# KS3 Mathematics

A1 Algebraic
expressions
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Contents

A1 Algebraic expressions
A1.1 Writing expressions
A1.2 Collecting like terms
A1.3 Multiplying terms
A1.4 Dividing terms
A1.5 Factorizing expressions
A1.6 Substitution
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Using symbols for unknowns
Look at this problem:

+ 9 = 17
The symbol

stands for an unknown number.

We can work out the value of

.
=8

because
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8 + 9 = 17

and 4 of 60 and and 12 – 7 = 5 =5 stand for unknown numbers. For example. © Boardworks Ltd 2004 . can have many values.8 = 5 are called variables because their value can vary.Using symbols for unknowns Look at this problem: – The symbols In this example. or 3.2 – –1.

Using letter symbols for unknowns In algebra. These letters are called unknowns or variables. we use letter symbols to stand for numbers. Sometimes we can work out the value of the letters and sometimes we can’t. For example. 5 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 . We can write an unknown number with 3 added on to it as n+3 This is an example of an algebraic expression.

If he opens the packet and eats 4 biscuits. he can write an expression for the number of biscuits remaining in the packet as: b–4 6 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 . b.Writing an expression Suppose Jon has a packet of biscuits and he doesn’t know how many biscuits it contains. He can call the number of biscuits in the full packet.

He can write this as an equation: b – 4 = 22 We can work out the value of the letter b. b = 26 That means that there were 26 biscuits in the full packet. There are 22.Writing an equation Jon counts the number of biscuits in the packet after he has eaten 4 of them. 7 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

Writing expressions When we write expressions in algebra we don’t usually use the multiplication symbol ×. 5 × n or n × 5 is written as 5n. we don’t have to write the 1. For example. For example. 1 × n or n × 1 is written as n. 8 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 . The number must be written before the letter. When we multiply a letter symbol by 1.

n × n is written as n2.Writing expressions When we write expressions in algebra we don’t usually use the division symbol ÷. For example. 9 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 . we use index notation. n n ÷ 3 is written as 3 When we multiply a letter symbol by itself. Instead we use a dividing line as in fraction notation. n squared For example.

Writing expressions Here are some examples of algebraic expressions: n+7 a number n plus 7 5–n 5 minus a number n 2n 2 lots of the number n or 2 × n 6 n 6 divided by a number n 4n + 5 4 lots of a number n plus 5 n3 a number n multiplied by itself twice or n×n×n 3 × (n + 4) or 3(n + 4) a number n plus 4 and then times 3. 10 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

or 2×n 2n 11 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .Writing expressions Miss Green is holding n number of cubes in her hand: Write an expression for the number of cubes in her hand if: She takes 3 cubes away. n–3 She doubles the number of cubes she is holding.

Equivalent expression match 12 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

13 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 . x + x + x is identically For example. the expressions on each side of the equation are equal for all values of the unknown. The expressions are said to be identically equal. equal to 3x x + x + x  3x This is called an identity.Identities When two expressions are equivalent we can link them with the  sign. In an identity.

4 Dividing terms A1.3 Multiplying terms A1.Contents A1 Algebraic expressions A1.2 Collecting like terms A1.1 Writing expressions A1.5 Factorizing expressions A1.6 Substitution 14 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

3a + 4b – a + 5 is an expression. –. ×.Like terms An algebraic expression is made up of terms and operators such as +. A term is made up of numbers and letter symbols but not operators. 4b. 15 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 . a and 5 are terms in the expression. 3a. For example. ÷ and ( ). 3a and a are called like terms because they both contain a number and the letter symbol a.

We collect together like terms to simplify the expression. 16 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 . in algebra letters stand for numbers.Collecting together like terms Remember. so we can use the same rules as we use for arithmetic. In arithmetic. a + a + a + a = 4a The a’s are like terms. 5+5+5+5=4×5 In algebra.

Collecting together like terms
Remember, in algebra letters stand for numbers, so we
can use the same rules as we use for arithmetic.
In arithmetic,
(7 × 4) + (3 × 4) = 10 × 4
In algebra,
7 × b + 3 × b = 10 × b
or

7b + 3b = 10b

7b, 3b and 10b are like terms.
They all contain a number and the letter b.

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Collecting together like terms
Remember, in algebra letters stand for numbers, so we
can use the same rules as we use for arithmetic.
In arithmetic,
2 + (6 × 2) – (3 × 2) = 4 × 2
In algebra,
x + 6x – 3x = 4x
x, 6x, 3x and 4x are like terms.
They all contain a number and the letter x.

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Collecting together like terms
When we add or subtract like terms in an expression we
say we are simplifying an expression by collecting
together like terms.
An expression can contain different like terms.
For example,
3a + 2b + 4a + 6b = 3a + 4a + 2b + 6b
= 7a + 8b
This expression cannot be simplified any further.

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Collecting together like terms Simplify these expressions by collecting together like terms. 1) a + a + a + a + a = 5a 2) 5b – 4b = b 3) 4c + 3d + 3 – 2c + 6 – d = 4c – 2c + 3d – d + 3 + 6 = 2c + 2d + 9 4) 4n + n2 – 3n = 4n – 3n + n2 = n + n2 5) 4r + 6s – t 20 of 60 Cannot be simplified © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

Write an algebraic expression for the perimeter of the following shapes: 2a 3b Perimeter = 2a + 3b + 2a + 3b = 4a + 6b 5x 4y x 5x 21 of 60 Perimeter = 4y + 5x + x + 5x = 4y + 11x © Boardworks Ltd 2004 . to find the perimeter of a shape we add together the length of each of its sides.Algebraic perimeters Remember.

Algebraic pyramids 22 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

Algebraic magic square 23 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

4 Dividing terms A1.1 Writing expressions A1.Contents A1 Algebraic expressions A1.2 Collecting like terms A1.6 Substitution 24 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .3 Multiplying terms A1.5 Factorising expressions A1.

6 × e × e = 6e2 25 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 . Any numbers must be written at the front and all letters should be written in alphabetical order. b × 5 = 5b We don’t write b5.Multiplying terms together In algebra we usually leave out the multiplication sign ×. For example. 3 × d × c = 3cd We write letters in alphabetical order. 4 × a = 4a 1×b=b We don’t need to write a 1 in front of the letter.

x × x = x2 x × x × x = x3 x × x × x × x = x4 26 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .Using index notation Simplify: x + x + x + x + x = 5x Simplify: x to the power of 5 x × x × x × x × x = x5 This is called index notation. Similarly.

For example.Using index notation We can use index notation to simplify expressions. 3p × 2p = 3 × p × 2 × p = 6p2 q2 × q3 = q × q × q × q × q = q5 3r × r2 = 3 × r × r × r = 3r3 2t × 2t = (2t)2 27 of 60 or 4t2 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

Grid method for multiplying numbers 28 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

×. in algebra we do not write the multiplication sign. This expression actually means: 4 × (a + b) or (a + b) + (a + b) + (a + b) + (a + b) =a+b+a+b+a+b+a+b = 4a + 4b 29 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .Brackets Look at this algebraic expression: 4(a + b) What do do think it means? Remember.

Using the grid method to expand brackets 30 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

For example. 3x + 2(5 – x) We need to multiply the bracket by 2 and collect together like terms.Expanding brackets then simplifying Sometimes we need to multiply out brackets and then simplify. 3x + 10 – 2x = 3x – 2x + 10 = x + 10 31 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

Expanding brackets then simplifying Simplify 4 – (5n – 3) We need to multiply the bracket by –1 and collect together like terms. 4 – 5n + 3 = 4 + 3 – 5n = 7 – 5n 32 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

Expanding brackets then simplifying Simplify 2(3n – 4) + 3(3n + 5) We need to multiply out both brackets and collect together like terms. 6n – 8 + 9n + 15 = 6n + 9n – 8 + 15 = 15n + 7 33 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

15a + 10b – 4a –10b = 15a – 4a + 10b – 10b = 11a 34 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .Expanding brackets then simplifying Simplify 5(3a + 2b) – 2(2a + 5b) We need to multiply out both brackets and collect together like terms.

Algebraic multiplication square 35 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

Pelmanism: Equivalent expressions 36 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

Algebraic areas 37 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

5 Factorising expressions A1.3 Multiplying terms A1.4 Dividing terms A1.1 Writing expressions A1.2 Collecting like terms A1.Contents A1 Algebraic expressions A1.6 Substitution 38 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

Dividing terms Remember. in algebra we do not usually use the division sign. Instead we write the number or term we are dividing by underneath like a fraction. ÷. For example. (a + b) ÷ c 39 of 60 is written as a+b c © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

For example. 2 6p 6p2 ÷ 3p = 3p 3 n n3 ÷ n2 = 2 n 1 = 1 n×n×n n×n 1 =n 40 of 60 1 2 = 1 6×p×p 3×p 1 1 = 2p © Boardworks Ltd 2004 . we can often simplify expressions by cancelling.Dividing terms Like a fraction.

Algebraic areas 41 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

Hexagon Puzzle 42 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

3 Multiplying terms A1.4 Dividing terms A1.Contents A1 Algebraic expressions A1.6 Substitution 43 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .5 Factorizing expressions A1.1 Writing expressions A1.2 Collecting like terms A1.

in the expression 5x + 10 the terms 5x and 10 have a common factor. 5(x + 2) 44 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .Factorizing expressions Some expressions can be simplified by dividing each term by a common factor and writing the expression using brackets. We can write the 5 outside of a set of brackets and mentally divide 5x + 10 by 5. 5. For example. (5x + 10) ÷ 5 = x + 2 This is written inside the bracket.

(6a + 8) ÷ 2 = 3a + 4 (12 – 9n) ÷ 3 = 4 – 3n 6a + 8 = 2(3a + 4) 12 – 9n = 3(4 – 3n) 45 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 . Factorize 6a + 8 Factorize 12 – 9n The highest common factor of 6a and 8 is 2. The highest common factor of 12 and 9n is 3.Factorizing expressions Writing 5x + 10 as 5(x + 2) is called factorizing the expression.

(3x + x ) ÷ x = 3 + x (2p + 6p2 – 4p3) ÷ 2p 2 = 1 + 3p – 2p2 3x + x2 = x(3 + x) 2p + 6p2 – 4p3 = 2p(1 + 3p – 2p2) 46 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 . Factorize 3x + x2 Factorize 2p + 6p2 – 4p3 The highest common factor of 3x and x2 is x.Factorizing expressions Writing 5x + 10 as 5(x + 2) is called factorizing the expression. The highest common factor of 2p. 6p2 and 4p3 is 2p.

Algebraic multiplication square 47 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

Pelmanism: Equivalent expressions 48 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

5 Factorising expressions A1.3 Multiplying terms A1.6 Substitution 49 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .2 Collecting like terms A1.Contents A1 Algebraic expressions A1.4 Dividing terms A1.1 Writing expressions A1.

Work it out! 4 + 3 × 0.8 28 19 50 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .6 43 –7 8 5 ===133 –17 5.

5 31.4 21 77 51 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .Work it out! 7 × 0.5 1.4 22 –3 6 9 2 ====–10.

04 150 15 22 87 52 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .Work it out! 2 0.2 12 –4 3 +6 9 ===6.

Work it out! 2( –13 3.2 154 –10 30 52 53 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .6 18 69 7 + 8) ===23.

54 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .Substitution What does substitution mean? In algebra. when we replace letters in an expression or equation with numbers we call it substitution.

Substitution How can 4 + 3 × be written as an algebraic expression? Using n for the variable we can write this as 4 + 3n We can evaluate the expression 4 + 3n by substituting different values for n. When n = 5 4 + 3n = 4 + 3 × 5 = 4 + 15 = 19 When n = 11 4 + 3n = 4 + 3 × 11 = 4 + 33 = 37 55 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .

1 7n = 7 × 1. When n = 4 7n = 7×4÷2 2 = 28 ÷ 2 = 14 When n = 1.85 56 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .7 ÷ 2 = 3.Substitution 7× can be written as 7n 2 2 7n We can evaluate the expression by substituting different 2 values for n.1 ÷ 2 2 = 7.

6 n2 + 7 = 0. When n = 4 n2 + 6 = 42 + 6 = 16 + 6 = 22 When n = 0.Substitution 2 +6 can be written as n2 + 6 We can evaluate the expression n2 + 6 by substituting different values for n.62 + 6 = 0.36 57 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .36 + 6 = 6.

When n = 6 2(n + 8) = 2 × (6 + 8) = 2 × 14 = 28 When n = 13 2(n + 8) = 2 × (13 + 8) = 2 × 21 = 41 58 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .Substitution 2( + 8) can be written as 2(n + 8) We can evaluate the expression 2(n + 8) by substituting different values for n.

b = 2 and c = –1 59 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 . 1) a + b + c = 5 + 2 + –1 = 6 2) 3a + 2c = 3 × 5 + 2 × –1 = 15 + –2 = 13 3) a(b + c) = 5 × (2 + –1) = 5 × 1 = 5 4) abc = 5 × 2 × –1= 10 × –1 = –10 22 – –1 b2 – c 5) = =5÷5=1 a 5 Evaluate these expressions when a = 5.Substitution exercise Here are five expressions.

Noughts and crosses .substitution 60 of 60 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 .