Você está na página 1de 62

Categorization of fabric

defects as major, minor and


critical defects

Critical
Defects

critical defect results


in hazardous or unsafe
conditions for individuals
using , maintaining, or
depending on the
product or prevents
performance of a
tactical function of a
major end use item.
These defects are not
common with textile
products but they may
occur with some
occupational apparel

Major defect
Major

defects are those


that adversely affect
either the appearance of
the product or its
function and
performance.

Major Defect - A defect


that, if conspicuous on
the finished product,
would cause the item to
be a second. (A "second"
is a garment with a
conspicuous defect that
affects the saleability or
serviceability of the
item.

Minor Defects
A

defect that would


not cause the product
to be termed a second
either because of
severity or location.
When inspecting piece
goods prior to cutting,
it is necessary to rate
questionable defects
as major, since the
inspector will not know
where the defect may
occur on the item.

Woven Fabric Defects

Fabric Type

Woven Fabric
Woven Fabric
Woven Fabric
Woven Fabric

Defect Name

Broken filaments
Colored Flecks
Slub
Slubby weft

Woven Fabric

Double end

Woven Fabric

Missing ends

Categorization

Major or Minor
Minor
Minor
Minor
Minor

Major

Fabric Type

Defect Name

Woven Fabric

Reed marks

Categorization

Minor

Lashing-in
Woven Fabric

Minor
Broken pattern

Woven Fabric
Woven Fabric

Major
Weft bar
Major

Woven Fabric

Gout
Minor

Woven Fabric

Broken ends woven


in a bunch

Minor

Fabric Type

Defect Name

Woven Fabric

Oily Weft

Categorization

Major or Minor
Snarls
Woven Fabric

Minor

Hole, Cut or Tear


Woven Fabric

Major

Woven Fabric

Stains

Woven Fabric

Oily Warp

Major or Minor
Major or Minor

Knitted Fabric Defects


Categorization

Fabric Type

Defect Name

Knitted Fabric

Barriness

Categorization

Major
Knitted Fabric

Variation in Yarn Count

Knitted Fabric

Cotton Contamination

Minor

Knitted Fabric

Vertical stripes

Major

Knitted Fabric

Horizontal stripes

Major

Major

Fabric Type

Defect Name

Knitted Fabric

Holes

Categorization

Major
Knitted Fabric

Dropped stitches

Knitted Fabric

Fabric Spirality

Major

Major or Minor
Knitted Fabric

Stretch marks on fab


ric surface
Major

Knitted Fabric

Curling at Edges on
Cutting

Major

Processing Defect
Categorization

Defect Name

Categorization

Bleaching Spot

Minor

Uneven dyeing/Patchy dyein


g
Dye bar

Major

Misprint/Stencil mark /Overl


apping
Uneven printing or tinting

Minor or Major

Water mark

Minor

Dye stuff stain

Major

Major

Major

Defect Name

Oil Stains

Categorization

Major or Minor

White spot
Minor
Shading or listing

Bowing

Major

Major

Pilling
Major or Minor

Defect Name

Categorization

Stain near Metallic zipper/ bu


tton

Major

Poor Dimensional Stability

Major

Poor Colorfastness to Washin


g

Major

Poor Colorfastness to Rubbin


g

Major

Poor Colorfastness to Light

Major

Lycra Yarn Breakage

Major

This was a healthy discussion


towards categorization of fabric
defects

Although it also depend on buyer to


decide as customer is the KING

Defects Due to Yarn


Broken

filaments - It occurs when the


individual filaments constituting the main
yarn are broken. This defect can not be
mended.

Defects Due to Yarn


Coloured

Flecks : Presence of
coloured foreign matter in the yarn.
It can be mended.

Defects Due to Yarn


Knots

: It occurs when broken


threads are pieced together by
improper knotting. This can be
mended by cutting.
Minor

Defects Due to Yarn


Slub

: A slub is a bunch of fibres


having less twist or no twist and has
a wider diameter compared to normal
spun yarn. It can be mended.

Defects Due to Yarn


Slubby

weft - A slubby weft is the


occurrence of slubs at frequent
intervals in the weft yarn.

Due to Weaving:
Double

end : When two or more ends

unintentionally get woven as one. This


defect is characterized by a thick bar
running parallel to the warp. It can be
mended.

Due to Weaving:
Missing

ends : This fabric is

characterized by a gap parallel to the


warp. The number of ends missing may be
one or more. It can not be mended.

Defects Due to Weaving:


Broken

ends woven in a bunch : This


defect is caused by a bunch of broken
ends woven in the fabric. It can be
mended.

Due to Weaving:
Reed

marks : A pronounced warp


way crack caused by a damaged or
defective reed. It can be mended.

Due to Weaving:
Lashing-in

: An extra piece of yarn

woven into the fabric near the selvedge. It


can be mended.

Due to Weaving:
Broken

pattern : A broken
pattern is the non-continuity of a
weave/design/pattern. It can not
be mended.

Due to Weaving:
Weft

bar - An unwanted bar,

running across the full width of a piece


which differs in appearance from the
adjacent normal fabric. This defect can
not be mended.

Due to Weaving:
Weft

crack or Missing Pick- A


narrow streak running parallel with
weft threads caused due to absence
of weft. It can be mended.

Due to Weaving:
Gout

: Gout is a foreign matter


usually lint or waste accidentally
woven into the fabric. It can be
mended easily.

Due to Weaving:
Stains:

These are defects of oil, rust,


grease or other stains found in the
fabric. Stains can be removed with
stain remover.

Due to Weaving:
Oily

Warp: These are oily or


soiled warp
Oily Weft : Streaks of dirty and
oily weft appearing across the
width of the cloth, can be full or
partial.

Due to Weaving:
Snarls

: A short length of yarn, mainly

the weft, which has spontaneously


doubled back on itself results in snarls.
If low in number it can be mended.

Due to Weaving:
Hole, Cut or Tear

Knitted fabric defects

Barriness:

An unintentional, repetitive visual


pattern of continuous bars and strips usually
parallel to the course-wise direction of circular
knit fabric.
Minor

Knitted fabric defects

Variation in Yarn Count : Use of yarn


with
significantly different yarn count or having
higher
imperfections leading to variation in dye
uptake

Knitted fabric defects

Cotton

Contamination:

Dark
Stains undetectable on grey cotton
fabric and appearing after dyeing

Knitted fabric defects

Vertical stripes: A defect that


occurs due to
defective needles or sinkers

Knitted fabric defects

Horizontal stripes: Happens when the


yarn
consumption is not uniform at all the
feeders.

Knitted fabric defects


Holes: Happens due to breakage of

yarn during loop formation.

Knitted fabric defects


Dropped

stitches: this defect is

caused when the yarn in occasionally


unhooked by the needle.

Knitted fabric defects

Fabric

Spirality:

Distortion

of

knitted fabric.
Wales are not perpendicular to the
courses;
instead follow a spiral path round the
axis of
knitted fabric tube

Knitted fabric defects

Stretch marks on fabric surface:


Due to
Lycra Damage

Knitted fabric defects

Curling at Edges on Cutting: Turning


of
knitted fabric on cutting. Happens due to
low
tightness factor of the fabric or high yarn
twist.

Bleaching Spot
The fabric is characterized by a yellow tint in the
bleached cloth. In bleached goods such a
difference will not be acceptable.

Uneven dyeing/Patchy dyeing


The

fabric is characterized by an area of light or


heavy dyeing along and across the width of the
fabric. It also includes shade variation and heavy or
light dyeing on selvedges.
Happens mainly due to water hardness, presence of
calcium, magnesium, chlorine or heavy metals in the
dye bath; defective padding

Dye bar
A bar in the weft direction due to a
difference in the
yarn count or fibre content or defective
padding
roller

Misprint/Stencil mark /Overlapping


Blockage

in

screen
Fold in the fabric
Improper
handling of
screen/stencil

Uneven printing or tinting


In

a printed fabric the design at


one place is bold as required,
while at other place the same is
hazy, light and unclear.

Water Mark
An

unwanted ripple
effect/light mark produced
on the fabric is known as a
water mark.

Due

to falling drops of

condensate during
stentering or dyeing in
jigger

Dye stuff stain


An

unwanted coloured mark on a fabric


qualifies as a dye stuff stain.
Mainly happens due to poor pre-treatment,
insufficient MLR, residual contaminants in
the substrate & water, poor material
handling ,dye paste is not filtered, improper
Major
rinsing/washing off after dyeing

Oil Stains
Improper oiling of machine
Poor material handling

White spot
The

fabric is characterized by a white


spot on an otherwise well dyed fabric.
Happens due to incompatibility of
mixture of dyes, or colours are not
properly dissolved

Shading or listing
A

gradual change of shade from selvedge


to the body of the fabric (called centre to
selvedge) or a gradual change of shade
from one selvedge to another selvedge
(called selvedge to selvedge).

Bowing
Bowing

is a condition of a fabric
wherein the warp and the weft
yarns do not keep at right angles
to each other.

Pilling
The entangling of fibres during washing,
drycleaning
or while being worn which form balls or pills
and
stand on the surface of the fabric.

Stain near Metallic zipper/ button


Insufficient washing or neutralization of
garment during wet processing resulting in
higher acidity or alkalinity of the fabric

Poor Dimensional Stability


Improper

heat setting in
polyester fabric
Sanforising/zero-zero process is
not used
Excessive stretching during
stentering & other processing

Poor Colorfastness to
Washing
Inadequate

rinsing of the fabric before


oxidation (Vat & Sulphur dyeing)

Premature
Poor

or over-oxidation of the dye

washing-off after treatment

Poor Colorfastness to
Rubbing
Dyes

used of poor rubbing


fastness
Improper use of finishing agents
Incomplete washing-off
Un-mercerized cotton

Poor Colourfastness to
Light
Using

dye of poor colour


fastness to light

Lycra Yarn Breakage


Due

to improper wet processing


i.e excessive treatment during
wet processing