Você está na página 1de 62

Chapter # 03

Business Communication
and the Global Context

The reasonable person adapts himself to the


world, while the unreasonable one persists in
trying to adapt the world to himself

What is a culture?
Culture is the "lens" through
which you view the world.
It is central to what you see,
How you make sense of what you
see,
How you express yourself.

Overview
Background to Inter-cultural Communication
National cultural

Individual Cultural

Education

Time

Economics

Food

Religion

Manners

Language

Verbal and Non-Verbal

Variables

variables

Law and Regulations

Space

Politics

Acceptable dress

Social Norms

Decision making

Communication

INTERCULTURALCOMMUNICATION

Intercultural Communication is
of sending and receiving
between people whose cultural
could lead them to interpret
non-verbal signs differently.

the process
messages
background
verbal and

Background to Inter-cultural
Communication
Globalization: the process of increasing the

connectivity and interdependence of the world's


markets and businesses.
Therefore understanding others culture is very
important
You should also be familiar with your own
ethnic diversity

High Context and Low Context Cultures


High Context Culture:- Cultures that rely
heavily on non-verbal and subtle situational
cues in communication. Eg.Japan, China, and
Arab countries
Low Context Culture:- Cultures that rely
heavily on words to convey meaning in
communication. Eg. North America,
Scandinavia, and Germany.

Cultural Context
Low Context

High Context

Linear Logic

Spiral Logic

Direct

Indirect

Literal

Figurative

Action-oriented

Contemplative

Individualistic

Group-oriented

Selected Dimensions of Culture


Individualism
High-context cultures prefer group values,

duties, and decisions.


Low-context cultures tend to prefer

individual initiative, self-assertion, personal


achievement.

Selected Dimensions of Culture


Formality
Other cultures may prefer more

formality.
North Americans place less

emphasis on tradition, ceremony,


and social rules.

Selected Dimensions of Culture


Communication Style
High-context cultures rely on nonverbal cues

and the total picture to communicate.


Meanings are embedded at many social
levels.
Low-context cultures emphasize words,

straightforwardness, openness. People tend


to be informal, impatient, literal.

Selected Dimensions of Culture


Time Orientation
Time is unlimited and never-ending in some

cultures. Relaxed attitude toward time.


Time is precious to North Americans. It

correlates with productivity, efficiency, and


money.

High-Context and Low-Context


Cultures
High
Japanese
Arab
Latin American
Spanish
English
Italian
French
North American
Scandinavian
German
Swiss

Low

Cultural Contrasts in Written


Business Communication
American

Japanese

Arab

Cultural Provide
Objective information
s

Seek
information
, offer
proposal
Offer
thanks,
apologize
Pose
questions,
solicit
information

Exchange
information

Openin
g
Body

State
objective
directly
Present
facts and
plans of
action,
direct
approach

Ch. 3, Slide 15

Issue
personal
greeting
Provide
background
data, use
indirect
approach

Mary Ellen Guffey,


Business

Cultural Contrasts in Written


Business Communication
Persuasi
on tools
Style
Closing

Cultural
values

American

Japanese

Arab

Immediate
gain or loss
of
opportunity
Urgency,
short
sentences
Affirmative,
specific
requests

Waiting

Personal
connection,
future
opportunity
Elaborate
expression

Efficiency,
directness,
action

Ch. 3, Slide 16

Modesty,
minimize
position
Maintain
Future
harmony,
relationship
future
, personal
relationship greeting
Politeness,
Status,
indirectnes
continuatio
s,
n,
relationshipMaryrecognition
Ellen Guffey,
Business

Proverbs Reflect Culture


U.S. Proverbs
He who holds the gold

makes the rules.

Waste not, want not.


The early bird gets the

worm.

If at first you dont succeed,

try, try again.

Ch. 3, Slide 17

Mary Ellen Guffey,


Business

Proverbs Reflect Culture


Chinese Proverbs

A man who waits for a roast

duck to fly into his mouth must


wait a very, very long time.

A man who says it cannot be

done should not interrupt a man


doing it.

Give a man a fish, and he will

live a day; give him a net, and he


will live a lifetime.

Ch. 3, Slide 18

Mary Ellen Guffey,


Business

Proverbs Reflect Culture


Other Proverbs
No one is either rich or poor who has not helped

himself to be so. (German)

Words do not make flour. (Italian)


Wealth that comes in at the door unjustly, goes

out at the windows. (Egyptian)

Ch. 3, Slide 19

Mary Ellen Guffey,


Business

Comparative Management Focus:


Communicating with Arabs

Achieving Multicultural Sensitivity


Avoiding Ethnocentrism

Ethnocentrism is the belief that ones own


cultural background is superior to that of
others.
To overcome ethnocentrism,
Avoid assumptions
Avoid judgments

Comparing U.S. and Foreign


Views
How Many U.S. Persons View
Themselves

How Many Foreigners View U.S.


Persons

Informal, friendly, casual

Undisciplined, too personal

Egalitarian

Insensitive to status

Direct, aggressive

Blunt, rude, oppressive

Efficient

Opportunistic, obsessed with time

Goal- and achievement-oriented

Promise more than they deliver

Profit-oriented

Materialistic

Resourceful, ingenious

Deals more important than people

Individualistic, progressive

Self-absorbed

Dynamic, identify with work

Driven

Enthusiastic, prefer hard sell

Deceptive, fearsome

Open

Weak, untrustworthy

Cultural Difference
Behaviour

Attribution

American "How long will it take you to finish AmericanI asked him to participate.
this report?"
Greek
His behaviour makes no sense. He
is the boss. Why doesn't he tell
me?
Greek
"I don't know. How long should
AmericanHe refused to take responsibility.
take?"
Greek
I asked him for an order.
American "You are in the best position to
AmericanI press him to take responsibility
analyze time requirements."
for his actions.
Greek
What nonsense: I'd better give him
an answer.
Greek
"10 days."
AmericanHe lacks the ability to estimate
time; this time estimate is totally
inadequate.
American "Take 15. Is it agreed? You will do AmericanI offer a contract.
it in 15 days?"
Greek
These are my orders: 15 days.

Cultural Difference (cont.)


In fact, the report needed 30 days of regular work. So the Greek worked day and night,
but at the end of the 15th day, he still needed to do one more day's work.
Behaviour
American "Where is the report?"

Attribution

American I am making sure he fulfills his


contract.
Greek
He is asking for the report.
Greek
"It will be ready tomorrow."
(Both attribute that it is not ready.)
American "But we agreed it would be ready American I must teach him to fulfill a
today."
contract.
Greek
The stupid, incompetent boss! Not
only did he give me the wrong
orders, but he doesn't even
appreciate that I did a 30-day job
in 16 days.
The Greek hands in his resignation.
The American is surprised.
Greek
I can't work for such a man.

An Intercultural Communication
Model
We are more comfortable with familiar people

Basic human characteristics are common to all

For a Doctor, working of a human body is same

in America and Malaysia


Acts of walking, love for family, shaking hands
Core cultural values are close to being fixed
Learning the differences in moral and ethical
concepts of different ethnic groups is important

Intercultural Communication Model


A message encoded in one culture must be

decoded in another culture


Culture shapes the individual communicator
Different cultures lead to communication
difficulties
Through the study and understanding of IC,
we can overcome these difficulties

Intercultural Communication Model


Factors

There are other factors besides culture shaping the individual


People vary from each other within any one culture

Process

When a message reaches a culture where it is to be decoded, it

undergoes a transformation in which the influence of the decoding


culture becomes a part of the message meaning
The meaning content of the original message becomes modified
during the decoding phase of intercultural communication
BECAUSE
The decoder and the encoder possess different sets of cultural
meanings
"Have you had lunch?" (Politeness or invitation?)
"Where are you going?" (Showing concern or intruding into
privacy)

Variables
National Variables

Sender
Message

Individual Variables

Education

Time

Laws/Regulation

Space

Economics

Food

Politics

Receiver

Dress

Social Norms

Message

Manners

Language

Decision Making

Religion
Cultural Overlapping Variables

Cultural Overlap

Cultural Similarities and


Dissimilarities

National Cultural Variables

National Cultural Variables


These are the MACRO or global constraints
Education
Law and Regulations
Economics
Politics

Religion

Social Norms
Language

Education
You should be aware of the education level of

the person you are speaking to.


Management education is more prevalent in
U.S.
Some countries have no academic courses in
communication training
E.g. China
Go beyond your initial inferences and
assumptions before concluding anything

Education
Education Levels of Chinese, Asian and U.S Mangers
Highest level of
education

Chinese %

Asian %

U.S %

Less than high


school

5.4

2.5

0.1

High school
graduate

31.8

12.4

3.2

Some college

34.6

19.4

16.9

Undergraduate
degree

27.6

65.4

79.8

Post graduate
degree

0.7

25.0

30.0

Law and Regulations


You and your legal department must be aware of

the law matters internationally

In both the under-developed and developed nations,

various government regulations affect


communications and sale of products.

business

Examples:
Advertising children is restricted in U.S, Canada,

Scandinavian states.
Cigarette is restricted in Europe
France, Mexico and Province of Quebec have restriction
on the use of foreign languages in advertisements.

Economics
Availability of capital and transportation and the

standard of living per capita vary from nation to


nation.
The opportunity to borrow money, the rate of
inflation (price raise), and the exchange rates
influence business and a countrys ability to
communicate concerning that business.
For example in Pakistan the competitors usually
set their own prices.
In contrast IEEE set their own standards for
different computer equipments

Politics
Politics also effect our communication when we

are doing business which can even result in


personal harm.
Even concepts of democracy vary in different
countries
There are different indices of measuring
political instability in any country
Have a pre knowledge of it.

Religion
Homogeneity and diversity of belief structure

Religion in different areas of the world can effect the

business and communications.


Some basic beliefs may be same but different religions
have major differences which, if not understood well
can lead to great loss.
In U.S Muslims, Protestants, Catholic, Hindu,
Buddhist live.
Great tolerance is required
Recent statistics have shown some religions have
totally changed the style of business and even the
structure of that specific country.

Religion
Consumption of alcohol
Holidays

Status of women

Social Norms
Importance

of family, influence of past


colonial influences
In various ways national environmental
constraints, education, law and regulations,
economics, politics and religion effect a
nations social norms.
In most of the countries Male line of family
takes family decisions.
Beyond family, bond may exist between
persons, based on caste, class, age

Language
Every body knows that knowing the language

of your country is the most significant


contribute to improved communication, on
personal and business level.
Your communication is good when both sender
and receiver have same language.
English is world language.
Young people mostly are able to speak and
understand English but few are the old people

Individual Cultural variables

Individual Cultural variables


On the micro or personal level each

individual exhibits own habits and behavior.


Time
Space
Food
Acceptable dress
Manners
Decision making
Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication

Time
Time is also factor in communication.

Germans are time-precise; rarely do you wait for an

appointment in Germany. Specify exact opening and


closing time for business
In Latin America and Buddhist cultures-waiting is
acceptable, same is the example here in Pakistan.
Referring to seasons of the year differ; some say

winter, spring, etc; some say dry, rainy.


Some cultures are casual some are precise about
time, like well talk at 8:15 am tomorrow, some say
well talk some time tomorrow.
Sometimes delays due to lack of equipment

Space
How close may stranger stand to you?

Americans want more space, less do Arabs and

Latin Americans
Room spaces also differ.
Make sure what is the average acceptable space
between the natives of your host country

Food
Eating habits are different throughout the

world
Depends on religion, agriculture and climatic
conditions

Acceptable dress
Dress also has value in communication. When

u have good dress then sound will be clear.


So its very important when you are
communication in front of gathering, your dress
should be perfect.

Manners
See children to know manners of elders
They shake hand in Germany, hug in Italy, and

stay in background in India


You bring a gift when visiting most homes in
Europe
If you bring flowers, avoid Red Roses in Germany
and white chrysanthemum in France, Belgium and
Japan.
2-3 hours lunch in Europe is acceptable.
Many people sit on single table to eat in Asia
In Saudi Arabia, you will learn that the junior
prince is silent when a senior enters .

Decision making
Patience

above all is needed in intercultural


communication, in doing business with other
countries.
American are typecast as moving too quickly in
asking for a decision.
Americans are accused of (blame) being quick; we
wish to get to the point fast.
When one reaches Japan, decision time is held back
as group consensus moves toward a decision.
As you can imagine much time is spent in reaching
an answer. Thus patience-and your understanding of
the decision process-add to your success in dealing
with a foreign environment.

Verbal and Non-Verbal


Communication
Verbal:
Regardless

of culture, a kind of verbal


communication occurs when strangers meet, each
seeking to determine which topics are acceptable
and non-controversial (not in).
Additionally, tone of voice of ones initial words can
influence your initial perception of whether the
meeting is positive or negative.
We judge people to a great extent by their voice.
Some native languages demand many tonal
variations, giving the impression to a non-native of
loudness, even arrogance.

see you later means same day sometime for

Asians and some indefinite time for Americans.


Yes for Asian may mean a yes or a no
Be sure about the volume, pitch and rate of
voice

Non- Verbal:

Many nonverbal symbols exists for every

culture, even in subcultures.


Knowing
the
major
desirable
and
undesirable cues (signs) helps knowing both
intended and unintended communication
errors.
for example A handshake is a traditional
form of greeting in the west.

Eye Contact

In some cultures, looking people in the eye is assumed to indicate honesty and

In some cultures, looking people in the eye is assumed to


indicate honesty and straightforwardness; in others it is
seen as challenging and rude.
s; in others it is seen as challenging and rude.

Eye Contact

In USA, the cheapest, most effective way to


connect with people is to look them into the eye.

Most people in Arab culture share a great deal of


eye contact and may regard too little as disrespectful.

In English culture, a certain amount of eye


contact is required, but too much makes many people
uncomfortable.

In South Asian and many other cultures direct


eye contact is generally regarded as aggressive and
rude.

Gesture:
A motion of the hands, head or body to emphasize an idea or emotion.

USA=OK

RUSSIA=ZERO

JAPAN=MONEY

BRAZIL=INSULT

How can the same Gestures be treated differently in


different cultures

Bridging the Gap Between


Cultures
Practice
Tolerance
Openmindedness
Empathy

Ch. 3, Slide 57

See the world


through anothers
eyes

Mary Ellen Guffey,


Business

Bridging the Gap: Saving Face


Respect the image a
person holds in his or
her social network.
In high-context
cultures opt for
indirectness to help
preserve harmony.
Ch. 3, Slide 58

Mary Ellen Guffey,


Business

Bridging the Gap: Patience


Be patient
Wait and listen
Embrace
silence

Ch. 3, Slide 59

Recognize the effort


non-native
speakers are
making

Mary Ellen Guffey,


Business

Or
Improving Intercultural
Me al
ss
ag
Communication
es

Learn foreign
phrases.
Use simple English.
Speak slowly and
enunciate clearly.
Observe eye
messages.
Encourage accurate
feedback.

Ch. 3, Slide 60

Check frequently for


comprehension.
Accept blame.
Listen without
interrupting.
Smile when
appropriate.
Follow up in writing.

Mary Ellen Guffey,


Business

Wr
Me itte
n
s
s
Intercultural age
s
Strive for clarity.

Improving
Consider
local
Communication
formats.
Observe titles and
rank.
Use short sentences
and short
paragraphs.
Avoid ambiguous
expressions.

Ch. 3, Slide 61

Use correct grammar.


Cite numbers
carefully.
Accommodate reader
in organization,
tone, and style.

Mary Ellen Guffey,


Business

End
Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and
Product, 6e

Ch. 3, Slide
62