three levels of
development

the actual developmental


level

learners are able to


complete the task
independently

the potential
developmental level

learners are able to finish


the task because of the
support of someone else
(adult, expert, or
collaboration with peers)

Other beyond learner

learner cannot do the task


even if assistance is
provided

3.4 Key constructs in SCT SLA the zone of proximal development

Three levels of
development

This is ZPD

the actual developmental


level

learners are able to


complete the task
independently

the potential
developmental level

learners are able to finish


the task because of the
support of someone else
(adult, expert, or
collaboration with peers)

Other beyond learner

learner cannot do the task


even if assistance is
provided

3.5 Key constructs in SCT SLA internalization


Learner use dictionary
to check every difficult
words in a reading text
- object regulation

The teacher instructs


learners in the strategy
of selective dictionary
use - other regulation

the learner able to vary


his/her use of the
dictionary; vocab or
comprehend the text
self regulation
INTERNALIZATION

Another definition - learners manifest new linguistic forms and


so functions in interaction with others and gradually internalize
them so they can use them independently

INTERNALIZATION

IMITATION

4. Activity theory

One student studies hard to


achieve high score
Task

Two students might


respond differently to the
task

Another student dilligently


studies to expand a
communcative skill as it is
needed for interpersonal
social needs

5. SLA studies based on SCT


SLA studies based on
SCT

Corrective feedback

Collaborative
dialoguing

Metatalk

First type example


clarify the task given
by teacher with other
students
Second type example
such metatalk arise
when students focus
on problem solving

Private speech

Task versus activity

Activity theory

6. Discussion in SLA: SCT perspective


1. L1 transfer - Mainstream SLA researchers have approached
language transfer in terms of how the L1 influence L2
2. L2 learning, by adults, involves the gradual internalization of
scientific explicit grammatical concepts which subsequently
become automized. Does young childrens L2 development follow
similar pattern?