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A. Cosmetology refers to the study and presence of beauty culture. It

is the professional treatment of the skin, hair, and nails. Success in
beauty culture depends to a large extent upon knowing the why and
how of the varied services rendered to patrons.
Science of cosmetology
Salon ecology the study of the relationship between the living
organisms that exist within a salon and their potential affects on
public health.
Bacteriology the science that deals with the study of microorganisms
called bacteria.
Sterilization the process of making an object germ-free by the
destruction of all kinds of bacteria whether beneficial or harmful.
Sanitation the application of measures to promote public health and
prevent the spread of infectious diseases.
Anatomy and Physiology the subjects of inconsiderable
importance to the practice of cosmetology.
Anatomy the study of gross structures of the body such as muscles,
bones or arteries.
Physiology the study of the functions or activities performed by
various parts the body.
Histology the study of minute structure of the various parts of the
body such as the skin, hair, nails, sweat glands and oil glands.
Electricity a form of energy capable of producing magnetic, chemical

B. Good grooming
Good grooming means taking care of the hair, skin, face,
hands and total body; that can lift ones morale and help
increase self-esteem; and a manifestation that one is
indeed taking care of him/herself.
What comprises of being well groomed?
One must wear the right combination of clothes.
Hair should be in perfect shape.
Nails must be well cut and shaped.
For a working woman, make-up must be done carefully.
Accessories must be well selected.
C. Manicure and Pedicure
Manicuring: a cosmetic beauty treatment for the
fingernails and hands; comes from the Latin manus,
meaning hand and cura meaning care; a treatment
for just the hands, just the nails, or both and purpose is
to improve the appearance of the hands and nails.
Pedicuring: way to improve the appearance of the feet,

Nail structure
Free edge: the end of the nail plate that is shaped during
manicure and pedicure
Hyponichium: the portion of skin at the end of the finger
underneath the free edge.
Nail plate: the visible portion of the nail that sits on top of the
nail bed ands at the free edge.
Side wall: the grooves on the sides of the nail between the
nail and the skin.
Nail bed: the part of the finger underneath the nail plate.
Lunula: is the moon shaped point where the matrix and nail
bed meet. Please take care with the lunula area as it is the
softest part of the nail.
Cuticle: the overlapping skin surrounding the nail. Its job is to
protect the matrix from invading bacteria and physical
Matrix: this is where the nail is made so it is not surprising to
find out that a healthy matrix will lead to a healthy nail.


Manicure and pedicure implements

Orangewood stick: loosen cuticle, to work around
the nail and for applying cream and etc.
Nail file: used to shape and smooth the free edge of
the nail.
Cuticle pusher: to push back and loosen the cuticle.
Cuticle nipper: to trim the cuticle.
Nail brush: to clean the nails and finger tips with
the aid of warm soapy water.
Emery boards: to shape the free edge of the finger
nails with the coarse side and level the nail on the
fine side.
Nail buffer: use to smoothen the top portion of the
nail plate.
Nail cutter: to cut the nails.

Manicure and pedicure cosmetics

Cuticle cream: used to prevent brittle nails and dry cuticle.
Cuticle remover: used to soften the dead cuticle around the nail.
Cuticle oil: used to soften and lubricate the skin around the nails.
Cuticle solvent: may contain 2-5% of sodium or potassium hydroxide plus
Nail whitener: applied as a paste, cream, or coated string, it consists mainly of
white pigments (zinc dioxide or titanium dioxide).
Nail polisher: solvent containing acetone or other solvent is used to thin out the
nail polish while it is thickened.
Nail polish: usually prepared in the form of powder or paste. Its smoothes the nail
and also imparts a sheen to the bail during buffing.
Nail drier: a fine spray which protects the nail against stickness and dulling.
Base coat: a liquid product applied before the liquid nail polish.
Top coat or top sealer: a liquid applied over the nail polish.
Nail strengthener: a product designed to prevent the nails from splitting or
Hand cream and lotion: keep the skin soft by replacing the natural oil lost from
the skin.
Abrasive: available as pumice powder and is used to smooth irregular nail ridges.

Absorbent cotton: use to remove cosmetics to the nails.
Soap: use for finger rings
Warm water: use for finger bath
Towel: used individual towel for each patron
Cleansing tissue: use whenever necessary
Antiseptic: use for minor injuries to tissues surroundings
the nails
Disinfectant: use to sanitize implements; to sponge the
manicure table
Spatula: use to remove cream from jars
Mending tissue and mending liquid: use to repair and
cover broken, split or torn nails.

A.Preparation for a Plain Manicure

. remove old polish
. Shape the nails
. Soften cuticle
. Dry fingertips
. Apply cuticle remover
. Loosen cuticle
. Clean under free-edge
. Cleanse nails
. Bevel nail
. Apply the base coat
. Apply liquid polish
. Remove excess polish
. Apply top or seal coat
. Apply hand lotion

Nail Art
is an imaginative and artistic process, involving
special care and expertise for bringing out the best
D. Facial care
the secret of a beautiful face is proper skincare, the
right beauty sleep every night, a balanced diet and
an extra portion of care on a regular basis. It must
also be remembered that the needs of the skin
change: during the day, it needs protection from the
environment effects; at night, it is regenerating and
therefore needs care that supports this process.
Facial treatments: deep cleansing treatment of the
face, neck and shoulders, using masks, creams and
massage to tone, exfoliate, moisturize and revitalize
the skin.

Remove old make-up and the grime and grease that have
been accumulated during the day.
Remove mascara with cotton bud dipped in eye-dipped
cleansing lotion.
Remove the eye shadow by gently wiping it off with a pad
of clean cotton wool moistened with eye-cleansing lotion.
Pour a little facial cleansing cream into the palm of one
hand and dab it generously over the nose, chin, forehead
and cheeks using two fingers of other hand
Massage the cream into the skin, starting under the throat.
Toners remove all traces of dirt, make-up or cleanser that
remain after cleansing.
Moisturizing without moisture, the skin will not remain
smooth and supple.
Facial Make-up
the application of cosmetics to the face to emphasize ones
good facial features and minimize less attractive features.
since each person has unique features, there is no one ideal

Kinds of Facial Make-up

Day make up: a simple and light make-up that needs to be subtle and
Evening make up: make up that is more dramatic.
Photographic make up: make up that take into consideration
specifically the effect of the camera.
Theatrical/fantasy make up: is typically heavy and loud.
Implements and Supplies
Eyeliner: is a really thin and fine brush with soft bristles that help you line
your eyes with precision.
Eye shadow: needs brushes like contour brush.
Mascara: comes with a sturdy brush in the eyelashes.
Eyebrow brush: gives definition and shape to the eyebrows.
Foundation brush: used to apply liquid or mineral foundation over the
face, neck and even on the back.
Concealer brush: used to apply to the areas of imperfection on the face.
Powder brush: used to apply loose powder over the foundation and
Blusher blush: used to apply blush or cheek.
Lip brush: used to apply lipstick or lip gloss to the lips.

Before applying make-up, moisturize the skin,

according to the needs:
1. Apply foundation
2. Apply concealer
3. Apply powder
4. Apply eye color
5. Apply eyeliner
6. Apply eyebrow color
7. Apply mascara
8. Apply cheek color (blush)
9. Apply lip color
. Cleanup and sanitation
1. Discard disposable items
2. Disinfect implements
3. Clean and sanitize brushes
4. Place towels and linens
5. Sanitize work station
6. Wash hands

Corrective make-up
Highlighting: application of a lighter shade
of foundation to particular area of the face to
focus attention.
Shadowing/shading: application of a darker
shade of foundation to a particular feature.
Eyebrow shape to balance facial features:
Low forehead
Wide set eyes
Close set eyes
Round face
Long face
Square face

Is one of the oldest and most social professions. In
ancient times, barbers offered dental services along
with haircutting, hairdressing and shaving.
Treatment of the Hair and Scalp
The purpose of giving scalp treatment is to preserve
the health, cleanliness and beauty of the hair and
Scalp manipulations increase the circulation of the
blood to the scalp, rest and soothe the nerves,
stimulate the muscles and the activity of the scalp
The treatment of the hair and scalp includes regular
shampoo and scalp massage services as well as
special treatments for hair and scalp conditions.
Shampoo its purpose is to cleanse the scalp and hair.

Characteristics of a Good Shampoo

Shampoos do not contain harsh alkali.
Usually leave the hair in a more manageable condition.
Requirements of a good shampoo product.
It should cleanse the hair of oils, debris and dirt.
It should work efficiently in hard, as well as soft, water.
It should not irritate the eyes or skin.
It should leave the hair and scalp in their naturals
Caution: do not suggest a scalp treatment if abrasions or
lesions are present; advice clients with serious or contagious
scalp disorders to consult a physician, barbers should not
treat scalp diseases caused by parasitic or staphylococcus
infections, clients with abnormal scalp conditions should be
referred to a physician and never use a scalp or hairtreatment product that contains alcohol before applying
high frequency current. Such products can only be safely
applied after the high frequency treatment.

Hot oil treatment

Local hot oil treatment or home made scalp
treatment preparation.
Kakang-gata: this is first extract from grated coconut.
Coconut oil: the oil can be obtained by cooking the
Sabi-gata: this treatment is a mixture of the sap of
the sabila plant or aloe.
Commercial hot oil treatment.
Client comfort and protection must always be
considered during barbering services.
Drapes: protective covering used in barbering
services to protect clients clothing and skin.

Combs and Brushes

1. Massages the scalp
2. Removes loose scales
3. Stimulate blood supply.
4. Promote healthy hair growth
Types of combs and brushes
Wide-toothed comb: designed to detangle and smooth out towe-dried
Small toothed comb: used for smoOthing and finishing short or straight
Vented brush: have multiple rows of tines (widely-set) along a base with
air holes or openings to allow air to circulate easily. Give hair height
and volume as well as some directions.
Round or curved/styler brush: have rows of lines on a round or curved
base and are designed for use in blow-dry styling to add soft curve.
Best used on the bob shape cuts and mid length hair.
Paddle brushes: have rows of tines on a flat base and are used in blowdry straightened styles to keep the hair smooth and flat.

Basic hair cuts

One length (bob): the whole shape of the cut tends to
look triangular, more width at the bottom edge than
anywhere else.
Layered cut: is cut all over head at varying angles
following a guide length.
Graduated cut: is cut and held away from the outside
edge. Reducing weight and fullness on that edge and
moving it to a higher line.
Sectioning and Parting
Sectioning involves dividing the hair into manageable
controllable areas. A basic sectioning pattern would be to
part the head from the centre of the forehead to the
centre of the nape, and across the head from ear to ear.
Partings are divisions of the larger sections of hair into
smaller more manageable areas that enable you to work
progressively and methodically.

is the art of arranging the hair with attractive
shapes and styles. Choosing the hairstyle
depends on various factors. An important
factor is the shape of the face, life style,
distribution, quantity and texture of the hair,
the curliness or straightness and height.
Hairstyling techniques
Traditional: finger waving, roller setting, pin
curling, molding the hair, combination of
roller and pin curl.
Thermal styling: electrical irons, crimpers
and hot rollers

Hair setting
is an art of creating curls or weaving.
Methods of hair setting
Pin curl
are also called sculpture curls. It is a strand of
hair wound into a continuous coil and secured in
place with a hairpin or pin curl clip. It is used to
create good lines, waves, ringlets, curls and rolls.
Patterns used in pin curling
1. Clockwise direction
2. Counterclockwise direction
3. Alternate direction
4. Horsehoe pattern

Roller curl
is a way of setting the hair by
winding a wet strand of hair around a
specially made roller. It is used to
achieve the height and fullness of a
particular hairstyle.
Patterns in roller setting
1. Straight back pattern
2. Side pattern
3. Bang effect pattern
4. Dropped crown pattern