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1

Quality

A subjective term for which each person has his or her own

definition. In technical usage, quality can have two

meanings:

ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.

2

Quality

‘A measure of

excellence’

3

Meaning of “Quality”

Attribute - an abstraction belonging to or characteristic of an entity

Appearance, visual aspect - outward or visible aspect of a thing

Attractiveness, attraction - the quality of arousing interest; being attractive or something

that attracts;

Uncloudedness, clarity, clearness - the quality of clear water;

Ease, easiness, simplicity - freedom from difficulty or hardship or effort.

Suitability, suitableness - the quality of having the properties that are right for a specific

purpose.

Excellence - the quality of excelling.

Characteristic - a distinguishing quality

Simpleness, simplicity - the quality of being simple or uncompounded

4

Meaning of “Quality”

P

Q=

E

P = Performance or result

E = Expectations

5

Quality, Cost & Profit relationship

Cost

effects profits. But these costs are the costs of doing it wrong

first time .

increased profitability.

6

Quality and Profit : Traditional thinking

Cost

7

Quality and Profit : Paradigm shift

Cost

8

Quality and Profit

Higher productivity Increased

1.Higher production due to profitability

improved cycle time and due to :

reduced errors and defects

QUALITY

and resources.

reduced scrap and rejects

•Lower production costs

4.Increased use of personnel

resources

investments required to •Faster turnover

support operations.

costs for eliminated waste,

rework and non value added

activities.

9

Quality and Profit

quality product or service , it will soon go High

out of business . But just having high Quality

quality will not be enough , because your

competitors will also have the high quality.

To win , companies will need to Lower

offer high quality for a lower price price

than their competitors.This requires

organizations to identify and reduce their

quality costs C2A2C

10

CHELLANGES

Reduce quality costs

Stop producing defective thru’

Process up-gradation

Improving quality of analysis to identify and eliminate root causes

Taking necessary countermeasure as when required

Usage of right analytical tools

Designing robust problem solving process

11

PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS

Identifying &

Evaluating solution

selecting problem

(6)

(1)

solution causes

(5) (2)

PROBLEM

SOLVING

PROCESS

solution solutions

(4) (3)

12

IDENTIFYING AND SELCTING PROBLEM

Define Gap Between Actual & target

Prioritize

13

ANALYSIS PROBLEM AND CAUSES

Collect Data

Sort symptoms & Causes (effects)

Brain Storm

Fishbone - cause & effect analysis

Prioritize

14

GENERATING POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS

Brainstorm

Build on each other’s ideas

Analysis potential helps & hinders

15

SELECTING AND PLANNING SOLUTION

Prioritize solutions

Clarify tasks / Action plan

Resource / Costs

Present proposals

16

IMPLEMENTING SOLUTION

Establish controls

Maintain Commitments

Plan Contingencies

17

EVALUATING SOLUTION

Monitor results

Restart Process if necessary

18

7 QC TOOLS

Simple but very powerful tools to solve day to

day work related problems

Find solutions in a systematic manner

Widely used by Quality Circle members world

over

19

7 QC TOOLS

Check sheets

Histograms

Pareto charts

Scatter plot

Control charts

20

HISTOGRAM

50

43

27

23

12

9

0

160-170 170-180 1

180-190 190-200 200-210

21

HISTOGRAM A HISTORY OF PROCESS OUT PUT

16

14

Frequency

12

10

Distribution

8

6

4

2

0

47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

kg

22

PARETO CHART

law-80% of anything is attributed to 20% of its causes 80% of the

wealth is held by 20% of the population.

• 80% of our income goes into 20% of our needs.

• 80% of road accidents occur on 20% of the road.

• 80% of the absenteeism in a company is due to 20% of

workmen

23

PARETO CHART

lowest in order to fix priority

The cumulative number of problems is plotted on the vertical

axis of the graph against the cause/phenomenon

Pareto by Causes e.g. Man,Machine,Method etc

Pareto by Phenomenon e.g.Quality,Cost,Delivery

Tells about the relative sizes of problems indicates an

important message about biggest few problems, if corrected, a

large % of total problems will be solved

24

PARETO ANALYSIS

3000

90.0

81.4

80.0

2500

70.0

63.8

Cum. Percentage

No of peices

2000

60.0

50.0

1500

40.0

1000 30.0

20.0

500

10.0

0 0.0

SHORT SHOT SILVER SINK MARK FLASH

DEFECT QTY 2064.0 567.0 480.0 122.0

CUM % 63.8 81.4 96.2 100.0

25

CAUSE n EFFECT (FISH BONE) DIAGRAM

causes from effects and to see problem in its totality

It’s a systematic arrangement of all possible causes,generated

thru’ brain storming

area.

26

CAUSE n EFFECT (FISH BONE) DIAGRAM

EFFECT

Man, Machine, Method, Materials, Equipments & Environmental.

27

SCATTER DIAGRAM

performing preliminary analysis of relationship between any two

quality characteristics.

Clustering of points indicate that the two characteristics may be

related e.g.

Increasing in component weight with increase in hold time

during plastic injection molding ( + ve co-relation)

Increase in toughness components with decreasing injection

pressure (-ve co-relation) during molding

28

SCATTER DIAGRAM (POSITIVE CORRELATION)

100

90

80

70

60

50 XY (Scatter) 1

40

30

20

10

0

0 5 10

29

SCATTER DIAGRAM (NEGATIVE CORERLATION)

80

70

60

50

40 XY (Scatter) 1

30

20

10

0

0 5 10

30

SCATTER DIAGRAM (NO CORERLATION)

80

70

60

50

40 XY (Scatter) 1

30

20

10

0

0 5 10

31

DEFECT CONCENTRATION DIAGRAM

the parts produced

The “Concentration Diagram” check sheet carries the diagram

of the problematic part,defects whenever observed to be

updated in the same using tally marks

Based on the distribution of defects countermeasures are

taken at process/system level

This tool is very useful to solve problems like Scratch,

Dent,Breakage thru’ handling improvement

For plastic molded parts this tool is used to identify stress

points,weak joints,effect of gate shape/position on the quality

of parts etc.

32

DEFECT CONCENTRATION DIAGRAM

Concentration diagram for Scratches produced ion 21-Aug-03

Total no of defective produced is 11 Nos

Area of

concern

33

Control Chart

of the product is plotted as manufacturing or servicing

is actually proceeding.

It graphically, represents the output of the process and

uses statistical limits and patterns of plot, for decision

making

Enables corrective actions to be taken at the earliest

possible moment and avoiding unnecessary

corrections.

The charts help to ensure the manufacture of uniform

product or providing consistent services which

complies with the specification.

34

Elements of Typical Control Chart

2. Vertical axis for sample statistics e.g.

mean, range, standard deviation of sample.

3. Target Line

4. Upper control line

5. Upper warning line

6. Lower control line

7. Lower warning line

8. Plotting of sample statistics

9. Line connecting the plotted statistics

35

Interpreting Control Chart

Zone - 1 If the plotted point falls in this zone, do not

make any adjustment, continue with the process.

special cause may be present. Be careful watch for

plotting of another sample(s).

special cause has crept into the system, and corrective

action is required.

36

Zones for Mean Control Chart

Zone - 3 Action

UCL

Zone - 2 Warning

UWL

Zone - 1 Continue

Sample Mean

Target

Zone - 1 Continue

Zone - 2 Warning

LWL

LCL

Zone - 3 Action

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Sample Number

37

Interpreting Control Chart

UCL

UWL

Statistics

Target

LWL

LCL

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Sample Number

38

Control Chart Views Process in Real Time

Target

Mean

UCLx

Target

LCLx

UCLr

Range

Time Intervals

39

Change in Location of Process Mean

mean at less mean at Target mean at more

than target than target

43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

40

Case When Process Mean is at Target

Target Process

Mean

L U

-3s +3 s

U-L=6s

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

41

Case - Small Shift of the Process Mean

Mean Shaded area

U shows the

L

probability of

Target getting

a reading

beyond U

U-L = 6 s

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

42

Case - Large Shift of the Process Mean

Process

Mean Shaded area

shows the

Target

L U probability of

getting

a reading

U-L = 6 s beyond U

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

43

Change in Spread of Process

Spread due

Larger spread due

to common causes

to special causes

43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

44

Special cause & Common cause

in following work instructions, problem in machines

etc.This types of causes are avoidable and cannot

be neglected.

Common cause : Causes which are unavoidable and

in-evitable in a process.It is not practical to eliminate

the Chance cause technically and economically.

45

Most Commonly Used Variable Control Charts

- Mean control chart or x-bar chart

- Range control chart

46

Control Chart

XYZ Ltd PART NA MEGLASS

: RUN PA RT NO : MODEL : Page

THICKNESS SPECSMIN

: 1.10 TO 1.50 MAX RE ASON : PROCESS CAPA BILITY STUDY

AUDIT DATE 25/9/01

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 n d2 A2 D4

1 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.60 1.50 1.60 1.50 1.60 1.55 1.60 1.55 1.50 1.50 1 1.123 2.66 3.27

2 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.53 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.55 1.55 1.60 1.55 1.45 1.60 1.50 1.50 1.48 2 1.128 1.88 3.27

3 1.60 1.48 1.50 1.50 1.48 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.55 1.50 1.55 1.50 1.55 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.55 3 1.693 1.02 2.57

4 1.50 1.48 1.52 1.50 1.53 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.45 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.60 1.60 1.50 4 2.059 0.73 2.29

5 1.50 1.50 1.60 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.55 1.55 1.45 1.55 1.55 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.55

5 2.326 0.58 2.11

SUM X SUM X1+..+Xn 30.37

X 1.52 1.49 1.52 1.51 1.50 1.50 1.51 1.51 1.48 1.53 1.55 1.52 1.53 1.53 1.53 1.50 1.53 1.54 1.55 1.52 X SUM X1+..+Xn/n1.519

R 0.10 0.02 0.10 0.03 0.05 0.00 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.10 0.05 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.15 0.10 0.10 0.07 R SUM R1+ ..+Rn/n0.074

SIGMA R/d2 0.032

X UCL LCL CL 3 SIGMA 3 * R/d2 0.095

1.600 6 SIGMA 6 * R/d2 0.190

1.580

1.560 Cp = 2.11

1.540 Cpk=

X - CHART

1.520

1.500 MIN OF -0.20

1.480 Cpu OR

1.460

1.440 Cpl 4.41

1.420 Cpk =

1.400

USL 1.500

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

LSL 1.100

FOR X

UCL = X + A2.R 1.561

R UCL LCL CL LCL = X - A2.R 1.476

0.20 UCL = D4.R 0.155

R - CHART

0.10

0.05

0.00 PROCESS STATAUS

-0.05 CONTROLLED

N OT CONTROLLED

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 O

47 How to draw?

Establishing Control Chart

Step No.1

Select quality characteristics which needs to be

controlled

- Weight

- Length

- Viscosity

- Tensile Strength

- Capacitance

48

Establishing Control Chart

Step No.2

Decide the number of units, n to be taken in a sample.

The minimum sample size should be 2. As the sample size

increases then the sensitivity i.e. the quickness with which the

chart gives an indication of shift of the process increases.

However, with the increase of the sample size cost of inspection

also increases.

Generally, n can be 4 or 5.

49

Establishing Control Chart

Step No. 3

If the shift in the process average causes more loss, then take

smaller samples more frequently.

large interval.

50

Establishing Control Chart

sample, we can use the table given in the next slide.

units. If the sample size n, is say 4 then

Number of visits to the process is = 50÷4 = 12

Samples should be taken round about every 45 minutes.

51

Establishing Control Chart

66 - 100 10

101 - 180 15

181 - 300 25

301 - 500 30

501 - 800 35

801 - 1300 40

1301 - 3200 50

3201 - 8000 60

52

Establishing Control Chart

Step No. 4

Collect data on a special control chart data

collection sheet. ( Minimum 100 observations)

The data collection sheet has following main portions:

1. General details for part, department etc.

2. Columns for date and time sample taken

3. Columns for measurements of sample

4. Column for mean of sample

5. Column for range of sample

53

Typical Data Collection Sheet

Measurement

SN Date Time

Mean Range

X1 X2 X3 X4

…..

25

54

Establishing Control Chart

Step No. 5

collect a sample of required number of units.

2) Measure the units and record.

3) Take requisite number of samples ( 20-25).

4) Calculate the mean of each of the sample.

5) Calculate the range of each of the sample.

55

Example - Establishing Trial Control Limits

control. For the purpose of establishing control chart he

collected 10 samples (Normally it should be 20 samples)

containing 5 units. The samples were measured and the same

is shown in the next slide. The desired target of the process, T

is 50. Establish control chart for monitoring the process.

56

Example - Data Collection

No. X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 subgroup subgroup

1 47 45 48 52 51

2 48 52 47 50 50

3 49 48 52 50 49

4 49 50 52 50 49

5 51 50 53 50 48

6 50 50 49 51 47

7 51 48 50 50 54

8 50 48 50 50 52

9 48 48 49 50 51

10 49 50 50 52 51

57

Example - Calculation of Subgroup No.1

Mean of measurements of subgroup No. 1

= ( 52 - 45 )

=7

58

Example - Calculation of subgroup Mean & Range

No. X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 subgroup subgroup

1 47 45 48 52 51 48.6 7

2 48 52 47 50 50 49.4 5

3 49 48 52 50 49 49.6 4

4 49 50 52 50 49 50.0 3

5 51 50 53 50 48 50.4 5

6 50 50 49 51 47 49.4 4

7 51 48 50 50 54 50.6 6

8 50 48 50 50 52 50.0 4

9 48 48 49 50 51 49.2 3

10 49 50 50 52 51 50.2 3

59

Establishing Control Chart

R=

Total number of subgroups

In our case

(7 + 5 +4 3 + 5 + 4 + 6 + 4 + 3 + 3 )

R=

Total number of subgroups

60

Establishing Control Chart

Step No. 7

Using following table of constants find trial control limit for

mean and range control chart’

Sub Group

A2 D4 D3

Size

2 1.880 3.267 0

3 1.023 2.527 0

4 0.729 2.282 0

5 0.577 2.115 0

6 0.483 2.004 0

7 0.419 1.924 0.076

61

Establishing Control Chart

Step No. 8

Calculate Trial control Limits with target value, T

Trial control limits for mean control chart

Upper Control Limit, UCLx = T + A2 x R

Lower Control Limit, LCLx = T - A2 x R

Upper Control Limit, UCLr = D4 x R

Lower Control Limit, LCLr = D3 x R

62

Calculation of Trial Control Limits

Size of Subgroup, n = 5

Target value, T = 50

63

Establishing Control Chart

Step No. 8

Upper Control Limit, UCLx = 50 + 0.577 x 4.4=52.5

Lower Control Limit, LCLx = 50 - 0.577 x 4.4=47.5

Upper Control Limit, UCLr = 2.115 x 4.4 = 9.3

Lower Control Limit, LCLr = 0 x 4.4 = 0

64

Establishing Control Chart

Step No. 9

Discard the outliers

Outliers are those observations which do not belong to

normal population. If Outliers are included in the

calculation, then the information is distorted.

65

Checking for Outliers

Scan column of sample means. If any mean of sample

is more than UCLx or less than LCLx then drop that

sample.

Checking for range outliers

than UCLr then drop that sample.

66

Checking for Outliers

limits using remaining sample(s).

there is no further dropping trial control limits becomes control

limits for control chart.

67

Checking for Outliers

In our case

- None of the subgroup mean is less than 47.5

- None of the range is more than 9.3

- None of the range is less than 0

These limits can be used for maintaining the control charts.

68

Calculation of Control Limits for Mean Control Chart

Step No. 10

Compute warning limits for mean control chart

2 x A2 x R

Upper warning limit, UWLx = T +

3

2 x A2 x R

Lower warning limit, LWLx = T -

3

69

Calculation of Control Limits for Mean Control Chart

2 x 0.577 x 4.4

Uwlx = 50 +

3

= 51.7

2 x 0.577 x 4.4

Lwlx = 50 -

3

= 48.3

70

Action and Warning Limits for Mean Control chart

UCLx

UWLx

Target

Mean

LWLx

LCLx

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Sample Number

71

Action and Warning Limits for Mean Control Chart for Example

UCLx=52.5

UWLx=51.7

Target=50

Mean

LWLx=48.3

LCLx= 47.5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Sample Number

72

Constants for Range Control chart

Sample

D4 D3 DWLR DWUR

size, n

2 3.27 0 0.04 2.81

73

Calculation of Control Limits for Range Control Chart

Step No. 11

Compute warning limits for range control chart

Upper Warning Limit, UWLr = DWUR x R

74

Calculation of Warning Limits for Range Control Chart

In our case

75

Calculation of Warning Limits for Range Control Chart

Upper Warning Limit, UWLr = DWUR x R

= 1.81 x 4.4

=8

Lower Warning Limit, LWLr = DWLR x R

= 0.37 x 4.4

= 1.6

76

Action and Warning Limits for Control Chart

UCLx = 52.5

UWLx = 51.7

Mean

Target = 50

LWLx = 48.3

LCLx = 47.5

UCLr = 9.3

UWLr = 8

Range

R = 4.4

LWLr = 1.6

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Sample Number

77

Flow Chart for Establishing Control Chart

Start

Record observations

each subgroup

78

Flow Chart for Establishing Control Chart

UCLx = T + A2 x R

LCLx = T - A2 x R

UCLr = D4 x R

LCLr = D3 x R

Is any Yes

sub-group mean or range Drop that

out side the control Group

limit ?

No

79

Flow Chart for Establishing Control Chart

mean control chart and

range control chart

Target, UCL, UWL, LCL & LWL for mean

Mean range, UCL , UWL, LCL & LWL for range

Stop

80

Summary of Effect of Process Shift

observations fall within -3 s and + 3 s.

When there is small shift in the mean of process some

observations fall outside original -3 s and +3 s zone.

Chances of an observation falling outside original -3

s and + 3 s zone increases with the increase in the shift

of process mean.

81

Our Conclusion from Normal Distribution

zone of mean of a process, we conclude that there is no shift

in the mean of process. This is so because falling of an

observation between these limits is a chance.

zone of process mean, we conclude that there is shift in

location of the process

82

Interpreting Control Chart

Because the basis for control chart theory follows the normal distribution, the

same rules that governs the normal distribution are used to interpret the control

charts.

These rules include:

- Randomness.

- Symmetry about the centre of the distribution.

- 99.73% of the population lies between - 3 s of and + 3

s the centre line.

- 95.4% population lies between -2 s and + 2 s of the

centre line.

83

Interpreting Control Chart

said to be stable or in control with only common causes

of variation present.

If it fails to follow these rules, it may be out of control

with special causes of variation present.

These special causes must be found and corrected.

84

Interpreting Control Chart

control limit

UCL

UWL

Statistics

LWL

LCL

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Sample Number

85

Interpreting Control Chart

between warning limit and corresponding

control limit

UCL

UWL

Statistics

LWL

LCL

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Sample Number

86

Interpreting Control Chart

corresponding control limit

UCL

UWL

Statistics

LWL

LCL

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Sample Number

87

Interpreting Control Chart

side of the centre line

UCL

UWL

Statistics

LWL

LCL

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Sample Number

88

Interpreting Control Chart

upward trend

UCL

UWL

Statistics

LWL

LCL

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Sample Number

89

Interpreting Control Chart

downward trend

UCL

UWL

Statistics

LWL

LCL

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Sample Number

90

Learning

Importance of improving Quality as a tool for cost

reduction

Importance of proper analysis of Quality problems

Usage of 7 QC tools to ensure “Defect free production”

91

Thank You

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