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SERVICE QUALITY
DABHOLKAR

MUTU PELAYANAN KESEHATAN


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1.
2.
3.

Service = standart pelayanan


Pelayanan = jasa
Konsep pelayanan = industri,
output/penawaran, dan proses
Mutu pelayanan kesehatan adalah
derajat kesempurnaan atau tingkat
kesempurnaan penampilan pelayanan
kesehatan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan
dan harapan pelanggan.

PERSEPSI PELANGGAN
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Jika jasa yang diterima melampaui yang


diharapkan maka kualitas jasa
dipersepsikan ideal.
Sebaliknya apabila kualitas jasa yang
diterima lebih rendah daripada yang
diharapkan, maka kualitas jasa
dipersepsikan buruk.

CIRI PELAYANAN JASA


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1. INTANGIBILITY (tidak berwujud)


Suatu pelayanan jasa tidak dapat dirasakan dan
dinikmati sebelum dibeli oleh konsumen
2. VARIABILITY (bervariasi)
Kualitas pelayanan jasa berbeda-beda tergantung
pada pemberi layanan dan tempat pelayanan
3. INSEPARATABILITY (tidak dapat dipisahkan)
Kualitas jasa pelayanan diproduksi dan dirasakan
oleh konsumen dalam waktu bersamaan
4. PERISHABILITY (tidak tahan lama)
Daya tahan layanan jasa tergantung situasi yang
diciptakan oleh berbagai macam faktor

Service Quality Models


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Technical and functional quality model (Gro nroos,


1984)
GAP model (Parasuraman et al., 1985)
Attribute service quality model (Haywood-Farmer,
1988)
Synthesised model of service quality (Brogowicz et
al., 1990)
Performance only model (Cronin and Taylor, 1992)
Ideal value model of service quality (Mattsson,
1992)
Evaluated performance and normed quality model
(Teas, 1993)

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IT alignment model (Berkley and Gupta, 1994)

PCP attribute model (Philip and Hazlett,


1997)
Retail service quality and perceived value
model (Sweeney et al., 1997)
Service quality, customer value and
customer satisfaction model (Oh, 1999)
Antecedents and mediator model
(Dabholkar et al., 2000)
Internal service quality model (Frost and
Kumar, 2000)
Internal service quality DEA model
(Soteriou and Stavrinides, 2000)
Internet banking model (Broderick and
Vachirapornpuk, 2002)

Attribute and overall affect model (Dabholkar,


1996)

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Model of perceived service quality and satisfaction


(Spreng and Mackoy, 1996)

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IT-based model (Zhu et al., 2002)

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Model of e-service quality (Santos, 2003)

Attribute and overall affect model


(Dabholkar, 1996)
There is two alternative models of service quality for technologybased self-service options. Self-service is becoming popular day
by day owing to high cost of labour in service deliveries.
The models is :
1. Attribut Based Models
2. Overall affect Models
In both the models expected service quality would influence
intentions to use technology-based self-service option.

The attribute model is based on what consumers would expect from such option. It is based on cognitive
approach to decision making, where consumers would use a compensatory process to evaluate attributes
associated with the technology based self service option in order to form expectations of service quality.

The overall affect model is based on the consumers feeling towards the use of technology. It is
based on an affective approach to decision making where consumers would use overall
predispositions to form expectation self-service quality for a technology-based self-service option.

Perbandingan teori
Dabholkar

Attribute and overall affect


model, 1996

Keyfindings :

The attribute-based model is


favored in forming the evaluations
of service quality for technologybased self-service options
The overall affect model is also
supported but it does not add
further explanatory power to the
attribute-based model

Weakness/Limitation :
Needs to be generalized for
different self-service options Effect
of demographic variables, price,
physical environment etc. is not
considered

Antecedents and mediator model, 2000

Key Findings :

Consumers evaluate different factors related to


the service but also form a separate overall
evaluation of the service quality (which is not a
straightforward sum of the components)

The antecedents model can provide complete


understanding of service quality and how
these evaluations are formed

Customer satisfaction is a better predictor of


behavioral intentions.

A strong mediating role was found, confirming


that it is important to measure customer
satisfaction separately from service quality
when trying to determine customer
evaluations of service

Weakness/Limitation ;

Antecedents of customer satisfaction have not


been explored.

The model measures behavioural intention


rather than actual behaviour

Needs to be generalized for different service


settings

DIMENSI KUALITAS JASA (1)


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DIMENSI KUALITAS JASA (2)


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DIMENSI KUALITAS JASA (3)


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DIMENSI KUALITAS JASA (4)


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SERVQUAL
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1. Tangibles (bukti langsung)


dimensi ini meliputi kualitas produk, fasilitas fisik, perlengkapan, pegawai,
dan saran komunikasi.
2. Reliability (keandalan)
kemampuan memberikan pelayanan yang dijanjikan dengan segera,
akurat dan memuaskan.
3. Responsiveness (daya tanggap)
yaitu keinginan seluruh karyawan untuk membantu para konsumen dan
memberikan pelayanan dengan tanggap.
4. Assurance (jaminan)
mencakup pengetahuan, kemampuan, kesopanan dan sifat dapat
dipercaya yang dimiliki para staf, bebas dari bahaya atau keragu-raguan.
5. Emphaty (empati)
meliputi kemudahan dalam melakukan hubungan komunikasi yang baik,
perhatian pribadi, dan memahami kebutuhan konsumen

DABHOLKAR
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1. Physical Aspects
Merupakan dimensi yang mencakup tentang daya tarik dari aspek fisik
dan kemudahan pelanggan dalam mendapatkan pelayanan yang dibutuhkan.
Dimensi ini dalam SERVQUAL disebut dimensi tangible.
2. Reliabilty
Merupakan dimensi yang mencakup ketepatan pemenuhan janji kepada
pelanggan. Dimensi ini sama dengan dimensi reliability dalam SERVQUAL.
3.

Personal Interaction
Merupakan interaksi personal antara pelanggan dengan karyawan. Dalam
SERVQUAL disebut sebagai responsibility, assurance dan empathy.

4.

Problem solving
Merupakan dimensi yang berkaitan dengan pemberian solusi terhadap
masalah pelanggan ketika sedang mendapatkan pelayanan atau solusi
terhadap keluhan yang disampaikan oleh pelanggan atas layanan yang
diterima.

5. Policy
Merupakan dimensi yang berhubungan dengan kebijakan pemberi pelayanan
dalam merespon tuntututan atau kebutuhan pelanggan.

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Model servqual berubah menjadi


Model Antecedents and Mediator
Model

Sumber : Dabholkar, et al
(2000)

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APLIKASI DIMENSI
DABHOLKAR

Profile chart merupakan teknik analisis


yang digunakan untuk melihat performa
atau kinerja perusahaan atau organisasi.

Dasar perhitungan profile chart adalah


penilaian dan harapan pelanggan yang
menghasilkan kekuatan dan kelemahan
dari pelayanan dan service gap.

Contoh di RS X
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1. Physical aspect
Kelengkapan peralatan medis di ruang periksa
2. Reliability
Ketepatan penentuan diagnosis oleh petugas kesehatan
3. Personal Interaction
Kejelasan petugas kesehatan dalam memberikan
informasi tentang status kesehatan pelanggan dan jenis
pelayanan kesehatan yang diberikan
4. Problem solving
Kemampuan dalam memberikan solusi atas keluhan
pelanggan
5. Policy
Kepastian keberadaan petugas kesehatan di ruang
periksa sesuai dengan jadwal pelayanan

Contoh :
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Physical Aspect Appearance :


P1. This store has modern-looking equipment and
fixtures.
P2. The physical facilities at this store are visually
appealing.
P3. Materials associated with this store's service
(such as shopping bags, catalogs, or
statements) are visually appealing
P4. This store has clean, attractive, and
convenient public areas (restrooms, fitting
rooms).

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Physical Aspect Convenience


P5. The store layout at this store makes it
easy for customers to find what they
need.
P6. The store layout at this store makes it
easy for customers to move around in the
store.

Reliability Promises :
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P7. When this store promises to do


something by a certain time, it will
do so.
P8. This store provides its services at
the time it promises to do so.

Reliability Doing it right


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P9. This store performs the service right the


first time.
P10. This store has merchandise available
when the
customers want it.
P 11. This store insists on error-free sales
transactions and records.

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Personal interaction Inspiring


confidence :
P12. Employees in this store have the
knowledge to answer customers'
questions.
P13. The behavior of employees in this store
instill
confidence in customers.
P14. Customers feel safe in their
transactions with this store.

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Personal interaction Helpful :


P15. Employees in this store give prompt service to
customers.
P16. Employees in this store tell customers exactly
when services will be performed.
P17. Employees in this store are never too busy to
respond to customer's requests.
P 18. This store gives customers individual attention.
P19. Employees in this store are consistently
courteous with customers.
P20. Employees of this store treat customers
courteously on the telephone.

Problem solving :
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P21. This store willingly handles returns and


exchanges.
P22. When a customer has a problem, this
store shows a sincere interest in solving it.
P23. Employees of this store are able to
handle customer complaints directly and
immediately.

Policy :
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P24. This store offers high quality


merchandise.
P25. This store provides plenty of
convenient parking for customers.
P26. This store has operating hours
convenient to all their customers.
P27. This store accepts most major credit
cards.
P28. This store offers its own credit card.

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TERIMA KASIH