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FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM

BASICS
A Comprehensive Lecture on Fire Suppression
Systems for MPLE

Types of FSS Design


1.

2.

3.

Elevated Water Tank


(Overhead/Downfeed System)
Underground Reservoir with Stand-by
Power (Pneumatic)
Up-feed Pumping System

Types of FSS Design


Elevated Water Tank
(Overhead/Downfeed System)

Traditional Design of FS Systems utilizing


gravity for water distribution from an
elevated fire reserve.
To supply a constant pressure of water in
the distribution lines
Store sufficient Water to balance the
supply from the demand
Minimal Reliance to Pneumatic Measures

Types of FSS Design


Elevated Water Tank
(Overhead/Downfeed System)

Disadvantages are:

Eyesore
Expensive
Excess Load

Types of FSS Design


Underground Reservoir with Stand-by
Power (Pneumatic)

Reservoir below Natural Grade Line With


stored water for Fire Reserve
Reliant to Pumps whenever needed
Pump must be Fuel-powered.

Types of FSS Design


Up-feed Pumping System

Conceptually Functions as Overhead and


Underground Reservoir System
Provides a constant flow of water from a
Reservoir Fire Reserve to the distribution
Pipes
Expensive
Reliable
Minimized Pump Errors

Standpipe and Fire Hose


Systems

Standpipe

A pipe installed in buildings not as part of


the water supply but specifically for
conveyance of water in case of fire.

Fire Hose

Readily Available near the Fire Exit Stairs


supplied by the Stand pipe to be used by
firemen as they access the building
suppressing fire.

Standpipe Systems

Appurtenances

Siamese Connection
Manifold System

Systems

Dry Standpipe
Wet Standpipe

Standpipe Systems

Wet Standpipe Systems

Standpipe with Constant Pressure/presence


of water ready to be used.

Dry Standpipe Systems

Standpipe without Constant


Pressure/presence of water.

Standpipe and Fire Hose


Systems
1.

2.

3.

Manifold or Siamese Connection


Connects to Fire Hydrant
Firemen Connects Hose to Stand pipe
outlets or;
Utilizes the Fire Hose Cabinets if
Present

Automatic Sprinkler System


1.

Wet Pipe
Mains and Distribution Pipe are constantly
supplied with water.

2.

Dry Pipe
No water standing in the distribution pipe
except in occurrence of fire.

Automatic Sprinkler System


1.

Types of Sprinkler Heads


1.

Fountain/Upright

2.

Pendent

3.

Bare Ceiling
Most Efficient Discharge
For Fixed or Finished Ceiling

Flush

For Constricted Plenum Space


Prevention of spreading fire

Automatic Sprinkler System


Things to Know about Sprinklers

2.40 to 3.60 meters maximum typical spacing of Sprinkler Heads


depending on type of Hazard of Occupancy.

3.00 to 4.00 meters bay distance of Distribution Pipes Installed


depending on Hazard of Occupancy

Presence of Cellulose

Bulb at Sprinkler Heads open at 135 F to 160 F

Distribution should be Centered where a line is present

Avoid bends to minimize retardation of pressure