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# Chapter 15 Pinch

Technology
Chemical
Process
Heat Exchange
West Virgini Universit
Design

Networks
a

2012

## The Need to Heat and Cool Process

Streams
Feed usually enters a process from a
storage vessel that is maintained at
ambient temperature. If it is to be reacted
at an elevated temperature, it must be
heated.
After the reaction has taken place, the
reactor effluent stream must be purified,
which usually requires cooling the stream,
and possibly condensing it, prior to
separating it.
Thus energy must first be added, then

Heat Integration

## It saves money to match

streams rather than pay to
heat one and pay to cool
another
this
basis in design projects

2012

## The Concept of Heat Integration

The concept of Heat Integration, in its
simplest form, is to find matches between
heat additions and heat removals within
the process.
In this way, the total utilities that are
used to perform these energy transfers
can be minimized, or rather optimized.
The number of heat exchangers needed
to perform these energy transfers can
also be minimised.

Outline
Heat Integration
Design Procedure for MUMNE (Minimum
Utility, Minimum Number of
Exchangers)
- Temperature interval diagram
- Temperature Enthalphy diagram
- Minimum number of heat exchangers
- Design above and below pinch

Heat
Integration

There is a rigorous
methodology
We will learn MUMNE
Not necessarily
unlikel to be)
(Minimum
(and
y
Utility, Minimum Number
of
economic
Copyright - R. Turton and J. Shaeiwitz,
2012

Design

1.
determine
2.

3.

temperatures,

Procedure

values, and

Cp
all
heat
Complete
energy
balance
on
all
Choose minimum approach temperature.
streams
to
fows.
Typically,

this
is between
5C andinterval
20C, but any Eac
positive
Complete
temperature
stream
isisdrawn
and
The heat fow each
number
valid.
diagram,
h
labeled.
in
Copyright - R. Turton and J. Shaeiwitz,
interval is calculated.
2012

## Design Procedure (continued 1)

4.

5.

The energy
or deficit is calculated for each interval on the
diagram.
excess
temperature interval diagram.

## Find the minimum hot and cold utility

6. requirements and identify the pinch
temperature.
Complete
the composite
diagram Thisis a
T-Q diagram
the entire
temperature enthalpy
.

for

process
.

Shaeiwitz,

7.

2)

## exchangers required above and

8.

the pinch.

Desig
the heat exchange network.
below
Determine the minimum number of heat
n
r

## Copyright - R. Turton and J.

Shaeiwitz,

Example
Problem
Stream Properties for Example Problems

Tin

200

Tout

120

kW/C
3

Q
kW
240

140

100

200

100

170

-210

110

190

-160

Stream

mC p

Net
heat
fow

70

2012

1.

2.

## Example Problem (continued

mC p is
or Q is given
missing These are
1)
calculated from the energy
The
and
. be given in
The
value
of
Q
might
not
convention is positive for heat available from
balance.
sign
above table,
a
Choose the minimum
temperature For
stream and negative for heat needed by a
approach
.
stream.
this problem, it is 10C.

2012

3.

## Example Problem (continued

2)
highest temperature

## The heat fow

m C p T interval

Draw
and label
the temperature
each interval
is calculated
, where
interval.
for
diagram.
the sum is over all stream existin in
from, Q
interval
Label the intervals
with
A for the
s beginning
g
that
.

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10

## Example Problem (continued 3)

4. In this temperature interval diagram,
each process stream is represented by a
vertical line with an arrow at the end
indicating the direction of temperature
change.
5. Horizontal lines are then drawn through
the ends of the vertical lines to divide
the diagram into temperature intervals.

2012

11

Shaeiwitz,

12

## Example Problem (continued 4)

6.

This represents
cascade of heat fowing down from high to
diagram.
the
where
Labe
low
the heat
The net utility fow should
needed.
with the net heat fow on the earlier l
fows.
agree
table.

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13

A m
e
20

Hot
Utility

60

20
B
-80

Pinch
Temp
130140C

C
60

60
D
20

80
E
50

13
0

Cold
Utility

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14

## 7. On the cascade diagram,

there will be a location
where
the
heat-fow
This represents the pinch
temperature

8.

## Example Problem (continued

diagram This provides useful
but it is
6)
not require to solv the problem
.Construct
information,
the composite temperature
d
e
.
enthalpy

## Copyright - R. Turton and J. Shaeiwitz,

2012

15

Example Problem(continued 7)
interval
E
D
C
B
A

T Hot Q
(C)

100
110
120
140
180
200

(kW)

50
100
260
380
440

Cold
Q

(C)

90
100
110
130
170
190

2012

(kW)

30
130
330
370
16

lower end

## In the table, the temperature shown is from

of the
The Q values are obtained
the
summing
C pm
T existing on the interval and adding
all
interval.
by
previous
The temperature difference to
is the
it
that
The C mp value
is the
of all existin
interval.
for
stream on that interval.
interval.
sum
g
s

Shaeiwitz,

17

## Example Problem (continued

8)
The hot and cold stream lines are plotted,
as shown on the following figure. Clearly,
there is a temperature cross, so the cold
stream line is shifted to the right until the
minimum approach temperature of 10C
exists at one point. (It could exist at
more than one point by coincidence.) For
Turton and J. Shaeiwitz,
18
all Q- R. values
for the cold
2012

QH=60

200

180

T(C)

160

140

10C - minimum
approach temp.
120

100
Qc=130

0
500

100
600

200

300

Q(kW)
hot stream
cold stream
cold stream

Shaeiwitz,

400

## Example Problem (continued 9)

7. The easiest way to determine the
minimum number of heat exchangers is to
draw boxes to represent the heat available
in each stream and from the utilities both
above and below the pinch. This identifies
the minimum number, but not necessarily
the correct stream matches. The correct
number of heat exchangers is the number
of process streams + the number of utility
streams 1.

1
HU
60

60

180

60

120

60

60

200

30

40

130

CU

12

12

90

40

130

## Each arrow identifies one heat exchanger,

Total number of arrows is total number of heat exchangers,
but not necessarily the correct stream matches.
Top number in a box is stream number.
Bottom number in a box i s energy in the stream.
Number on arrow is energy transferred in a heat exchanger.
HU : Hot Utility

CU : Cold Utility
Copyright - R. Turton and J. Shaeiwitz,
2012

21

## Example Problem (continued

8.

10)
exactly, one fewer exchanger may
to
Note that if a direct match is found,
be possible. However, be careful,
i.e.,
where sets of two streams match
appear
minimum approach temperatur maybe
heat fows the
e
violated.

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22

## Example Problem (continued

9.

There
11)
may not be unique streams here. The

Design
heatatexchange
network.
design isthe
started
the pinch and
you
any
workstreams that exist at the

streams

pinch,
away
can
from
m C pHthe pinch.
m C pC Above the pinch,
for only be matched such that
Copyright - R. Turton and J. Shaeiwitz,
2012

23

## Example Problem (continued

10
.

12)
When dealing with streams away
temperatures are valid.If the criterion
from the pinch, this criterion is no
the pinch appears impossible to satisfy,
longer needed. Any at
streams can be
matched
asbe
long
streams can
splitas
to the
satisfy the
criterion.
Copyright - R. Turton and J. Shaeiwitz,
2012

24

Shaeiwitz,

25

## Example Problem (continued

13)
11. From the previous diagram, stream
1 can be matched with stream 3 or
4. Note that, for this step, only
streams that are present at the
pinch are considered.
12. The next step is to transfer heat
from hot to cold stream by placing
a heat exchanger (1) in the
temperature diagram.

Shaeiwitz,

26

## Example Problem (continued

14)
13. Heat exchanger (1) transfers Q1=
120 from stream 1 to stream 3.
This fulfils requirement of stream
3.
14. There is still remaining Q2 = 60 in
stream 1 which can be transferred
to stream 4 by adding another heat
exchanger (2) as in the following
diagram.

Shaeiwitz,

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## Example Problem (continued

15)
15. Next, heat exchanger (3) is used
to transfer Q3 = 60 from Hot
Utilities to Stream 3.

Shaeiwitz,

28

## Example Problem (continued

16.

16)
The same procedure is done below the
pinch, except that the criterion is

mC p H mC pC

## added until all required heat transfer is

accomplished. The entire network, both above
and below the pinch, can then be represented on
Copyright - R. Turton and J. Shaeiwitz,
2012

29

Shaeiwitz,

30

Shaeiwitz,

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Shaeiwitz,

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In-

Example

Stream

class

m
Problem

Tin

Tout

Cp
kJ/kgC

250

100

kg/s
1

280

120

100

200

120

230

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In-class Example
Problem

## a. minimum hot and cold utility

Determine
(minimum approach T =
b consumption
20C)
.
pinch temperatures
c
minimum number of heat
. design of heat exchange network
d.
exchangers

and

above
required above and below the pinch
Copyright - R. Turton and J. Shaeiwitz,
2012

34

Shaeiwitz,

35

e
m
A
120

12
B0
0

Hot
Utility

40

12
C 0
-160

Pinch
Temp
120140C

D
60

60
E
20

80

Cold
Utility

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1

110

560
10

110

HU
40

550

40

160

550

80
40
1

40

80

## Copyright - R. Turton and J.

Shaeiwitz,

sp lit
Copyright - R. Turton and J.
Shaeiwitz,

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Shaeiwitz,

39

Shaeiwitz,

40

## Copyright - R. Turton and J.

Shaeiwitz,

41

Summar

y
Heat Exchange Networks

Well-established procedure

## Not necessarily (and unlikely to be)

economic optimum but a very good
Straight
when
startingforward,
point but must be
careful
matching streams at pinch

Different correct