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Introduction to Biochemistry

Carbohydrates

Definition
Carbohydrates are the
polyhydroxyl alcohols
with functional
aldehydrate or ketone
groups.

Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are
a major source of energy
from our diet.
composed of the elements
C, H and O with a general
formula i.e. CnH2nOn.
also called saccharides,
which means sugars.

Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
are produced by
photosynthesis in plants.
such as glucose are
synthesized in plants
from CO2, H2O, and
energy from the sun.
are oxidized in living cells
to produce CO2, H2O, and
energy.

Biomedical Importance of
Carbohydrates
1. Provide major source of energy (4.1C)
2. Flavor and Sweeteners.
3. Dietary fiber (Cellulose).
4. Breakdown of fatty acids and preventing ketosis

5. Regulation of various metabolic processes in the body as


key molecules in the central metabolic pathways of the
body.
6.Storage form of food in plants as starch.
7. Serve also as stored forms of energy as glycogen in liver
and muscles.
8. Protection of bacterial cells as bacterial cell wall
polysaccharides, made up of muerin (N-acetyl
nuramic acid (NANA), N-acetyl glucosamine, and
several other amino acids linked by peptide linkage).
9. Important components of brain cells as neuraminic
acids, cerebrosides (Glycolipids) and gangliosides

10. Important component of nucleic acids as


pentose sugars ribose and deoxyribose.
11. Many glucosides (Carbohydrate derivative
from plants) are important drugs, such as
glucoside of digitalis which is utilized for the
treatment of heart
diseases.
12. Carbohydrates are essential components of
milk, especially lactose.

13. Many glucosides (Carbohydrate derivative


from plants) are important drugs, such as
glucoside of digitalis which is utilized for the
treatment of heart diseases.
14. Carbohydrates are essential components of
milk, especially lactose.
15. Biological recognition processes of
immunoglobulins and self MHCs.

Classification of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates can be classified in to four categories
according to number of carbon atoms.
a-Monosaccharide
b-Disaccharide
c-Oligosaccharide
d-Polysaccharide

MonosacchMonosaccharidearides
Monosaccharides:
They are classified according to the
number of carbon atoms present.
They are the simplest sugars
They cannot be hydrolyzed further.
They may be aldoses or ketoses.
All the monosaccharides are reducing
sugars.

Sugars
Aldoses are monosaccharides
with an aldehyde group

Ketoses are monosaccharides


with a ketone group

Monosaccharide
A Aldehyde group
H
C=0
Example:
Aldehyde

B Keto group
C=O

Keto Group

Generic names
3 Carbons: trioses
4 Carbons: tetroses
5 Carbons: pentoses
6 Carbons: hexoses
7 Carbons: heptoses

Aldose
Glyceraldehyde
Erythrose
Ribose
Glucose
Glucoheptose

9 Carbons: nonoses

Neuraminic acid

Ketos
Dihydroxy acetone
Erythrulose
Ribulose
Fructose
Sedoheptulose

Glycosidic Bond
Monosaccharides can be linked by
glycosidic bonds to creates larger
structure.
Example:
Maltose:
Two molecules of glucose are attached
with one another through a glycolic linkage
of C no 1 of one glucose and C no 4 of
other.( 1-4 linkage)

Examples of
Monosaccharides

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Publishing as Benjamin Cummings

D-Glucose
Glucose
Grape sugar
Dextrose
Dextro-rotation
Most common
source sucrose
which is table sugar
First line of
nutrition for
production of
energy.

Monosaccharides
Glucose (Cont.)
FBS 60 100 mg/dl
RBS 100 160 mg/dl
On reduction glucose forms alcohol e.g. Sorbitol
On oxidation sugar acids (Gluconic acid)
Gluconic acid If oxidation of C1 of glucose
It needs insulin for its entry in to cell. (Proper Care
Should be taken to give to diabetic patient)
Normally it does not appear in urine but in diabetes
mellitus glucose passes out in urine.

D-Fructose
D-fructose

is a ketohexose C6H12O6.
is the sweetest
carbohydrate.
is found in fruit juices and
honey.
converts to glucose in the
body.
Pure honey is made up of
fructose only.
It does not need insulin for
its enter in to cell, therefore
even diabetic pt. can take
it.
It is present in appreciable
amount in seminal fluid
and act as source of energy
for spermatozoa.

CH2OH
C O
HO C H
H C OH
H C OH
CH2OH
D-Fructose

Galactose
Main source Lactose which is milk sugar
Utilized in development of brain tissue.
e.g. Cerebroside and Gangliosides
Mannose
Can be converted to glucose
On reduction forms Mannitol

Disaccharides

Important Disaccharides
A disaccharide consists of two monosaccharides.
Monosaccharides

Disaccharide

glucose + glucose

maltose + H2O

glucose + galactose

lactose + H2O

glucose + fructose

sucrose + H2O

Maltose
Maltose is

a disaccharide also known as malt sugar.


composed of two D-glucose molecules.
obtained from the hydrolysis of starch.
used in cereals, candies, and brewing.
found in both the - and - forms.
Produced from starch by hydrolysis due to salivary &
pancreatic amylase.
Hydrolyzed by Maltase

Formation of Maltose

Free -OH

Lactose
Lactose
is a disaccharide of D-galactose and - or
-D-glucose.
contains a -1,4glycosidic bond.
is found in milk and
milk products.
Reducing sugar
Hydrolyzed by Lactase

-form
-form

Sucrose
Sucrose or table sugar

is obtained from sugar cane and sugar beets.


consists of -D-glucose and -D-fructose..
has an ,-1,2-glycosidic bond.
Non-reducing
sugar

Invert sugar
Hydrolyzed by
Sucrase (Invertase)
-D-glucose

-D-fructose

Oligosaccharide
Contain from 3 to about 10
monosaccharide units.
They are of less significance.
Examples:
Maltotriose

Polysaccharides

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Polysaccharides
Polysaccharides
These molecules contain more than
10 monosaccharide units and can be
100 of sugar units in length.
They can be further classified into
Homopolysaccharide
Heteropolysaccharide

Homopolysaccharide

These molecules contain same


monosaccharide units.
Examples:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Starch
Glycogen
Dextrins
Dextrans

e.

Cellulose

Dextrans
They are viscous polysaccharides
They are used as plasma expanders
in the treatment of shock.

Inulin
Inulin (Homopolysacharide) is used for
clinical purposes in clearance tests.
It is also used in diagnosis of GFR
(glomerular filtration rate)

Starch
Major storage
carbohydrate in higher
plants
Amylose long straight
glucose chains (a1-4)
Amylopectin
branched every 24-30
glc residues (a 1-6)
Provides 80% of
dietary calories in
humans worldwide

Structures of Amylose and


Amylopectin

Amylose
Amylose is
a polymer of -Dglucose molecules.
linked by -1,4
glycosidic bonds.
a continuous
(unbranched) chain.

Amylopectin
Amylopectin
is a polymer of -Dglucose molecules.
is a branched-chain
polysaccharide.
has -1,4-glycosidic
bonds between the
glucose units.
has -1,6 bonds to
branches.

Glycogen
Glycogen
Major storage carbohydrate in
animals liver and muscles.
Long straight glucose chains
(a1-4)and (a 1-6) linkages.
Therefore it needs 2 enzymes.
a. Phosphorylase (which break 14 glycosidic bond).
b. Debranching enzymes (breaks
1-6 bond)
More branched than starch
Blood glucose levels are usually
maintained by Liver glycogen

Dextrins
Starches like amylose and amylopectin
hydrolyze to dextrins (smaller
polysaccharides)
Contain 3-8 glucose units

Cellulose
Cellulose
is a polysaccharide
of glucose units in
unbranched chains.
has -1,4-glycosidic
bonds.
cannot be digested
by humans because
they lack the enzyme
Cellulase.
It provides bulk to
food and stimulate
the intestinal
peristalsis thus
prevent constipation.

Hetero Polysaccharides
Contain same type of monosaccharides or
different monosaccharides along with
prosthetic groups.
Examples:
Muco Polysaccharides
Mucilages
Hemicellulose

Muco Polysaccharides

Hyaluronic acid
Heparin
Chondroitin sulphate
Blood group Polysaccharides.
Serum mucoids

Mucilages
Agar
Vegetable gums
Pectin

Hemicellulose