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CHAPTER-4

Types of Communication
(1) There are several types of communication.
They may be viewed from several angles :
1. Based on Levels of Communication:
a. Intrapersonal Communication
b. Interpersonal! Inter-organizational
Communication
c. Small Group Communication
d. Mass Communication
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2. Based on Formalities being Followed:

a. Formal Communication
b. Informal Communication
3. Based on Direction of Communication:

a. External Communication
b. Internal Communication
c. Vertical Communication
d. Horizontal/ Lateral Communication
e. Diagonal Communication
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4. Based on Methods of Communication:


a. Written Communication
b. Oral Communication
c. Face-to-Face Communication

Brief description of each type follows:


1. Classification based on Level of Communication
(a) Intra personal Communication: Communication occurring within
an individual (with the self) is called intrapersonal communication. It
is also termed as self-communication and occurs when we think,
feel or act, as well as when we verbalize to ourselves. Forces behind
intrapersonal communication are stimuli that may be either

(i) internal (such as hunger) or (ii) external (such as mosquito bite)


to the human body.
(b) Interpersonal / Inter-organizational Communication: Process of
sending and receiving a message from one person to another or
from one organization to another organization.
(c) Small Group Communication: It happens when more than two
persons are involved in communicating a message among
themselves.
d) Ms Communication: Mass communication is a process through
which an individual, organization or government communicates with
the general people.
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Characteristics of Mass communication:


i. Vast boundaries
ii. Heterogeneous audience
iii. Professional communication
iv. Use of intermediary channel
v. Use of specialized technology
vi. Spreads rapidly
vii. Public massage

Objectives of Mass communication


The major objectives of mass communication are to:

(i) Inform the public


(ii) Achieve target
(iii) Create opinion
(iv) Convey public policy
(v) Face emergencies
(vi) Entertain
(vii) Implement educational program
(viii) Establish social contact
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Basic Functions of Mass Communication:

i. Informing
ii. Persuading
iii. Entertaining
iv, Educating

Preconditions For successful Mass Communication:

i. Thinking
ii. Understanding
iii. Consistency
iv. Follow up

Media of Mass Communication:


i. Traditional media Theatre, Drama, Jatra, etc.

ii. Print media- News paper, Journal, Book, Leaflet, etc.


iii. Electronic media- Radio, T.V. Telephone, Cinema slides, etc.
Agencies of Mass Communication:
The agencies that facilitate mass communication are:
i. Press associations BSS, ENA etc.
ii. Advertising agencies
iii. Public relations department of instititutions /organizations
iv. Public Information Ministry
v. Syndicates of reporters

2. Classification Based on Formalities in Communication:

a. Formal Communication: Communication taking place


between two formal positions on official ground.
b. Informal Communication: Communication on personal
ground.
Grapevine The Most Common Form of Informal
Communication:
It does not follow any set rules, any set lines, but
spreads like the grapevine in any direction, very fast.
Types of Grapevine:
i. Single strand
iv. Cluster chain
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3. Classification Based on Direction of


Communication:
External Communication: Communicating with anyone
outside the organization. Internal Communication:
Communicating within the same organization. Horizontal
Communication: Sending a message from one official to
another official having similar status.
Vertical Communication: Downward and upward.
(a) Downward Communication: Sending a message from
a superior to a subordinate.
(b) Upward Communication: Sending a message from a
subordinate to a superior.
(a) Downward Communication:
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Objectives of Downward
Communication:
i. To direct
ii. To interpret
iii. To give feedback of performance appraisal
iv. To delegate authority
v. To motivate
vi. To educate

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Forms of Downward Communication:


i. Letters/notices
ii. Manuals / circulars
iii. Bulletins
iv. Posters
v. Annual report
vi. Company periodicals
vii. Employee handbook
viii. Memos, etc.

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Advantages of Downward Communication:


i. Increases efficiency
ii. Helps maintain good relations
iii. Improves discipline
iv. Facilitates delegation of authority and interpretation
Limitations of Downward Communication:
i. Under-communication
ii. Loss of information
iii. Distortion
iv. Tendency towards autocracy
v. Low morale
vi. Emphasis on bosss interest

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Essentials of effective Downward Communication:

i. Adequate information
ii. Clear idea
iii. No by-passing
vi. Re-explanation
v. Decentralization
vi. Awareness about the receivers knowledge
vii. Willingness to make communication successful

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(b) Upward Communication:

Forms of upward communication:


i. Reports
ii. Suggestion boxes
iii. Open door policy
iv. Direct correspondence
v. Counseling
vi. Social gatherings
vii. Special meetings
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Advantages of Upward Communication:

i. Helps decision making


ii. Provides feedback
iii. Provides suggestion
iv. Creates motivation
v. Develops creativity
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Problems of Upward Communication:


i. Fear
ii. Lack of initiative
iii Non-responsive management
iv. Distortion
v. By-passing
vi. Reckless behavior of subordinates
vii. Flattery

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Essentials of Effective Upward Communication:

i. Understanding
ii. Encouraging subordinates to
communicate
iii. Participative management
iv. Confidence in subordinates
v. Short communication lines
vi. Initiative from superiors
vii. Redressal of grievances
viii. Reward for proper suggestions
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4. Classification Based on Methods of Communication

i. Written Communication
ii. Oral Communication
iii. Electronic Communication
[Elaborated in a separate chapter]

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THANK YOU

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