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Pre-natal Development

Leolisa F. Gurrea R.M.

Objectives
Trace

the course of the pre-natal


developmental process

Explain

the most common


hazards to pre-natal development

Introduction
Most

developmental theories
discussed dwelt on the
developmental process after birth

Prenatal

development is discussed to
make the description of the human
development complete, It is valuable
to understand the beginnings of a
child and the adolescent.

The Course of Prenatal


Development
Conception,

Fertilization

to birth
Prenatal

development
lasts approximately 266
days

The Stages of Pre-natal


Development
Three

Periods/Stage

Germinal

Period

Embryonic
Fetal

Period

Period

Conception
Conception

occurs when a sperm cell


penetrates and fertilizes an egg cell
Successful conception depends on
- ovaries releasing one healthy egg
cell
- egg cell migrates most of the way
down the fallopian tube
- One sperm must penetrate the
ovum to form a zygote

Germinal Period
(first two weeks)

This

stage includes:
-creation of the zygote
-continued cell division
-attachment of zygote to the
uterine wall

Germinal Period Details


24-30

hours after fertilization


-male(sperm) and female(egg) chromosome unite.
36 hours zygote divides into 2
48 hours (2days) 2cells become 4cells
72 hours (3days) 4cells become a small compact
ball of 16-32cells
96 hours (4days) hollow ball of 64-128 cells
4-5 days inner cell mass (blastocyst) still free in
the uterus
6-7 days blastocyst attaches to the wall of
uterus
11-15 days blastocyst invades into the uterine
wall and becomes implanted in it (implantation)

Germinal Period (The Blastocyst)


Blastocyst

consists of an inner
mass of cells that will eventually
develop into the embryo.
Trophoblast outer layer of cells
that later provides nutrition and
support for the embryo.
Implantation the attachment of
the zygote to the uterine wall.

Germinal Period (The Blastocyst)

Embryonic Period
Occurs

from 2-8 weeks after


conception
The name zygote becomes embryo
Begins as the blastocyst attaches to
the uterine wall
A.

Rate of cell differentiation intensifies


B. Life-support systems for the embryo
develop
C. Organs appear

Embryonic Period
Organogenesis
It

is the process of organ formation during the first


two months of pre-natal development

Every

body part eventually develops from the


embryos three layers

A.

Endoderm (Inner Layer) develops into


digestive and respiratory systems
B. Ectoderm (Outer Layer) becomes the nervous
system, sensory receptors and skin parts.
C. Mesoderm (Middle Layer) becomes the
circulatory, skeletal, muscular, excretory and
reproductive systems.

Embryonic Period
Life-support systems
Amnion

bag containing a clear fluid in which the


developing embryo floats. This protects the embryo.
Umbilical cord contains two arteries and one vein
and connects the baby to the placenta which
provides nutrients and carries away waste products.
Placenta consist of a disk-shape group of tissues in
which small blood vessels from the mother and the
offspring intertwine but do not join. Through which
oxygen and nutrients reach the fetus.
All these embryo life-support systems develop from
the fertilized egg and not from the mothers body.

Embryonic Period
The Embryo

Fetal Period

months to 7 months after conception.


Growth and development continue dramatically
during this period.
A. 3 months after conception fetus is about 3
inches long; weighs about 3 ounces
B. 4 months after conception fetus is about 6
inches long and weighs 4-7 ounces.
C. 5 months after conception fetus is about 12
inches long, weighs close to a pound.
D. 6 months after conception fetus is about 14
inches long and weighs 11/2 pound.
E. 7 months after conception fetus is about 16
inches long and weighs 3 pounds
F. 8 and 9 months after conception fetus grows
longer and gains substantial weight about 4 pounds.

Fetal Period
Details
At

3 months after conception, the fetus


has become active. It moves every part of
its body and at this point the genitals can
now be identified as male or female.
Mother feels leg and arm movements for
the first time during 4 months after
conception.
At the 5th month after conception, the skin
structure of the fetus (fingernails, toenails)
have formed.
Grasping reflex and irregular movements
occur 6 months after conception.

Fetal Period (The Fetus)

Teratology and Hazards to Prenatal Development


Teratology

The field that investigates


the causes of congenital (birth) defects.
Teratogen is that which causes birth
defects.
Clusters of Hazards
- Prescription and non-prescriptive
drugs
- Psychoactive drugs
- Environmental Hazards
- Other maternal factors

Prescription and Non Prescription


Drugs
Antibiotics,

Thalidomide, Cocaine, etc.


Harmful Non-Prescription drugs:
diet pills, aspirin, coffee
Cocaine

exposure during prenatal


development is associated with
reduced birth weight, length and
head circumference.

Antidepressants,

Hormones, Accutane

Psychoactive Drugs
These

include nicotine, caffeine


and illegal drugs such as
marijuana, cocaine and heroin

Researchers

found that pregnant


women who drank more
caffeinated coffee were more
likely to have preterm deliveries
and newborns with lower
birthweight.

Teratogenic Medicinal
drugs
Thalidomide

is a sedative, also an
anti-nausea drug--but deforms
children.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) was used
to prevent miscarriages but causes
damage to reproductive systems of
offspring.
Other potentially harmful prescribed
drugs are accutane,
streptomycin, and tetra-cycline.

Teratogenic non-medicinal drugs


Marijuana
Active

ingredient is
tetrahydraconabaninol or THC
Is stored in fatty
tissues of body
Placenta is no barrier
Babies are born with
psych. if not physical
addiction

Heroin
An opiate not totally
unlike morphine, but
more addictive
Severe withdrawal
symptoms
Newborn babies of
heroin addicts vomit,
tremble, cry, and have
fever, disturbed sleep,
and abnormal cries

Tobacco
Nicotine and carbon
monoxide interfere
with fetal oxygen
supply
Smoking is associated
with low birth weight,
spontaneous abortion,
higher infant
mortality, and poor
postnatal adjustment

Fetal alcohol syndrome


CNS

damage,
heart defects,
small head,
distortion of joints,
and abnormal
facial features
Are evident in their
inability to pay
attention or
maintain attention

Environmental Hazards
These

include radiation in jobsites


and X-rays, environmental
pollutants, toxic wastes and
prolonged exposure to heat in
saunas and bath tubs.

Researchers

found that toxic wastes


such as carbon monoxide, mercury
and lead caused defects to
childrens mental development.

Other Maternal Factors


Maternal

stress, advanced maternal and


paternal age.

Diseases

such as Rubella, syphilis, genital


herpes, AIDS.

Nutrition

(Obesity, high blood pressure,


diabetes),high anxiety.

Incompatible

blood types
-Difference in blood groups A,B,O and AB
-RH factor

Pre-natal Care
Involves

a defined schedule of
visits for medical care
Provides screening for
manageable conditions and
treatable diseases
Includes comprehensive
educational, social and nutritional
services
Programs that are relationshipcentered and provides complete

Pregnancy
(Mothers Perspective)
During

the course of Pre-natal Development,


Mothers are in a state of pregnancy.

Mothers

experience the following during the


course of pregnancy
- Fatigue
- Nausea
- Frequent Urination
- Breast Tenderness
- Headaches / Dizziness
- Weight Gain
- Back Pain
- Lower abdominal pain
- Other Symptoms

The Birth Episode


(Birth Process)
Birth

- After about thirty-eight weeks in the

womb, the baby is considered "full term," or


ready for birth. Fetal presentation refers
to the body part closest to the mother's
cervix. There are three types of presentation:
Cephalic (normal), breech, and transverse.
During

the last weeks of pregnancy, it


is common for the mother to
experience false labor, or Braxton-Hicks
contractions.

Birth Stages
First

Stage Contractions cause the


womans cervix to stretch and open

Second

Stage begins when the


babys head starts to move through
the cervix

Third

Stage afterbirth. Placenta,


umbilical cord and other membranes
are detached and expelled

Childbirth settings and methods


Traditionally, childbirth was
attended by a midwife and was
seen as a natural process. With
the advent of modern technology,
births increasingly took place in
medical settings. This resulted in
decreased mortality rates, but
birth was now seen as a medical
event controlled by physicians.

Breech or Cesarean
Delivery
Breech

Position buttocks rather than


head emerge first
- can prevent baby from breathing
normally.

Cesarean

Delivery the baby is


removed from the mothers uterus
through an incision made in her
abdomen.
- May be lifesaving but carries the risks
of major surgery

Apgar Scale
Used

to assess the health of newborns


at one and five minutes after birth.

score or reading of 0,1,2 on each of


these five health signs
- heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle
tone, body color, and reflex irritability.

Anoxia

an insufficient supply of
oxygen.

Low Birth Weight and Preterm


Infants
Low

birth weight less than 5 pounds


at birth.
-Very low birth weight under 3 pounds
- Extremely low birth weight under 2
pounds.

Preterm

born three weeks or more


before full term

Small

for date birth weight is below


normal when the length of pregnancy is
considered.

Low-birth weight infants


Normal

is around 7.5

pounds
Low-birth weight is
5.5 pounds or less
6 or 7 percent of all
births in U.S.
At risk for
developmental,
neurological, and
health problems

Pre-term Babies
Formerly called
premature
More than three
weeks before due date
At risk for respiratory
distress syndrome
(RDS)
Extended oxygen
use=Retinopathy of
Prematurity

Incidence and Causes of Low


Birth Weight
Incidence

of low birth weight varies


considerably from country to country.
- Related to poverty, maternal health
status, maternal nutrition

More

health and developmental


problems than normal-weight infants
- At school age, more likely to have a
learning disability, attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder, or breathing
problems such as asthma.

Home Factors
Teenage

Pregnancy
Babies having
babies--own growth
is not complete
Pelvic cradle not
ready
Threat to education
Responsibility not
yet learned
Maternal
malnutrition

Domestic

Violence
Seven to Eight
percent of
pregnant women
are beaten by
partners; most
more than once
High rate of
miscarriage

Nurturing Low Birth Weight and


Preterm Infants
Kangaroo

care a way of holding an


infant so that there is skin-to-skin
contact for two to three hours per day
over an extended time in early
pregnancy.
Massage therapy film stroking with the
palms of the hands three times per day
for 15-minute periods.
Bonding formation of a connection,
especially a physical bond, between
parents and the newborn in the period
shortly after birth.

The Postpartum Period


Postpartum

period lasts for about six


weeks after childbirth or delivery or
until the mothers body has completed
its adjustment and has returned to a
nearly pre-pregnant state.

Physical

and psychological adjustments

Involution

process by which the


uterus returns to its pre-pregnant size.

Conclusion
Prenatalor

antenataldevelopmentis
the process in which a human embryo
orfetus(or foetus) gestates during
pregnancy, from fertilization until birth.
It suggests that human life begins at
conception.
Prenatal development then continues to
the Germinal, Embryonic and Fetal stages
and moves on to birth.

References
Child

and Adolescent Development


- Corpuz, Lucas, Borabo, Lucido
(Textbook)

Stages

of Prenatal Development
- www.faculty.atu.edu
(Powerpoint Presentation)

Prenatal

Development and Birth


- Professor Nicole Chapman, MS
(Video)

End