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FUNDAMENTALS OF ACOUSTICS

ACOUSTICS
-is defined as the generation, transmission,
and reception of energy in the form of vibrational
waves in matter.
SOUND
-is a physical wave, or a mechanical vibration
or simply a series of pressure variation in an elastic
medium.

SUB-DISCIPLINE OF ACOUSTICS
ACOUSTIC ENGINEERING
-is the study of how sound is generated and
measured by loudspeakers, microphones, sonar
projectors, ultrasonic transducers, and sensors.
AEROACOUSTICS
-is the study of aerodynamic sound, generated
when a fluid flow interacts with a solid surface or
with another flow.
ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS
-is the study of how sound and buildings
interact including the behavior of sound in concert
halls and auditoriums.

BIOACOUSTICS
-is the study of the use of sound by animals
such as whales, dolphins and bats
BIOMEDICAL ACOUSTICS
-is the study of the use of sound in medicine.
i.e. the use of ultrasound for diagnostic and
therapeutic purposes.
LOUDSPEAKER ACOUSTICS
-is an engineering discipline behind the design
of the loudspeaker.

PSYCHOACOUSTICS
-is the study of how people react to sound,
hearing, perception and localization.
VIBRATION ACOUSTICS
-is the study of how sound and mechanical
structures interact.
i.e. the transmission of sound through walls and the
radiation of sound from vehicles.
UNDERWATER ACOUSTICS
-is the study of the propagation of sound in
oceans. Closely associated with Sonar

ORIGIN OF SOUND
most sounds are waves produced by the
vibrations of material objects
Infrasonic below 20Hz
Sonic ------- 20Hz to 20,000 Hz (threshold of
human hearing)
Ultrasonic above 20,000Hz

VELOCITY OF SOUND PROPAGATION


Sound travels at different velocities depending
upon the medium.
Since sound travels not only in air but also
through parts of the structure, it is of interest to
know the velocities in other media.

VELOCITY OF SOUND PROPAGATION


In a GAS Medium
S=

Po o

where:
Po is the steady pressure of the gas (N/m 2)
o is the average density of the gas (kg/m 3)
is the ratio of specific heat of pressure to
that of volume

VELOCITY OF SOUND PROPAGATION


In Normal dry air
S = 331.45 + 0.607Tc (m/s)
for Tc 20c
S = 331.45 T k 273
for Tc > 20c

(m/s)

VELOCITY OF SOUND PROPAGATION


Problem 1.
Determine the speed of sound in air at STP.
(use =1.4 for air, =1.29kg/m3, P=1atm=1.013 x
105Pa).
Problem 2.
A camera focuses using ultrasound. If it
focuses precisely at 20C, how far off (%) will it be
at 0C?

ATTRIBUTE OF SOUND WAVES


Pitch
the highness or lowness of a musical tone
as determined by the rapidity of the vibrations
produced
Subjected unit is mel
Timbre
is a quality of sound that distinguishes it
from others of the same pitch or volume.

Loudness
is an observers auditory impression of the
of the strength of the sound and is associated
with the rate at which energy is transmitted to the ear.
Subjected unit is SONE
Note:
The loudness level of any sound is the decibel
level of an equally loud 1kHz tone (pure tone)
PHON = 40 + 10log2 SONE

Duration
is the time interval between its beginning and
end points in the duration of a sound.
Subjected unit is seconds
SUMMARY:
Sound Quality

Measurable Quantity

Pitch

Frequency of sound waves

Timbre

Pressure-oscillation waveform

Loudness

Amplitude of pressure oscillation

Duration

Time interval of sound waves

Problem 1.
Given the following data:
SIL(dB)

Loudness (sone)

Loudness level (phon)

60

3.2

55

60

5.4

62

60

5.9

63

60

4.7

60

Compute for
a. Total loudness (L)
b. Total Loudness level (Ll)

LEVELS OF SOUND
1.Sound Power(W) and Sound Power Level(PWL)
Sound Power is the amount of energy emitted by a
sound source per unit time.
Sound Power Level is often cited on machinery to
indicate the total sound energy radiated per second. It
is measured in decibels with respect to the reference
power level.
PWLdB = 10log(W/Wo)
Where:
W=Acoustic power in W
Wo=Reference acoustic power
=10-12 watts

In dB
PWLdB = 10logW + 120dB
For Multiple Source but different PWL
PWLT = 10logWT/Wo
WT=W1+W2+W3+WN
For Multiple Source having the Same PWL
PWLT = PWL + 10logn
WT = nWN

LEVELS OF SOUND
2.Sound Intensity(I) and Sound Intensity Level (SIL)
Sound Intensity is defined as the average rate of flow
of sound energy through a unit area normal to this
direction at the point considered.
Sound Intensity Level is the ratio between a given intensity and
reference intensity.
SILdB = 10log(I/Io)
In dB
SILdB = 10logI + 120dB

Io = 10-12 W/m2

For Multiple Source but different SIL


SILT = 10log(IT/Io)
IT = I1+I2+I3..+IN
For Multiple Source having the Same SIL
SILT = SIL + 10logn
IT = nIN

Problem1.
Determine the total PWL of 3 motors with a
radiated acoustic power of 25mW, 40mW, and
84mW respectively.
Problem2.
You are at a party taking with a group of
people. They all produce sound levels of the same
magnitude at your position. The combined level
when all four talks at once is 70dB.
a. What is the sound level from one person?
b. What is the sound intensity from one person
c. If two additional people joined the
conversation with an individual level of 68dB each,
compute for the new combined intensity level.

ASSIGNMENT:
1.At room temperature, what is the velocity of sound
in meters/seconds?
2.Calculate the velocity of sound in ft/sec if the
temperature is 149 degrees Celsius.
3.A sound that has an intensity level of 100dB is
how many times more intense than a sound of
20dB?
4.Two sound sources produce intensity level of
50dB and 60dB, respectively, at a point. When
functioning simultaneously, what is the total SIL?

ATTRIBUTE OF SOUND WAVES