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LAPLACE TECHNOLOGIES

LIMITED
PRESENTS

RADIO FREQUENCY SYSTEMS


ENGINEERING

FACILITATOR:
OGBONNAYA MICHAEL

LAPLACE TECHNOLOGIES
LIMITED
COURSE CONTENT
1. Introduction to Telecommunication.
2. Second Generation Mobile Network.
3. Radio Network Planning Process.
4. Coverage Planning.
5. Capacity Planning.
6. Interference Theory: Frequency Planning.
7. Network Systems Information Parameters Planning.
8. Special Network Solutions.
9. Radio Network Optimization: Quality of Service.
10.Mirroring Advance Technologies.

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Module 1:

Introduction to Telecommunication.

Evolution of Mobile Communication.


Information Theory: Multiple Access.
Modulation & OSI model.

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Evolution of Mobile Communication


1.

First Generation System-Analogue

2.

Started in early 1980


Based on Analogue Transmission
Nordic Countries deployed NMT while Europe deployed
TAC
Roaming was not possible
No efficient use of frequency

Second Generation Networks-Digital

Started in mid 1980s


Product of ESTI standardization
Gave birth to GSM and other variants
Roaming available

LAPLACE TECHNOLOGIES
Evolution
of Mobile Communication
LIMITED
3.

Third Generation System-WCDMA in UTMS

4.

High data transfer; still packet transfer on the air


interface behaves like a circuit switched call.
Called UMTS in Europe; CDMA2000 in America
WCDMA is the air interface technology for the UMTS
Offers many internet based services, along with video
phoning, imaging, etc

Fourth Generation Networks-All IP

Provides the common platform for all the technologies


that have been developed.
The functinalities of the RNC and BSC is now distributed
to the BTS and a set of servers and gateways.
Data transfer is faster, and overall system setup is
cheaper.
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LIMITED MULTIPLE ACCESS
The basic concept of Multiple Access is to permit transmitting
station to transmit to receiving station without any interference.
3 different modes are explored: Frequency, Time, and Code.
1.

FDMA: Frequency Division Multiple Access.

Each user is assigned a discreet slice of the frequency


spectrum.
Permit only one user per channel since it allows the user to
use the channel 100% of the time.
Use for analog cellular mobile system like AMPs, TACs, etc.

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2. TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access.

Multiple users share RF carrier on a time slot basis.


Carriers are sub divided into time slots.
Information flow is not continuous for a user; it is sent
and received in burst.

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3. CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access.
Multiple access spread spectrum technique.
Each user is assigned a sequence code during a call.
No time division, all users use the entire carrier.

LAPLACE TECHNOLOGIES
LIMITEDMODULATION SCHEMES
1.

Gaussian Minimum Phase-shift Keying

Modulation scheme for GSM.


Frequency modulation

2. Octagonal Phase-shift keying (8-PSK)

Employed for data handling in 2.5G

3. Quadrature Phase-shift keying (QPSK)

The wavelength is changed instead of the frequency.


Utilized for WCDMA.

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OSI Model
LIMITED
The basic idea behind development of the OSI reference model
by the ITU was to separate the various parts that form a
communication system. This was possible by layering and
modularization of the function that were performing by
various layers. Although initially developed for
communication between computers, this model is being
extensively used in the telecom field, especially mobile
communication.
1.

Physical Layer

2.

Physical in nature: Copper wire, optical fiber, radio


transmitter or satellite connection.
Does actual transmission of data.

Data Link Layer

Combines data into frames


Error detection and correction; forms part protocol
testing.

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3.

Network Layer

4.

Transport Layer

5.

Boundary between the physical and the logical elements.


Checks data consistency end-to-end
Flow control and Error detection.

Session Layer

6.

Gives routing information.

Application identification and synchronization.

Presentation Layer

Defines and prepares data


Compression and decompression
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7.

Application Layer

Acts as interface between the processes


Application dependent

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Module 2:

Second Generation Mobile Networks

GSM Network Architecture and functions.


Radio Channel Management.
Frequency Spectrum.
Digital Signal Processing.

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GSM System Architecture and Function.
A mobile network system has two major components:(a) The Fixed installed network
Radio networks.
Mobile switching networks.
Management networks
(b) Mobile subscribers.

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SECOND
GENERATION NETWORKS
Second generation networks are networks based on the digital
transmission technology. Types of second generation networks;
(1) D-AMPS ( Digital Advance Mobile Phone System)
(2) CDMA ( Code Division Multiple Access).
(3) GSM ( Global System for Mobile Communication).

GSM-Global System for Mobile Communication.


First developed in the 1980s.
Digital system and a narrow band TDMA.
Modulation scheme is Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying, GMSK.
First commercially launched in Finland in 1991.
More than a billion people using GSM by 2005.
Added services such as prepaid calling, international roaming, SMS,
voice mail, call waiting, etc.
GSM operates on various radio frequencies, with most operating at
900MHz and/ or 1800MHz.
Downlink band for 900M is 935-900MHz and the Uplink band is 890915MHz

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GSM System Architecture

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Radio Network-Base Station Subsystem (BSS).

On the MS side is air, MSC side is 2mbits.


Provides the link between the MS and the M SC.
Made up of Base Station Controller & Base Transceiver Station.

Base Station Control

Frequency administration
Control of the BTS
Exchange function between BTS and MSC.

Base Transceiver Station

Usually located in the centre of a cell.


Contains the RF components that provides the air
interface/channels for signaling and user data traffic in the cell.
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Mobile
Switching System
The mobile switching system consist of the mobile switching
centre and databases, which stores data required for routing
and service provisions.
Components of MSS
(a) Mobile Switching Centre.
(b) Gateway Mobile Switching Centre.
(c) Home Location Register.
(d) Visitor Location Register.
(e) Authentication Centre.
Mobile switching centre (MSC)
That is the switching node for mobile network.
Route path search and signal routing.
BSCs are subordinate to a single MSC.
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(2) LIMITED
Dedicated Gateway MSC (GMSC)
Passes traffic between fixed networks and mobile networks.

(3)Home Location Register


Synchronization of registration of subscribers and their current
location.
Stores the identity and user data of all subscribers belonging to the
related GMSC.
These includes both Permanent and Temporary data.
Permanent data:
(a) International mobile subscribers identity, IMSI.
(b) Phone number from the public network (different from IMSI)
(c) Authentication keys.
(d) Subscribers permitted supplementary service.
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Temporary data:
(a) Address of the current HLR.
(b) The number to which the calls may be forwarded.
(c) Some transit parameters for authentication and ciphering.
*In general , there is one HLR per PLMN, but

(4)Visitor Location Register


Synchronization of registration of subscribers and current
location.
Stores the data of all mobile stations within the administrative
area (LA) of the associated MSC.
Can be responsible for one or more MSC.

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Operation and Maintenance Subsystem.
(1) Control and maintains the network.

(2) Network control functions are monitored and initiated from


the Operation and Maintenance centre (OMC).
(3) The OMC has access to both MSC and BSC and the functions
are;i. Administration and commercial operations (subscribers,
end terminals,
charging)
ii. Security management.
iii. Network configuration, operation, performance
management.
iv. Maintenance task.
(4) The OMC configures the BTS via the BSC and allows the
operator to check the
components of the system.
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MOBILE SYSTEM
The mobile system/ station are a set of equipment used by the
mobile subscribers to access the services consist of two major
components:(1) Mobile Equipment ME-(handset)
(2) Subscribers Identity Module, SIM- (defines the users)

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IDENTIFIERS
Location Area Identity LAI

Identifies every location area in the network.


LAI= MCC+MNC+LAC

(1) IMSI = International mobile Subscribers Identity

Identify each subscribers uniquely in the network.


Stored in the SIM.
IMSI= MCC + MNC+ MSIN
MCC= Mobile country code: 3 decimal places (internal standard).
MNC= Mobile Network Code: 2 decimal places, for unique
identification of mobile network across the country.
MSIN= Mobile Subscriber Identification Number:- identify the
subscriber in the mobile network
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IMEI= International mobile equipment identity
LIMITED
Uniquely identifies each mobile station internationally.
Allocated by the equipment manufacturer and registered by the
network operators in the EIR.
(3)MSISDN:- Mobile Subscriber ISDN number.
The real telephone number of the MS.
Assigned to the subscriber, such that MS can have several MSISDN
depending on the SIM.
(4) TMSI:- Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity.
Assign by the VLR to the MS.
Significant only in the area handled by the VLR.
Used in place of the TMSI for identification and addressing of the
MS.
Serves a identity hopping means, since nobody can listen to the
radio channel and identify the correct IMSI
TMSI changes from one VLR to another.
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INTERFACE
(1) Air Interface

The central and most important in every mobile system.


The only interface exposed to the mobile station.
Interface between the MS and the BTS.
(2) ABIS Interface
Interface between BTS and the BSC.
It is a PCM interface that means it is defined by the 2Mbps PCM
link. Thus a transmission rate of 2.048Mbps, having 32 channels of
64kpbs each.
Multiplexing and transcoding functions from 64kpbs on the Abis to
13kbps on the air.

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(3) A interface

Physical interface between the MSC and the BSC.


Consist of one or more PCM, each of capacity 2.048mbps.
There are two parts of the A interface one from the BSC to the
TRAU where transmission is compressed, and one between the TRAU
and the MSC, where the data is uncompressed.

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SIGNALLING
LIMITED
LAPDm
LAPDm stands for modified link access protocol for D-channel.
This is the modified optimization version of the LAPDm signaling for
the GSM air interface.

SS7
SS7 stands for Signaling System No 7.
Forms the basis of all signaling traffic on all the NSS interface.
Developed by the ITU.
Provides the protocol by which the network elements in the mobile
(telephone) network can exchange information.
Used between BSC and MSC, and used for call setup and call
management.
It is also Known as CCS7
It is not allocated permanently, requires only for call setup and call
release functions.
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X.25
X.25 links the BSC to the O and M centre.
ITU developed signaling protocol, allowing communication between
remote devices.
Utilizes connection oriented protocol.
It is a packet switched data network protocol that allows both data
and control information flow between the host and the network.

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RADIO
CHANNEL MANAGEMENT
In the mobile network MS is connected to the network via the radio
channel. In this way the subscribers can access the network and
obtain communication services. To achieve the inter-working
between the MS and BTS, a set of standard are set for signal
transmission through the radio channel. This set of specifications is
aimed at Um interface.
The Um interface is a kind of radio interface. It is responsible for the
communication between the MS and the BTS and provides the interworking link between the MS and the GSM system.
Channel types.
(1) Physical channels.
(2) Logical channels.

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Physical
channels.
Physical channels is all the Time Slot of the BTS, either full rate
(13kbps) or half rate(6.5kbps).

Logical channels
Logical channels refers to the specific type of information that is
carried by the physical channel.
Logical channel can also be divided into two types : Traffic channels
(TCH) and control channels.
(1) Broadcast control channel- BCCH
Broadcast system information to the MS.
Configured in every cell.
Enable MS to identify and access network at the idle mode.

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2) Frequency Correction channel-FCCH
LIMITED

Provides information for carrier synchronization


(3) Synchronous channel SCH
Decodes the BSIC and MS frame synchronization..
(4) Paging Channel-PCH
The BTS/BSC uses PCH to page the MS using the TMSI or IMSI.
(5) Access Grant Channel-AGCH
Used in answering network access request by the MS.
Allocation of SDCCH or TCH directly.
6) Random Access Channel-RACH
Used by MS to randomly access the network by requesting for
SDCCH.
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7) Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel-SDCCH
Used for signaling messages, concerned with call setup,
location update message, SMS, etc.
(8) Slow Associated Control Channel-SACCH
Used with the traffic channel or SDCCH.
It carries specific information while transmitting the subscribed
information.
In uplink, it transmits the measurement report.
In down link, it transmits some system information messages.
(9) Fast Associated control Channel- FACCH
Provides signaling messages who speed and timeliness are
much higher than SACCH.
Used together with TCH
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Traffic channel carries voice or data, which are full rate TCH/F or half
rate TCH/H. (13kbps or 6.5kbps).
The control channel are used to transmit signaling or synchronous
data.
There are three main types of control channels:
(1) Broadcast Channel, BCCH
(2) Common Control channel.
(3) Dedicated Control channel.
Physical combination of logical channel
There are two multi-frame types of combination:
(1) 26- frame multi-frame.
(2) 51-frames Multi-frame.

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1)LIMITED
26 frame multi-frame.
TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/TF (Full rate)
TCH/H+FACCH/H+SACCH/TH (Hall rate)

(2) 51-frame multi-frame


FCCH+ SCH+BCCH+CCCH-Main BCCH
FCCH+SCH BCCH CCCH +SDCCH/4+SACCH/C4(combined BCCH)
BCCH+CCCH (Extended BCCH)
SDCCH/8+SACCH/8 (Main SDCCH)
As shown above CCCH =PCH+RACH+AGCH.

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Digital
Signal Processing
The radio channel is quite different from the wired channel. The
radio channel has a distinct time change characteristics and is
also exposed to air. So it is vulnerable to the interferences in the
air. To solve the problems mentioned above a series of forward
and backward (uplink and downlink) transmission techniques are
applied.
The original subscribers data or signaling data are transformed
before being carried by the radio waves. And at the other end of
the transmission a reverse transformation is done.
The transformation processes includes:
(a) Channel coding /decoding.
(b) Interleaving / de-interleaving
(c) Burst formatting
(d) Encryption/ Decryption
(e) Modulation/ Demodulation.
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LAPLACE TECHNOLOGIES
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Digital
Signal Processing
The radio channel is quite different from the wired channel. The
radio channel has a distinct time change characteristics and is
also exposed to air. So it is vulnerable to the interferences in the
air. To solve the problems mentioned above a series of forward
and backward (uplink and downlink) transmission techniques are
applied.
The original subscribers data or signaling data are transformed
before being carried by the radio waves. And at the other end of
the transmission a reverse transformation is done.
The transformation processes includes:
Voice coding
Channel coding /decoding.
Interleaving / de-interleaving
Burst formatting
Encryption/ Decryption
Modulation/ Demodulation.
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Module 3: Radio Network Planning Process
Definition of Radio Network Requirements
Preliminary Network Design
Project Setup and Management
Site Planning: Site Simulation and Modelling
Coverage and Capacity Planning
Site Acquisition
Technical Site Survey and Validation
Parameter Planning
Site Integration
Site Verification and drive test
Hardware/Software check
Network Optimization and Site Acceptance

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DEFINITION OF RADIO NETWORK REQUIREMENTS

This defines the customer request to the vendor equipment


supplier through the request for quote:

Coverage
Definition of coverage probability: percentage of measurement
above level threshold.
Definition of covered area.

Traffic
Definition of erlang by subscribers.
Number of subscribers .
Definition of number of TRX per cell.
Definition of mixture of cell configurations.
Half rate ratio.
Mixture of circuit switch and packet switched traffic

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Quality of service
LIMITED
Key performance indices benchmark definitions: call setup
success rate , call drop rate, hand over success rate, channel
congestion rate.
Rx-Qual, Voice Quality (SQI), throughput rates, ping time.

Frequency Resources Licensed

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LAPLACE TECHNOLOGIES
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PRELIMINARY NETWORK DESIGN
The output is the bill of quality (BOQ) of all the needed network
elements.

Geo data procurement.

Digital elevation model/topographic map.


Clutter map.

Definition of standard equipment configurations.

Clutter type.
Traffic density.

Coverage plot

Expected receiving level at different points.


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Definition of roll out phases.
Areas to be covered.
Number of sites to be installed.
Project take off date.

Network architecture design


BSC dimensioning
BSC/MSC parenting.

Frequency Multiplexing pattern.

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SITE PLANNING:SITE SIMULATION AND MODELING
LIMITED
(1) Area survey: check the correctness of the geo-data.

(2) Simulation tool calibration for different morpho classes:


(a) Performing of measurement
(b) Calibration of correction factor and standard deviation by
comparison of measurement to predicted received power values of
the tool.
(3) Site simulation and modeling : site is modeled in the tool and a
hypothetical position is taken and this defines the numerical search
area map.
(4)A team consisting of RF, TX and SAQ searches for the location
based on some agreed conditions .
(5) Selection of number of TRX/sectors per sites.
(6) Frequency spectrum planning and design.
(7) Final output: cell design coverage & Prediction plot.

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LAPLACE TECHNOLOGIES
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COVERAGE PLANNING.

Definition of coverage area.


Expected area coverage probability.
Expected Signal receiving level at different points: Outdoor,
Indoor, Incar.

CAPACITY PLANNING
Number of subscribers
Traffic Plan per subscribers
Number of BTS/BSC
Half Rate Ratio

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LAPLACE TECHNOLOGIES
SITE ACQUISITION
LIMITED
Site acquisition procedures involves the following:
1.

Identify several locations within the Search Area Map, SAM.

2.

Redefinition of SAM if no good candidate exist within the


pre-determined area.

3.

Identify possible candidate and produce a report bearing the


following information;

Location information- latitude, longitude, altitude.

Land usage.

Object (rooftop pylon, grassland)

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SITE ACQUISITION
LIMITED
Site plan.
If the reported location are candidates then it is ranked
according to its quality in terms of the following:
1.

Structural engineering suitability.

2.

Feasibility of Site Acquisition.

3.

Availability of Line of sight

4.

Subscribers base potential

5.

Statutory restrictions.

6.

Material handling

7.

RF Engineering conditions.
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TECHNICAL
SITE SURVEY AND VALIDATION
LIMITED
The stakeholders here are:
(1) RF engineer.

(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

Transmission engineer.
Civil /site engineer.
Property officer.
Site owner.

Technical site survey report defines:


(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)

Antenna type, position, height, bearing / orientation and tilt.


Mast/pole or wall mounting position of antenna.
EMC rules are observed.
BTS location
Power and feeder cable mount.
Transmission equipment location and installation.
Final Line of Site (LoS) confirmation for microwave link planning.
Accessibility for maintenance use.
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If the site is not acceptable based on the condition above or the
owner disagrees with all suggested solutions, the site rejected and
process starts all over.

PARAMETER PLANNING
After installation of equipment the basic parameter setting are used
for commissioning and functional testing of BTS. The following cell
design parameters are defined:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)

CGI/LAC/BSIC
Frequencies
Neighbor/cell handover relationships.
Transmit power of radios.
Cell type (macro, micro, umbrella)
Cell band e.g. 900M, 1800M or 900/1800M.
Layer threshold, etc.

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LAPLACE TECHNOLOGIES
LIMITED SITE INTEGRATION
Provision of site support elements.
Confirming the site commissioning checklist.
Powering up and system pre-check.
Commissioning
Inspection and Alarm testing
Integration of elements.

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SITE
VERIFICATION AND DRIVE TEST
RF engineer performs the site verification and drive test to compare
the real coverage with the predicted coverage of the cells.
If coverage holes or area of high interference are detected;
Adjust the antenna tilt and direction.

HW/SW Problem Detection


During the functional testing and drive testing, we can detect the
following:
Defective equipment.
Soft ware bugs,
Incorrect parameter settings.
Faulty antenna installation.

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LAPLACE TECHNOLOGIES
LIMITEDNetwork Optimization
Procedures

Drive testing
KPI evaluation
Network parameter audit.

Network Acceptance
Procedures
Acceptance drive test
Calculation of KPI according to acceptance requirement in
contract.
Presentation of KPI to customers.
Comparison of KPI with the accepted target in the contract.
Network acceptance: part or whole
Commercial launch.
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Module
4:
Coverage Planning.

Geo Databases
Radio Elements.
Radio Cell and Wave Propagation.
Path loss prediction.
Link budget.
Antenna System Engineering.
Coverage improvement solutions.

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GEO
DATABASES.
Geo data is required for radio planning because propagation models
depends on the characteristics of geographical data.
Geographical information for site acquisition include:
Longitude and Latitude.
Rectangular Coordinates.

Map Projection.
Different map projections.
Geodetic Datum eg WGS 84
Transverse Mercator Projection, UTM

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Geospatial
Data for Network Planning
1. DEM-Digital Elevation Model

Raster dataset that shows terrain features such as hills and


valleys.
Each element or pixel in the DEM image represents the
terrain elevation at the location.
Resolution in most cases: 20m for urban areas; 50-100m for
other areas.
DEM are typically generated from topographic maps,
satellite images or aerial photography.

2. Morpho-structure/Land Usage/Clutter.

Land usage classification according to the impact on wave


propagation eg buildings, forest, plain land, rivers, etc
Resolution for urban areas is 20m; 50-100m for other areas.
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3. LIMITED
Background Data.

All kinds of information data like


streets, borders, coastlines etc.

Necessary for orientation


in plots of calculation results

The background data are


not needed for the calculation
of the field strength, power etc.

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4. LIMITED
Scanned Map
Mainly used as
background data
Not used for calculation
but for localization
Has to be geo-coded
to put it into a GIS
(Geographic Information System)
e.g. a Radio Network Planning Tool

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5. Buildings

Outlines of single buildings


and building blocks

Building heights

Material code

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LIMITED Coverage Planning
The target for coverage planning is to find optimal locations for
base station to build continuous coverage according to the
planning requirements.
Coverage planning is performed with a planning tool including a
digital map with topography information.

Steps in Coverage Planning


Create a preliminary plan base on the calculated number of
base station from the dimensioning phase agreed with the
operator.
Find the actual base station location during site survey and
validation

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Radio Elements.

Radios: 900M/1800M TRX


Combiners
Feeders
Antenna

Radio cell and wave propagation.


Coverage in cell is dependent upon the area covered by the signal.
The distance traveled by the signal is dependent upon radio
propagation characteristics in the given area.
The whole land area is divided into three major classes urban,
suburban and rural, based on human made structure and natural
terrains.
The cell sites that are constructed are also classified as outdoor or
indoor cells.
Outdoor cells can be further classified as:
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Macro cell
LIMITED
When base station antennas are placed above the average root
top level
The area to be covered is wide
Cell range up to 35Km depending on terrain type and
propagation condition.

Micro cell

Base station antennas are placed below the average roof top.
The area to be covered is small.
Cell range within 1km.

Pico cell

Define in the cell layer as micro cell


Used as indoor.

Umbrella Cell

Antenna height is placed above 50m


Used for road coverage sites
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Radio
Propagation Environment
The radio frequency from 3Hz to 3000GHz are separated into 12
bands, as shown in the table below. Frequency in different frequency
spectrum has different propagation characteristics. For mobile
communication, we only pay attention to the UHF spectrum.

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Radio
Propagation Model.
Propagation is the basis for mobile communication in cell
planning. A good model should have good recognition and
acceptability. Models predict path loss in radio propagation path.
Propagation environment plays an important role in radio
propagation model. Main factors are:

Natural (mountains, hills, plains and water.


Quantity, height, distribution and material of man made
buildings.
Characteristics of vegetation in the area.
Climatic conditions.
Condition of natural and man made electromagnetic noise.

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In addition, radio propagation model is affected by the system
working at the frequency. E.g. stationary and moving MS.
Types of propagation models

Outdoor

Indoor

Radio wave propagation concepts


Propagation of the radio wave in free space depends heavily on
the frequency of the signal and obstacle in its path.
Major effects on signal behavior are

Reflection and Multi-path


Diffraction or Shadowing
Building and vehicle penetration.
Propagation of signal over water.
Foliage loss.
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Fading
of the signal
Signal looses strength from transmitting antenna to the receiving
antenna. This may be due to

Path loss: loss in free space

Rayleigh effect.

Rayleigh Effect

Multi-path fading
Frequency- selective fading.

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Antenna System Engineering
Basis of Antenna
In the wireless communication system, antenna is the interface
between the transceiver and outside transmission medium.
Antenna can serve two functions at the same time:
1.
2.

Transmit Radio waves: converts high frequency current in radio


waves.
Receive Radio waves: converts radio waves into high frequency
current.

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ANTENNA SELECTION PRINCIPLE
When selecting GSM Base station antennas, two parameters are
considered, namely:
1.
2.

Electric parameters
Mechanical parameters.

ELECTRIC PARAMETERS
1. Working frequency
2. Gains
3. Polarization mode
4. Lobe width: Horizontal and Vertical
5. Down tilt
6. Adjusting range of down tilt
7. Power capacity
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MECHANICAL
PERFORMANCES
1.
2.
3.
4.

Dimension
weight
Wind Load
Antenna input interface

SELECTION BASED ON RADIATION DIRECTION


Omni directional
Directional
SELECTION BASED ON POLARIZATION MODE
1. vertical polarization-Single polarization
2. Cross polarization Dual polarization

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ANTENNA GAIN
Gains is one of important indicator of antenna, which shows the
capacity of an antenna to concentrate energy in a certain
direction.
There are two units designated to antenna gain, namely Dbi and
dbd.
The relationship between them is:
Dbi

= dbd + 2.15

Dbd: Defined to be the relative capacity of an actual directional


antenna to concentrate energy in relation to dipole.
Dbi: Defined to be the relative capacity of an actual directional
antenna to concentrate energy in relation to isotropic antenna.

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ISOTROPIC
ANTENNA
LIMITED
Isotropic Antenna is a kind of theoretical model, not existing in
reality, which presumed the antenna is to be a radiating point
source energy radiating around evenly from the center of this
point in the form of electromagnetic field to form a spherical
wave.

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ANTENNA RADIATION PATTERN
Antenna radiation pattern is the shape of the electromagnetic
field radiating by antenna distributed with angular coordinates
within a fixed distance.
We have three kinds of patterns:
1. Field strength
2. power density
3. Phase pattern
The radiation lobe required in the maximum radiation direction in
the directional diagram is called antenna major lobe-Antenna beam.
Other lobes are secondary or side lobes.

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Radiation
Pattern
LIMITED
Omni-directional Antenna

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Directional
Antenna

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Antenna Tilt.
The angle of inclination given to the antenna when installed.
Depends on antenna height, azimuth, gain, vertical beam power
and cell range expected.
Two type exist:
Mechanical Tilt
Electrical Tilt

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Antenna Selection.
In mobile communication, it is very important to select the right
antenna for the deregulation. We make a choice in the light of
practical conditions such as the requirement on coverage, traffic,
interface and network service quality of the network.
The major antenna parameters considered are the gain, beam
width, tilt. A proper antenna will enlarge the coverage, reduce
interference and improve service quality.
Antenna selection is closely related to coverage requirements,
antenna selection can be divided types of land forms and traffic
distribution.
1. Urban

2. Suburban

3. Rural

4. Highway

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Module 5:

Capacity Planning.

Traffic theory.
Erlang B Table.
Traffic capacity and channel planning.
Carrier types.
Control Channel planning.
BTS/BSC Dimensioning
Location Area Planning
Cell structures and network evolution.

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gtt

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Link
Budget
LIMITED
Also known as Power Budget. Link budget calculations give the loss
in the signal strenght on the path between the mobile station
antenna and base station antenna.
Defines the cell range
Coverage threshold.
Link budget calculations are done for both uplink and downlink.
Since the power transmitted by the MS antenna is less than the
power transmitted by the BTS antenna, the BTS Power budget is the
most critical.
Important component of Link Budget Calculation.
MS sensitivity.
BTS sensitivity
Fade Margin
Connector and Cable losses
MS and BTS antenna gain

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Module 5:

Capacity Planning.

Traffic theory.
Erlang B Table.
Traffic capacity and channel planning.
Carrier types.
Control Channel planning.
BTS/BSC Dimensioning
Location Area Planning
Cell structures and network evolution.

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TRAFFIC
THEORY
Cellular system capacity depends on a number of different factors.
These include:
1.

The number of channels available for voice and or data

2.

The grade of service (GOS) the subscribers are encountering in


the system.

Traffic refers to the usage of channels and is usually taken to be the


holding time per time unit (or number of call hours per hour)
for one or several circuits (trunks or channels).
The unit of traffic is Erlang (E)
For example, if one subscriber spends all his/her time on the phone
he/ she can generate one call per hour or 1E of traffic.
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Erlang B table

Erlang B table named after the Danish traffic theorist is based on


most common assumptions, namely

No queues
Number of subscribers much higher than number of traffic
channels
No dedicated traffic channels
Blocked calls, abandon call attempt
Poisson distributed (random) traffic.

Erlang B traffic model is used to work out the traffic density a


network is capable of bearing. GoS or call loss may be 2% or
5%. Erlang B table is shown below.

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ERLANG B TABLE

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Traffic
capacity and channel planning
LIMITED
These are three major channels during capacity planning namely
BCCHCarries the systems information
TCH---- carries voice/data
SDCCH--- carries signaling information.

Rule of thumb
Every cell bears a BCCH channel
Every cell contains a certain number of SDCCH channel
depending on anticipated TCH traffic and signaling activities
The remaining channels are TCH channels
For example
A cell has 2 TRX there are 1 BCCH, 1SDCCH, & TCH channels
From erlang B table, 14TCH channels at 2% GoS is equal to
8.2erlang
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SDCCH PLANNING

The table below shows a simple guideline on how to utilize SDCCH


channels
Activities that use the SDCCH channels are

location updating

periodic registration

IMSI attach/detach

Call setup

SMS

FAX

CARRIER TYPES
1.
2.

900M--- 40W-60W
1800M--- 40W-60W

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Control channel planning
1.
2.

combined CCCH
uncombined CCCH

BTS/BSC Dimensioning

Sharing the BTS across the BSC

Available TX resources

Available radio resources in the BSC


MSC/ transcoder resources available

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Location Area Planning

Under the GSM protocol, the entire mobile communication network is


divided into service areas in light of different area codes.
Paging messages are delivered in terms of location areas, with the
paging of one MS in the location area delivered to all the cells.
The location area may include one or more BSC, but it must belong
to a single MSC
The principles of designing Location Area Code includes:
Location area must not be too large or too small
Location area division is performed in terms of geographical
distribution and behavior of mobile users, so as to achieve fewer
location updates at the edge of area.

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Module 6:

Interference Theory: Frequency Planning.

Theory of Interference.
Frequency Spectrum Allocation.
Frequency Planning & Reuse Pattern.
Frequency Hopping.

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FREQUENCY RESOURCE OF GSM SYSTEM

890

GSM 900 :

915

935

960

Duplex distance : 45 MHz

1710

GSM 1800 :

1785

1805

1880

Duplex distance : 95 MHz

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FREQUENCY BAND CONFIGURATION


GSM900:

BTS receiver (uplink ):


f1 (n) =890.2+ (n-1)*0.2 MHz
BTS transmitter (downlink ):
f2 (n) =f1 (n) +45 MHz
GSM1800:
BTS receiver (uplink ):
f1 (n) =1710.2 + (n-512) * 0.2 MHz
BTS transmitter (downlink ):
f2 (n) =f1 (n) +95 MHz

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INTERFERENCE THEORY
GSM is an interference restricted system.
Carrier-to-interference ratio, also called interference protection
ratio, CI
C/I = All useful signals = _ carrier
All useless signals
Interference
GSM standard: C / I >= 9 dB
In practical projects: C / I >= 12dB
Useful signal

Noise from
environment
Other
signals

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EFFECTS OF INTERFERENCE
Decrease of signal quality

Bit error
Recoverable: channel coding, error
correction
Irrecoverable: phase distortion

System interference model

Unbalanced: uplink interference downlink


interference

Asymmetrical: the interference is different at the MS


and BTS ends

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SIGNAL
QUALITY
Receiving quality (RXQUAL parameter)
Level of receiving quality (0 ... 7)
Bit error rate before decoding and error correction
RXQUAL
class
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Mean BER
(%)
0.14
0.28
0.57
1.13
2.26
4.53
9.05
18.1

BER range
from... to
< 0.2%
0.2 ... 0.4 %
0.4 ... 0.8 %
0.8 ... 1.6 %
1.6 ... 3.2 %
3.2 ... 6.4 %
6.4 ... 12.8 %
> 12.8 %

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CONCEPT OF FREQUENCY REUSE

Frequency
If

resource is limited.

there is 8MHz frequency resource, 8 MHz = 40 channels * 8

timeslots

320

==> max. 320 users can access the network at the same time.

Macro-cell system

{fi,fj..fk}

d
Micro-cell system
{fi,fj..fk}

..

{fi,fj..fk}

..

{fi,fj..fk}

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FREQUENCY
REUSE CLUSTER
Reuse density is the number of cells in a basic reuse cluster.
4*3 12
n*m n*m
n: BTS number in a basic reuse cluster
m: Frequency group number in a BTS
4*3 Reuse Pattern

C1 C2
A1 A2
C3 D1
C1 C2
D2
A3
A1 A2
B1 B2
C3 D1
D3
D2 B3
A3 B1
C1 C2
C1 C2
B2 D3
A1 A2
A1 A2
B3 C1
C3 D1
C3 D1
C2 A3
D2 A3
D2
A1 A2
B1 B2
B1 B2
C3 D1
D3 C1
D3
D2
C2
A3 B1
B3 A1
B3
B2 D3
A2 C3
D1 D2
B3
A3 B1
B2 D3
B3

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4*3

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TIGHT REUSE PATTERN


Multi-layer reuse pattern
Underlaid and overlaid cell
1*3
1*1

MULTI-LAYER REUSE PATTERN

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Suppose

that the available frequency carrier is 10MHZ, channel

number is 46 94, the Multi-layer reuse pattern should be:

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1*3LIMITED
REUSE PATTERN
1*1 REUSE PATTERN
FREQUENCY PLANNING PRINCIPLE
There should be no co-channel frequency carriers in one BTS.
The frequency separation between BCCH and TCH in the same cell
should be not less than 400K.
When frequency hopping is not used, the separation of TCH in the
same cell should be not less than 400K.
In non-1*3 reuse mode, co-channel should be avoided between the
immediately neighbor BTS.
Neighbor BTS should not have co-channels facing each other
directly.
Normally, with 1*3 reuse, the number of the hopping frequencies
should be not less than twice of the number of frequency hopping
TRX in the same cell.
Pay close attention to co-channel reuse, avoiding the situation that
the same BCCH has the same BSIC in adjacent area.
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EXAMPLES
OF FREQUENCY PLANNING
An example network in a specific place, BTS are densely located. The
topography is plain. The maximum BTS configuration is S3/3/2.
INITIAL PLANNING

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FINAL PLAN

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FREQUENCY HOPPING
Frequency hopping is a technique that basically improves the
channel to interference C/I ratio by utilizing many frequency
channels.
BENEFITS.
Get an agreeable radio environment.
Provide a similar communication quality for every user.
Tighter reuse patterns are possible to be used for larger capacity.

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TYPES OF FREQUENCY HOPPING
1.
2.

Base band Hopping


RF Hopping

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HOPPING
PARAMETERS
At the Um interface, the ARFCN on a specific burst is an element in
MA set. MAI is used for indication, referring to a specific element in
the MA set.
When 0< MAI<n-1
MAI is the function of TDMA FN, HSN and MAIO.

HSN
HOPPING SEQUENCE NUMBER,
Used to define the actual rule for hopping.
HSN hopping sequence number 0 63 .
HSN=0 cycle hopping.
HSN0 random hopping. Every sequence number corresponds a
pseudo random sequence.

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MA
Mobile Allocation set: Set of available frequency during hopping.
Must not contain the BCCH frequency for RF hopping.

MAIO
Mobile Allocation Index Offset: Used to define the initial frequency of
the hopping. The MAIO of all channels of one hopping TRX must be
identical. The MAIO of different channels of the different hopping
TRX in the same cell must be different.

TSC
Training Sequence Code: Used for delay equalization at the receiver
end. TSC must be the same as the BCC.
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Module 7:

Network System Information Parameters


Network Identity Parameters
System Control Parameters.
Cell Data Parameters.
Network Function Parameters.

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NETWORK PARAMETERS
Network parameters are those parameters that govern the
behavior of the MS as it access the network, setup call, and
conclude communication appropriately.
Network parameters are actually system information sent to the
MS through the air interface, and this include network identity
parameters, cell selection parameters, system control and
network function parameters. By reading this system
information, the MS can access the network, perform cell
selection and reselection, fully utilize various services provided
by the network, and achieve favorable cooperation with the
network.
These network parameters can be sent to the MS on two
different channels:
BCCH, usually on idle mode: CCCH information.
SACCH, usually on dedicated mode: TRX management.
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Network parameters are divided into four parts:
LIMITED
Network identity parameter.
System control parameter.
Cell selection parameter.
Network function parameters.

NETWORK IDENTITY PARAMETERS


Network identity parameters includes :
CGI
BSIC
CGI = Cell Global Identity consist of location, Area identity and
Cell identity, and LAI consist of ; Mobile Country Code (MCC),
Mobile Network Code (MNC), and Location Area Code (LAC).
CGI= MCC+MNC+LAC+CI
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MCC:
Consist of 3 decimal numbers.
Indicates home country of the mobile subscriber.
Coding range is decimal 000-999.

MNC:
Uniquely identify a specific OSM PLMN network in a certain country.
Consist of two decimal numbers.
The coding range is 00-99.
LAC:
Locate the location of the MS based on the local area demarcation
Contains Hexadecimal coding.
Available range is 000IH to FFFEH.
CI
Cell ID of individual cell.
Uniquely identifies a cell in a network.

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BSIC: Base Station Identity Code.
This is a color code allocated to each base station. MS can identify
two cells with the same BCCH with the help of a
BSIC.
BSIC = NCC+BCC
NCC-:
MS uses it to distinguish adjacent BTS that belong to different GSM
PLMN.
The coding range is 0-7.
BCC-:
Used to identify different cells with the same BCCH in the same
GSM system.
BCC is always configured the same value as TSC
Coding range is 0-7.

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SYSTEM CONTROL PARAMETERS
System Control Parameters are meant for favorable cooperation
between MS and BTS. On the other hand, the values of these
parameters affect the traffic load and signaling flow of each part
of the system.
ATT
Value range: Yes, No.
Content: Referred to as attach- detach is allowed in a cell.
Yes means, network should not process the connection to the
subscriber called when MS is switched off. Thus network
processing time and resources are saved.
Recommended value : Yes.
)

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CCCH CONF.
LIMITED
This is the Common Control Channel Configuration and
determines the capacity of PCH, AGCH and RACH.
It is either a combined CCCH or uncombined CCCH, and value is
determined by the number of TRX configured.
NOTE: When you have 1TRX configured, use combined CCCH,
otherwise use uncombined CCCH.
BS-AG-BLKS-RES
This is called Access Granted Blocks Reserved,
Assigned the proportion of AGCH and PCH on CCCH. It affects the
MS response to paging.
Recommended value is 2.
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T3212
It is periodic Location Update Timer- Defines periodic length of
location updating.
MS makes periodic location update controlled by T3212. MS reads
T3212 and stores it in the SIM, when the time expires, the location
area update would be triggered.
The shorter the time, the better the system performance but it
would increase the signaling load of the system.

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Radio
Link Timeout
LIMITED
This parameter is used by MS to decide down link disconnection in
case of SACCH decoding failures.
MS starts a counter S, from then S decreases by 1 once SACCH fails
to decode its message, and increases by two when SACCH decodes
correctly. When S drops to O, the call would drop.
Recommended configuration is dependent on the area (high traffic,
low traffic and medium traffic).
Neighbor Cell Description
There are BA1 and BA2 tables.
BA1 describes BCCH frequencies of the adjacent cell to be
measured when MS is in idle mode. BA2 describes BCCH frequencies
of the adjacent cells to be measured when MS is in dedicated mode.
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MS

MAX Re-trans

The number of times MS is allowed to send channel request in one


immediate assignment procedure.
Setting dependent on traffic situation and area.
MBR.
Multi-band Reporting: used to inform MS to report the adjacent
cells in a controllable way.
Applicable for a dual band network.
Value is from 0-3.
When the value is 0, MS will report MR of six strongest adjacent
cells no matter which band its in.

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LIMITED Cell Selection Parameters.
Normal Cell Selection
Stored List Cell Selection.
NORMAL SELECTION.
SIM card of MS does not store any BCCH.
Cell Reselection Process.
Cell reselection in same Location Area.
Cell selection in different Location Area.
C2=C1+CRO-TO*H(PT-T)

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MS _LIMITED
TXPWR _ MAX _ CCH
This parameter determines the maximum allowed output power of
the MS when it begin to access a cell, and has not yet received
power control.
Recommended value 900M(5), 1800M(0).
RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN
The minimum receives signal level required for MS to access a cell.
Recommended is -102dBm.
CRO
Cell Reselection Offset: Manual adjustment of the value of C2 to
motivate MS cell reselection.
CRH
Cell Reselection Hysteresis: Parameter utilize when cell reselection
is between two location areas.
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Network Functions Parameters


Uplink Discontinuous Transmission
Call- Re-establishment Allowed.
EC Allowed.

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MODULE 8: SPECIAL NETWORK SOLUTION

Dual Band Network Topology


Speech codec
Multi-band Cell Network
Concentric Circle
Adaptive Multi-rate and Speech optimization.

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1)
Types of Frequency band
900M
1800M

900M

124 channels available.


Limited capacity;
maximum number of subscribers is 40 million on 900M macro
cells.
Suffers less fading and losses when compared to 1800M, hence
utilized as coverage band.

1800M

374 channels available.


More capacity than 900M, about 3 times that of 900M, hence
utilized as capacity band.
Suffers more fading and losses
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Types of dual band technology: Topology
1. Independent MSC networking.

2. MSC-sharing / independent BSC networking.


3. BSC sharing networking.

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)

Independent MSC networking.

Explicit network planning.


Clear network data configuration.
Easy implementation and engineering.
Meets long term network expansion.
Convenient for whole network management and new service
development.
It needs large volume of initial investment in network building.
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MSC sharing/ BSC independent networking
Exert great significance upon original network.
Has limited expansion space.
Slight difficulty in implementation and engineering.

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BSC sharing (Hybrid)
Exert great influence upon the original network.
Requires re-planning of the NSS.
Difficult to implement.
Small volume of initial investment

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Traffic Control Management Policy
To implement flexible and effective dual band traffic guidance
and control, various control policies are used ;
Idle mode MS selects 1800M.
In stand by state, MS selects 1800M.
In communication state, MS utilizes cell layer and priorities
based on the HCS, to choose cell.
Various dual-band traffic handover methods can be used to
implement reasonable traffic load.

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Traffic balancing between 900M and 1800M
Idle mode.
Active mode.

Idle mode;
CRO: Cell Reselection Offset.
C2 = C1+CRO

Active Mode
Inter-Layer Handover Threshold

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SPEECH
CODEC
LIMITED
Full Rate
Data transmit rate is 13kpbs.

Half Rate
Data transmit rate is 6.5kbps

Enhanced Full Rate


Data transmit rate is between 13kbps and 16kbps

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Multiband
Cell Network Structure
Multiband Cell structure defines
One frequency band per cell.
Handling of propagation differences between high and low
bands
Channel selection based on existing channel allocation and MS
capability.
Improves the radio performance and the traffic capacity.
The number of cells and the neighbour relations are
significantly reduced.
One more timeslot for traffic in the non-BCCH frequency band.
Dynamic overlaid-underlaid is a prerequisite for MBC
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Overlaid-Underlaid
1.

The traffic capacity of a cellular network can be increased by


adding more frequencies or reducing the frequency re-use
distance.

2.

One approcah is to aply a second frequency re-use pattern, using


the existing sites, with a tighter frequency re-use as overlaid on
the existing pattern.

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Adaptive
Multi Rate
Possible to change speech codec during a call, depending on the
interference conditions.
Improves speech quality at low C/I
Apply tighter frequency re-use in a network high AMR capable MS
penetration.
Provides enhanced speech quality for AMR mobiles in the network.
The enhanced speech quality also provides better coverage at the
edge of the cell, thus making it possible to increase the coverage
area.
AMR tolerates more interference than the old speech codecs.
AMR enables higher traffic loads which leads to higher capacity.
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The speech quality enhancement is divided in two parts:
1.
2.

Robust FR channel
Audible FR Channel

AMR Transcoders
There are 8 different codec modes available in AMR, namely:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

12.2kbps
10.2kbps
7.95kbps
7.40kbps
6.70kbps
5.90kbps
5.15kbps
4.75kbps
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An LIMITED
active codec set may contain up to 4 coec modes; all using the
same channel rate

12.2kbps and 10.2kbps can only be used in FR channels and the


other six can be used in both FR and HR.

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Module 9:
Service.

Radio Network Optimization: Quality of

Call Setup,

Test.

RNO process flow.


KPI definitions: Interference, Call Drop,
Handover, & Congestion.
RNO methods: Drive test & Call Quality
RNO Case studies.

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RADIO
NETWORK OPTIMIZATION: QUALITY OF SERVICE.
Network Optimization refers to reasonable modification to planning
and designing of communication networks according to certain
principles so that a more reliable, more economic network operation,
a higher QOS, and a higher utilization of radio for network resources
can be achieved.
Mobile communication network is divided into three parts:
Mobile switching.
Transport network.
Radio network.
Radio network is the most decisive factor in quality of service
because of mobility of subscribers and the complexity of radio waves
in propagation.
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Radio Network Optimization Process Flow

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Preparatory
work
Knowledge of progressive slates in network construction
Analyzing the operation states of network
Preparing for optimization test equipment
Network planning report
Collection of engineering and designing information

Basic network information gathering


Further inspection on local radio environment
Hot spots of traffic
Confirmation of engineering parameters and network indices for
practical installation
Customer complaint gathering

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Data Collection
Subjective reflection of mobile subscribers
Drive test data.
OMC/ Traffic statistics data

Data Analysis
Back analysis of optimization of software
OMC traffic statistic analysis
Drive test log analysis

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Network parameter modification
Network engineering parameters
Network function parameters

Network optimization report


Methods utilized in the process.
Network performance indices expected.
Positive suggestions for network development

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KEY
PERFORMANCE INDICATORS
LIMITED
Radio network optimization means network performance
improvement utilizing existing network resources. The purpose is
increasing the utilization of network resources solving the existing
and potential problem on the network, identifying solution for future
network planning.
Three main elements of any mobile network is capacity, quality and
coverage. These forms the basis of definition of the Key Performance
indicators.

Typical KPI
Call drop
Interference
Call setup
Handover
Congestion
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CALL DROP
LIMITED
Call drop here refers to call drop after distribution of traffic channels.
It has been the hot spot of complaint from subscribers. There are
two types of call drop: TCH call drop and SDCCH call drop.
Call drop is caused by:
1. Coverage hole
2. Interference
3. Handover failure
4. Imbalance of uplink and downlink
5. Inappropriate parameter configuration
6. Equipment failure
Call drop is measured as call drop rate.
Measurement benchmark varies from operator to operator, but the
standard is 2%.
TCH call drop rate = TCH call drop x 100%
Successful TCH seizure
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LIMITED INTERFERENCE
Mobile networks make use of frequency multiplexing to improve
application efficiency of spectrum and increase system capacity.
Mean while it also brings forth co-channel and adjacent channel
interference (internal interference). There are also other
interference caused as a result of multi-path effect and external
factors like repeaters.
Downlink interference is measured by voice quality level, which is a
factor of the bit error rate.
Uplink interference can be measured with certain interference band
definition in the OMC.
Also measurement reports for both uplink and downlink can be
viewed with a Signaling Analyzer connected to the Abis interface. In
this way uplink and downlink interference can be measured.

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HANDOVER
When a mobile subscriber moves from one cell into another,
handover must be implemented. Otherwise voice quality maybe
greatly reduced. In some cases even call drop may occur.

Causes of Handover Failure


Congestion in adjacent cells
Missing neighbor relation
Equipment failure
Interference
Coverage hole

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CONGESTION.
Inadequate resources causes congestion.
Types of congestion.
Radio Resources congestion: TCH, SDCCH congestion
Non Radio Resources congestion: A interface circuit congestion.

Causes of Congestion.

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Drive test
Call Quality Test
Traffic Statistics Measurement.

Drive Test
The quality of the network is ultimately determined by the
satisfaction of the users of the network, the subscribers. Drive tests
give the feel of the designed network as it is experienced in the
field.
The following are frequently used drive test tools:
TEMS INVESTIGATION
ANTPILOT
NEMO
AGILENT
NEPTUNE
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test can be cell selection, cell reselection, frequency scanning in
idle mode, regular dial test and continuous conversation test in
dedicated mode.
The data received include:
Rx-Level
Rx-Quality
TA
BER
FER
SQI
A typical drive test tool setup is made up of:
Laptop
Drive test software
GPS
Test MS
Drive test also benchmarks the performance of other operators.

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Traffic
Statistics Measurements.
LIMITED
Network traffic statistics are monitored from the OMC daily by the
operator with the help of a counter. The OMC usually measures the
functionalities such as call setup failures, dropped calls, and
handovers. It also gives data related to traffic and blocking in the
radio network, apart from giving data related to quality such as FER,
BER, field strength and frequency hopping functionalities such as:
Data related to traffic and blocking rate.
Data related to quality such as FER.
Network Performance Assessment.

Network Performance Assessment Measurement


Amount of traffic and blocking
Resource availability and access
Handover related parameters
Receive level and quality
Power control
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Coverage
Coverage Hole
Coverage hole may exist when coverage areas of two BTS do not
overlap accordingly, or there are some big obstacles in the coverage
area and this leads to no signal or very poor signal level.
Solution
To improve the coverage of BTS at the area, add a new BTS, or
extend the coverage of the site if proper frequency planning with
the neighboring sites has been taken care of. Coverage holes in
valleys and shops can be covered with new BTS or repeaters.
While for underground garage and high building coverage, a
repeater, leaking cable technology and micro-cell technology can be
used.
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Over
shooting
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This is when a BTS with high antenna propagates beyond its
prescribed boundary, which results in a phenomena called Isolate
Island.
Solution
Adjust the antenna down tilt and output power of TRX.
Change the azimuth
Add missing adjacent cells.

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CONGESTION
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Traffic congestion
With OMC traffic statistics data, TCH congestion rate can be obtained
(with occupation at all busy). It is possible to judge the traffic
congestion status by comparing the busy hour traffic volume against
calculations capacity of each base station cell.
Solution
Add more carriers
Cell splits
Construction of new base station
Adopt dual frequency networks where necessary.
Add micro cells.

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Traffic
Balance
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Traffic balance can be implemented between
Two cells in a sector or sectors in a site
Sites in a common area.
Solution
Modify antenna height, down tilt, transmission power of base
station.
Modify the traffic related parameters.
Start load handover.

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Module 10: Mirroring Advance Technologies.

GPRS.
EDGE.
3G/UMTS/WCDMA.

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GPRS General Packet Radio Services.
GPRS is a non voice service; i.e data; a value added service to the
GSM network. This done by overlaying a packet based air interface
on the existing circuit switched GSM network.
Theoretically, GPRS carries a, maximum speed data rate of
171.2kbps while using all the eight timeslots.

GPRS SYSTEM
The GPRS system is oriented towards providing a data service, and
to upgrade a GSM system to a GPRS system, new hardware and
software solutions are implemented mainly
(1) SGSN GGSN and PCU are major hardware overlaid on the existing
GSM.
(2) Relevant software upgrades.
(3) High level coding schemes utilized
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(1) SGSN Serving GPRS support node
This is the service access point for the mobile station.
Functions include mobility management, registration and
authentication.
Interacts with mobile, with packet data flow and functions related
to compression and ciphering.
Most important element of the GPRS network.

(2) GGSN- Gateway GPRS Support Node


Serves as the gateway between the SGSN (network sides) and the
outside external networks such as the internet and X.25.

(3) PCU Packet Control Unit


Incorporated in the GSM BSC to manage GPRS traffics.
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GPRS MOBILES

GPRS mobiles are different from GSM mobiles due to their ability to
handle packet data at a higher speed.
There are three classes of GPRS mobiles.
Class A -Handles both GPRS and GSM simultaneously.
Class B Handles both GPRS and GSM, but one at a time.
Class C Handles only GPRS or GSM.

GPRS CODING SCHEMES


In GPRS there are four coding schemes that are used for packet
data, namely CS-1, CS-2, CS-3 and CS_4.

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GPRS INTERFACES
Interfaces in GPRS networks are called G interface. There are
number of G interfaces namely,
Gb = Between BSS and SGSN.
Gn = Between SGSN and SGSN/GGSN of same network.
Gd = Between SMS-GMSN/SMS-INMSC and SGSN.
Gp = Between SGSN and GGSN of other networks.
Gs = Between SGSN and MSC/VLR.
Gr = Between SGSN and HIR.
Gf = Between SGSN and EIR.
Gi = Between GGSN and external networks (internet).

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EDGE Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution.
GPRS networks are able to handle higher bit rate than GSM
networks, but the data rate still fall short of what is required to
make existing GSM network deliver services at a speed comparable
to that promised by third generation networks. The delay in the
deployment of third generation systems led to the emergence of a
technology known as EDGE. This was capable of delivering services
similar to those of third generation networks, yet with
implementation on the existing 2nd generation network (GSM).
EDGE stands for Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution. The
enhancement from GSM is in two phases: first from GSM to GPRS,
and from GPRS to EDGE

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EDGE SYSTEM
Edge system is quite similar to the GPRS system, but has capability
for higher, data rates. The data rate can go up as much as 500kbps
(theoretically).
A major change in the EDGE is the modulation scheme used.
Octagonal phase-shift keying (8-PSK) modulation is used which
enables a three fold higher gross data rate of 59.2kbps per radio
time slot.

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EDGE Coding Scheme.
EDGE system is an enhancement to the existing GPRS system.
Here are 9 modulation and coding scheme (MSC-1-MCS-9) that
provides different throughput.
The table below illustrate the coding scheme.

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3G- THIRD GENERATIONS NETWORK
Third generation UMTS (Universal Terrestrial Mobile System)
network have a predominance of data traffic, unlike GSM networks.
The rate at which this data traffic is delivered is higher than that
offered by GSM/GPRS/EDGE networks.
3G networks serves a different purpose to earlier networks, and
major changes from previous network types are:
( i ) Maximum user bits rates up to 354kbps.
( ii) Efficient handover between different operators and
technologies.
(iii) Ability to deliver requested bandwidth.
(iv) Ability to deliver different services (CS & PS) at the same time,
at required quality.

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WCDMA Radio Fundamentals
WCDMA is known as Wide-Band Code Division Multiple Access. It has
emerged as the most preferred and most adopted technology for the
third generation air interface.
The table below illustrate the difference between WCDMA and GSM

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SERVICE CLASSES IN 3G
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Ability to maintain multiple connections simultaneously.


Allows efficient cooperation between applications with diverse
quality of service.
Allows adaptive application that will function within a wide
range of QoS setting.
Quality can be defined by two main parameters:
1. Guaranteed and maximum bit rate (kbps) possible.
2. Permissible delays.

Both single media and multi media service will be handled in the
3rd generation networks.

Based on QoS criteria, multi-media services have been further


classified as
(a) Conversational
(b) Streaming.
(c) Interactive.
(d) Background.
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UMTS NETWORK ARCHITECHTURE.

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User Equipment (UE)
This is the same as mobile station in GSM, but has additional
features and capability of handling data calls. UE can be divided
into USIM, ME and TE
USIM = Also known as the SIM contains authentication and other
associated information.
ME = Mobile Equipment is user independent.
TE = Terminal Equipment is responsible for termination of the entire
control and user plane bearer with the help of the ME.

Base station (BS) Node B.

The base station is also known as Node B.


Its functions includes:
1. Handover channel management.
2. Base-band conversion (Tx and Rx).
3. Channel encoding and decoding.
4. Interfacing to other network elements.
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Radio Network Controller (RNC)
Radio Network Controller, is similar to the BSC in GSM/GPRS
networks, but is rather more complicated and has more interface
to handle.
Its functions includes:
Radio resources management
Mobility management.

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