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7 QC TOOLS

1
Quality

A subjective term for which each person has his or her own
definition. In technical usage, quality can have two
meanings:

1. The characteristics of a product or service that bear on its


ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.

2. A product or service free from deficiencies.

2
Quality

Can also be termed as


‘A measure of
excellence’

3
Meaning of “Quality”

 Quality - an essential and distinguishing attribute of something.


 Attribute - an abstraction belonging to or characteristic of an entity
 Appearance, visual aspect - outward or visible aspect of a thing
 Attractiveness, attraction - the quality of arousing interest; being attractive or something
that attracts;
 Uncloudedness, clarity, clearness - the quality of clear water;
 Ease, easiness, simplicity - freedom from difficulty or hardship or effort.
 Suitability, suitableness - the quality of having the properties that are right for a specific
purpose.
 Excellence - the quality of excelling.
 Characteristic - a distinguishing quality
 Simpleness, simplicity - the quality of being simple or uncompounded

4
Meaning of “Quality”

P
Q=
E
P = Performance or result
E = Expectations

5
Quality, Cost & Profit relationship

Cost

Many people think that quality costs money and adversely


effects profits. But these costs are the costs of doing it wrong
first time .

Quality in the long run results in


increased profitability.
6
Quality and Profit : Traditional thinking

Cost

7
Quality and Profit : Paradigm shift

Cost

8
Quality and Profit
Higher productivity Increased
1.Higher production due to profitability
improved cycle time and due to :
reduced errors and defects

2.Increased use of machine •Larger sales


QUALITY

and resources.

3.Improved material use from


reduced scrap and rejects
•Lower production costs
4.Increased use of personnel
resources

5.Lower level of asset


investments required to •Faster turnover
support operations.

6.Lower service and support


costs for eliminated waste,
rework and non value added
activities.

9
Quality and Profit

If the organization does not offer high


quality product or service , it will soon go High
out of business . But just having high Quality
quality will not be enough , because your
competitors will also have the high quality.
To win , companies will need to Lower
offer high quality for a lower price price
than their competitors.This requires
organizations to identify and reduce their
quality costs C2A2C

10
CHELLANGES

 Offer high quality for a lower price than their competitors.


 Reduce quality costs
 Stop producing defective thru’
 Process up-gradation
 Improving quality of analysis to identify and eliminate root causes
 Taking necessary countermeasure as when required
 Usage of right analytical tools
 Designing robust problem solving process

11
PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS
Identifying &
Evaluating solution
selecting problem
(6)
(1)

Implementing Analysing problem


solution causes
(5) (2)

PROBLEM
SOLVING
PROCESS

Selecting & planning Generating potential


solution solutions
(4) (3)

12
IDENTIFYING AND SELCTING PROBLEM

 Write Statement of the problem(s)


 Define Gap Between Actual & target
 Prioritize

13
ANALYSIS PROBLEM AND CAUSES

 Collect Data
 Sort symptoms & Causes (effects)
 Brain Storm
 Fishbone - cause & effect analysis
 Prioritize

14
GENERATING POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS

 Brainstorm
 Build on each other’s ideas
 Analysis potential helps & hinders

15
SELECTING AND PLANNING SOLUTION

 Prioritize solutions
 Clarify tasks / Action plan
 Resource / Costs
 Present proposals

16
IMPLEMENTING SOLUTION

 Establish controls
 Maintain Commitments
 Plan Contingencies

17
EVALUATING SOLUTION

 Monitor results
 Restart Process if necessary

18
7 QC TOOLS

Used to identify,analyze and resolve problems


Simple but very powerful tools to solve day to
day work related problems
Find solutions in a systematic manner
Widely used by Quality Circle members world
over

19
7 QC TOOLS

Check sheets

 Histograms

 Pareto charts

 Cause & effect diagram (Ishikawa diagram)

 Scatter plot

 Defect concentration diagram

 Control charts

20
HISTOGRAM

50
43

27
23

12
9

0
160-170 170-180 1
180-190 190-200 200-210

Histogram for distribution of Center Distance (mm)

21
HISTOGRAM A HISTORY OF PROCESS OUT PUT

16
14
Frequency

12
10
Distribution
8
6
4
2
0

47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54
kg
22
PARETO CHART

Based on “80/20” rule (or ABC analysis)

Pareto(V.Pareto,an Italian economist) discovered this universal


law-80% of anything is attributed to 20% of its causes 80% of the
wealth is held by 20% of the population.
• 80% of our income goes into 20% of our needs.
• 80% of road accidents occur on 20% of the road.
• 80% of the absenteeism in a company is due to 20% of
workmen

“Significant few & in-significant many”

23
PARETO CHART

Pareto analysis begins by ranking problems from highest to


lowest in order to fix priority
 The cumulative number of problems is plotted on the vertical
axis of the graph against the cause/phenomenon
Pareto by Causes e.g. Man,Machine,Method etc
Pareto by Phenomenon e.g.Quality,Cost,Delivery
Tells about the relative sizes of problems indicates an
important message about biggest few problems, if corrected, a
large % of total problems will be solved

24
PARETO ANALYSIS

96.2 100.0 100.0

3000
90.0
81.4
80.0
2500

70.0
63.8

Cum. Percentage
No of peices

2000
60.0

50.0
1500

40.0

1000 30.0

20.0
500
10.0

0 0.0
SHORT SHOT SILVER SINK MARK FLASH
DEFECT QTY 2064.0 567.0 480.0 122.0
CUM % 63.8 81.4 96.2 100.0

25
CAUSE n EFFECT (FISH BONE) DIAGRAM

This diagram (resembles skeleton of a fish) helps to separate out


causes from effects and to see problem in its totality
It’s a systematic arrangement of all possible causes,generated
thru’ brain storming

This can be used to :

Assist individual / group to see full picture.

 Serve as a recording device for ideas generated.

 Reveal undetected relationships between causes.

 Discover the origin/root cause of a problem

 Create a document or a map of a problem which can be posted in the work


area.

26
CAUSE n EFFECT (FISH BONE) DIAGRAM

MAN MATERIAL EQUIPMENT

EFFECT

MACHINE METHOD ENVIRONMENT

The problem categories considered are :


Man, Machine, Method, Materials, Equipments & Environmental.

27
SCATTER DIAGRAM

The scatter diagram is used for identifying the relationships and


performing preliminary analysis of relationship between any two
quality characteristics.
Clustering of points indicate that the two characteristics may be
related e.g.
Increasing in component weight with increase in hold time
during plastic injection molding ( + ve co-relation)
Increase in toughness components with decreasing injection
pressure (-ve co-relation) during molding

28
SCATTER DIAGRAM (POSITIVE CORRELATION)

100
90
80
70
60
50 XY (Scatter) 1
40
30
20
10
0
0 5 10

29
SCATTER DIAGRAM (NEGATIVE CORERLATION)

80
70
60
50
40 XY (Scatter) 1
30
20
10
0
0 5 10

30
SCATTER DIAGRAM (NO CORERLATION)

80
70
60
50
40 XY (Scatter) 1
30
20
10
0
0 5 10

31
DEFECT CONCENTRATION DIAGRAM

 This is used to understand the potential defect prone area of


the parts produced
 The “Concentration Diagram” check sheet carries the diagram
of the problematic part,defects whenever observed to be
updated in the same using tally marks
 Based on the distribution of defects countermeasures are
taken at process/system level
 This tool is very useful to solve problems like Scratch,
Dent,Breakage thru’ handling improvement
 For plastic molded parts this tool is used to identify stress
points,weak joints,effect of gate shape/position on the quality
of parts etc.

32
DEFECT CONCENTRATION DIAGRAM

Component name : XYZ


Concentration diagram for Scratches produced ion 21-Aug-03
Total no of defective produced is 11 Nos

Area of
concern

33
Control Chart

 Quality control charts, are graphs on which the quality


of the product is plotted as manufacturing or servicing
is actually proceeding.
 It graphically, represents the output of the process and
uses statistical limits and patterns of plot, for decision
making
 Enables corrective actions to be taken at the earliest
possible moment and avoiding unnecessary
corrections.
 The charts help to ensure the manufacture of uniform
product or providing consistent services which
complies with the specification.
34
Elements of Typical Control Chart

1. Horizontal axis for sample number


2. Vertical axis for sample statistics e.g.
mean, range, standard deviation of sample.
3. Target Line
4. Upper control line
5. Upper warning line
6. Lower control line
7. Lower warning line
8. Plotting of sample statistics
9. Line connecting the plotted statistics

35
Interpreting Control Chart

The control chart gets divided in three zones.


Zone - 1 If the plotted point falls in this zone, do not
make any adjustment, continue with the process.

Zone - 2 If the plotted point falls in this zone then


special cause may be present. Be careful watch for
plotting of another sample(s).

Zone - 3 If the plotted point falls in this zone then


special cause has crept into the system, and corrective
action is required.

36
Zones for Mean Control Chart

Zone - 3 Action
UCL
Zone - 2 Warning
UWL
Zone - 1 Continue
Sample Mean

Target
Zone - 1 Continue

Zone - 2 Warning
LWL
LCL
Zone - 3 Action

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Sample Number
37
Interpreting Control Chart

Point outside the Control limit

UCL
UWL
Statistics

Target

LWL
LCL

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Sample Number
38
Control Chart Views Process in Real Time

Output of the process in real time

Target
Mean

UCLx
Target

LCLx
UCLr
Range

Time Intervals
39
Change in Location of Process Mean

Process with Process with Process with


mean at less mean at Target mean at more
than target than target

43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

40
Case When Process Mean is at Target

Target Process
Mean
L U
-3s +3 s
U-L=6s

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

Chances of getting a reading beyond U & L is almost nil

41
Case - Small Shift of the Process Mean

Small shift in process Process


Mean Shaded area
U shows the
L
probability of
Target getting
a reading
beyond U
U-L = 6 s

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

Chances of getting a reading outside U is small

42
Case - Large Shift of the Process Mean

Large shift in process


Process
Mean Shaded area
shows the
Target
L U probability of
getting
a reading
U-L = 6 s beyond U

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

Chances of getting a reading outside U is large

43
Change in Spread of Process

Spread due
Larger spread due
to common causes
to special causes

43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

44
Special cause & Common cause

 Special / Assignable cause : Causes due to negligence


in following work instructions, problem in machines
etc.This types of causes are avoidable and cannot
be neglected.
 Common cause : Causes which are unavoidable and
in-evitable in a process.It is not practical to eliminate
the Chance cause technically and economically.

45
Most Commonly Used Variable Control Charts

 To track the accuracy of the process


- Mean control chart or x-bar chart

 To track the precision of the process


- Range control chart

46
Control Chart
XYZ Ltd PART NA MEGLASS
: RUN PA RT NO : MODEL : Page
THICKNESS SPECSMIN
: 1.10 TO 1.50 MAX RE ASON : PROCESS CAPA BILITY STUDY
AUDIT DATE 25/9/01
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 n d2 A2 D4
1 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.60 1.50 1.60 1.50 1.60 1.55 1.60 1.55 1.50 1.50 1 1.123 2.66 3.27
2 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.53 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.55 1.55 1.60 1.55 1.45 1.60 1.50 1.50 1.48 2 1.128 1.88 3.27
3 1.60 1.48 1.50 1.50 1.48 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.55 1.50 1.55 1.50 1.55 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.55 3 1.693 1.02 2.57
4 1.50 1.48 1.52 1.50 1.53 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.45 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.60 1.60 1.50 4 2.059 0.73 2.29
5 1.50 1.50 1.60 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.55 1.55 1.45 1.55 1.55 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.55
5 2.326 0.58 2.11
SUM X SUM X1+..+Xn 30.37
X 1.52 1.49 1.52 1.51 1.50 1.50 1.51 1.51 1.48 1.53 1.55 1.52 1.53 1.53 1.53 1.50 1.53 1.54 1.55 1.52 X SUM X1+..+Xn/n1.519
R 0.10 0.02 0.10 0.03 0.05 0.00 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.10 0.05 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.15 0.10 0.10 0.07 R SUM R1+ ..+Rn/n0.074
SIGMA R/d2 0.032
X UCL LCL CL 3 SIGMA 3 * R/d2 0.095
1.600 6 SIGMA 6 * R/d2 0.190
1.580
1.560 Cp = 2.11
1.540 Cpk=
X - CHART

1.520
1.500 MIN OF -0.20
1.480 Cpu OR
1.460
1.440 Cpl 4.41
1.420 Cpk =
1.400
USL 1.500
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
LSL 1.100

FOR X
UCL = X + A2.R 1.561
R UCL LCL CL LCL = X - A2.R 1.476

0.25 FOR R (D3 = 0)


0.20 UCL = D4.R 0.155
R - CHART

0.15 LCL = D3.R 0.000


0.10
0.05
0.00 PROCESS STATAUS
-0.05 CONTROLLED
N OT CONTROLLED
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 O

47 How to draw?
Establishing Control Chart

Step No.1
Select quality characteristics which needs to be
controlled
- Weight
- Length
- Viscosity
- Tensile Strength
- Capacitance

48
Establishing Control Chart

Step No.2
Decide the number of units, n to be taken in a sample.
The minimum sample size should be 2. As the sample size
increases then the sensitivity i.e. the quickness with which the
chart gives an indication of shift of the process increases.
However, with the increase of the sample size cost of inspection
also increases.
Generally, n can be 4 or 5.

49
Establishing Control Chart

Step No. 3

Decide the frequency of picking up of sample

If the shift in the process average causes more loss, then take
smaller samples more frequently.

If the cost of inspection is high then take smaller samples at


large interval.

50
Establishing Control Chart

As and general guidance, for deciding the frequency of taking a


sample, we can use the table given in the next slide.

If our lot size in a shift is say 3000, then in a shift we require 50


units. If the sample size n, is say 4 then
Number of visits to the process is = 50÷4 = 12

The time of an 8-hour shift, be divided in 12 equal parts.


Samples should be taken round about every 45 minutes.

51
Establishing Control Chart

Lot Size Total Number of items


66 - 100 10
101 - 180 15
181 - 300 25
301 - 500 30
501 - 800 35
801 - 1300 40
1301 - 3200 50
3201 - 8000 60

52
Establishing Control Chart

Step No. 4
Collect data on a special control chart data
collection sheet. ( Minimum 100 observations)
The data collection sheet has following main portions:
1. General details for part, department etc.
2. Columns for date and time sample taken
3. Columns for measurements of sample
4. Column for mean of sample
5. Column for range of sample

53
Typical Data Collection Sheet

Part Operation Other Details

Measurement
SN Date Time
Mean Range
X1 X2 X3 X4

…..

25

54
Establishing Control Chart

Step No. 5

Fill up the control chart data sheet

1) As per the plan, visit the process and


collect a sample of required number of units.
2) Measure the units and record.
3) Take requisite number of samples ( 20-25).
4) Calculate the mean of each of the sample.
5) Calculate the range of each of the sample.

55
Example - Establishing Trial Control Limits

A supervisor decided to put his process under statistical


control. For the purpose of establishing control chart he
collected 10 samples (Normally it should be 20 samples)
containing 5 units. The samples were measured and the same
is shown in the next slide. The desired target of the process, T
is 50. Establish control chart for monitoring the process.

56
Example - Data Collection

Subgroup Subgroup Reading Mean of Range of


No. X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 subgroup subgroup

1 47 45 48 52 51
2 48 52 47 50 50
3 49 48 52 50 49
4 49 50 52 50 49
5 51 50 53 50 48
6 50 50 49 51 47
7 51 48 50 50 54
8 50 48 50 50 52
9 48 48 49 50 51
10 49 50 50 52 51

57
Example - Calculation of Subgroup No.1

Measurements are 47, 45, 48, 52 & 51


Mean of measurements of subgroup No. 1

= (47 + 45 + 48 + 52 + 51)/5 = 48.6

Range of measurements of subgroup No. 1

= ( largest reading - smallest reading )


= ( 52 - 45 )
=7

58
Example - Calculation of subgroup Mean & Range

Subgroup Subgroup Reading Mean of Range of


No. X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 subgroup subgroup

1 47 45 48 52 51 48.6 7
2 48 52 47 50 50 49.4 5
3 49 48 52 50 49 49.6 4
4 49 50 52 50 49 50.0 3
5 51 50 53 50 48 50.4 5
6 50 50 49 51 47 49.4 4
7 51 48 50 50 54 50.6 6
8 50 48 50 50 52 50.0 4
9 48 48 49 50 51 49.2 3
10 49 50 50 52 51 50.2 3

59
Establishing Control Chart

Calculate Mean Range, R

Sum of ranges of subgroups


R=
Total number of subgroups

In our case
(7 + 5 +4 3 + 5 + 4 + 6 + 4 + 3 + 3 )
R=
Total number of subgroups

60
Establishing Control Chart

Step No. 7
Using following table of constants find trial control limit for
mean and range control chart’

Sub Group
A2 D4 D3
Size
2 1.880 3.267 0
3 1.023 2.527 0
4 0.729 2.282 0
5 0.577 2.115 0
6 0.483 2.004 0
7 0.419 1.924 0.076

61
Establishing Control Chart

Step No. 8
Calculate Trial control Limits with target value, T
Trial control limits for mean control chart
Upper Control Limit, UCLx = T + A2 x R
Lower Control Limit, LCLx = T - A2 x R

Trial control limits for range control chart


Upper Control Limit, UCLr = D4 x R
Lower Control Limit, LCLr = D3 x R

62
Calculation of Trial Control Limits

Size of Subgroup, n = 5

Factor A2, when n is 5 = 0.577

Factor D4, when n is 5 = 2.115

Factor D3, when n is 5 = 0

Target value, T = 50

Mean Range, R = 4.4

63
Establishing Control Chart

Step No. 8

Trial control Limits in our case

For mean control chart


Upper Control Limit, UCLx = 50 + 0.577 x 4.4=52.5
Lower Control Limit, LCLx = 50 - 0.577 x 4.4=47.5

For range control chart


Upper Control Limit, UCLr = 2.115 x 4.4 = 9.3
Lower Control Limit, LCLr = 0 x 4.4 = 0

64
Establishing Control Chart

Step No. 9
Discard the outliers
Outliers are those observations which do not belong to
normal population. If Outliers are included in the
calculation, then the information is distorted.

65
Checking for Outliers

Checking for mean outliers


Scan column of sample means. If any mean of sample
is more than UCLx or less than LCLx then drop that
sample.
Checking for range outliers

Scan column of sample range. If any range is more


than UCLr then drop that sample.

66
Checking for Outliers

If any sample(s) is dropped then recalculate the trial control


limits using remaining sample(s).

Continue this exercise till there is no further droppings. When


there is no further dropping trial control limits becomes control
limits for control chart.

In all we can drop up to 25% of the samples

67
Checking for Outliers

In our case

- None of the subgroup mean is more than 52.5


- None of the subgroup mean is less than 47.5
- None of the range is more than 9.3
- None of the range is less than 0

Hence there is no revision of trial control limits is required.


These limits can be used for maintaining the control charts.

68
Calculation of Control Limits for Mean Control Chart

Step No. 10
Compute warning limits for mean control chart

2 x A2 x R
Upper warning limit, UWLx = T +
3

2 x A2 x R
Lower warning limit, LWLx = T -
3

69
Calculation of Control Limits for Mean Control Chart

Warning limits for mean control chart in our example

2 x 0.577 x 4.4
Uwlx = 50 +
3
= 51.7

2 x 0.577 x 4.4
Lwlx = 50 -
3
= 48.3
70
Action and Warning Limits for Mean Control chart

UCLx
UWLx

Target
Mean

LWLx
LCLx

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Sample Number

71
Action and Warning Limits for Mean Control Chart for Example

UCLx=52.5
UWLx=51.7

Target=50
Mean

LWLx=48.3

LCLx= 47.5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Sample Number
72
Constants for Range Control chart

Sample
D4 D3 DWLR DWUR
size, n
2 3.27 0 0.04 2.81

3 2.57 0 0.18 2.17

4 2.28 0 0.29 1.93

5 2.11 0 0.37 1.81

6 2.00 0 0.42 1.72

7 1.92 0.08 0.46 1.66

73
Calculation of Control Limits for Range Control Chart

Step No. 11
Compute warning limits for range control chart
Upper Warning Limit, UWLr = DWUR x R

Lower Warning Limit, LWLr = DWLR x R

74
Calculation of Warning Limits for Range Control Chart

In our case

Size of sub group, n = 5

Mean range R = 4.4

DWUR when n is 5 = 1.81

DWLR when n is 5 = 0.37

75
Calculation of Warning Limits for Range Control Chart

In our case warning limits for range control chart


Upper Warning Limit, UWLr = DWUR x R
= 1.81 x 4.4
=8
Lower Warning Limit, LWLr = DWLR x R
= 0.37 x 4.4
= 1.6

76
Action and Warning Limits for Control Chart

UCLx = 52.5
UWLx = 51.7
Mean

Target = 50

LWLx = 48.3
LCLx = 47.5

UCLr = 9.3
UWLr = 8
Range

R = 4.4
LWLr = 1.6

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Sample Number
77
Flow Chart for Establishing Control Chart

Start

Decide subgroup size

Record observations

Find mean and range of


each subgroup

Calculate mean range, R

78
Flow Chart for Establishing Control Chart

UCLx = T + A2 x R
LCLx = T - A2 x R
UCLr = D4 x R
LCLr = D3 x R

Is any Yes
sub-group mean or range Drop that
out side the control Group
limit ?

No
79
Flow Chart for Establishing Control Chart

Select suitable scale for


mean control chart and
range control chart

Draw Lines for


Target, UCL, UWL, LCL & LWL for mean
Mean range, UCL , UWL, LCL & LWL for range

Stop
80
Summary of Effect of Process Shift

 When there is no shift in the process nearly all the


observations fall within -3 s and + 3 s.
 When there is small shift in the mean of process some
observations fall outside original -3 s and +3 s zone.
 Chances of an observation falling outside original -3
s and + 3 s zone increases with the increase in the shift
of process mean.

81
Our Conclusion from Normal Distribution

 When an observation falls within original +3 s and -3 s


zone of mean of a process, we conclude that there is no shift
in the mean of process. This is so because falling of an
observation between these limits is a chance.

 When an observation falls beyond original +3 s and -3 s


zone of process mean, we conclude that there is shift in
location of the process

82
Interpreting Control Chart

 Because the basis for control chart theory follows the normal distribution, the
same rules that governs the normal distribution are used to interpret the control
charts.
 These rules include:

- Randomness.
- Symmetry about the centre of the distribution.
- 99.73% of the population lies between - 3 s of and + 3
s the centre line.
- 95.4% population lies between -2 s and + 2 s of the
centre line.

83
Interpreting Control Chart

 If the process output follows these rules, the process is


said to be stable or in control with only common causes
of variation present.
 If it fails to follow these rules, it may be out of control
with special causes of variation present.
 These special causes must be found and corrected.

84
Interpreting Control Chart

One point outside


control limit

UCL
UWL
Statistics

LWL
LCL

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Sample Number
85
Interpreting Control Chart

Two points out of three consecutive points


between warning limit and corresponding
control limit

UCL
UWL
Statistics

LWL
LCL

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Sample Number
86
Interpreting Control Chart

Two consecutive points between warning limit and


corresponding control limit

UCL
UWL
Statistics

LWL
LCL

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Sample Number
87
Interpreting Control Chart

Seven consecutive points on one


side of the centre line

UCL
UWL
Statistics

LWL
LCL

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Sample Number
88
Interpreting Control Chart

Seven consecutive points having


upward trend

UCL
UWL
Statistics

LWL
LCL

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Sample Number
89
Interpreting Control Chart

Seven consecutive points having


downward trend

UCL
UWL
Statistics

LWL
LCL

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Sample Number
90
Learning

 Concept and definition of “Quality”


 Importance of improving Quality as a tool for cost
reduction
 Importance of proper analysis of Quality problems
 Usage of 7 QC tools to ensure “Defect free production”

91
Thank You

92