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TEKNOLOGI REPRODUKSI
DAN INSEMINASI BUATAN (1)
KH SEMESTER V
DISIAPKAN OLEH
Prof.Dr.drh.Pratiwi, Ts, MS.

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T I U : SETELAH MENYELESAIKAN MATA


KULIAH INI MAHASISWA DAPAT MENGERTI
DAN TERMOTIVASI MEMPELAJARI TENTANG
TEKNOLOGI REPRODUKSI DAN INSEMINASI
BUATAN (IB)

Setelah menyelesaikan mata kuliah ini


mahasiswa dapat mengerti dan termotivasi
mempelajari tentang teknologi reproduksi
secara umum, dan manfaat dan
kegunaannya

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TIK : Inseminasi
Buatan

Mahasiswa dapat mengerti dan


mempraktekkan teknik IB, peralatan, dan
sistem pencatatan dan penilaian hasil
Pengertian, tujuan dan manfaat serta
kerugian IB
Peralatan dan fungsi bagian alat IB,
teknik merakit alat IB
Deteksi estrus, waktu optimum untuk IB,
tempat deposisi semen
Prosedur IB; dosis IB, teknik IB pada sapi,
kerbau, kambing/domba
Sistem pencatatan dan penilaian hasil IB
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TUJUAN AI
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PEJANTAN UNGGUL
KETURUNAN UNGGUL
MENGURANGI KEMUNGKINAN
TRANSMISI PENYAKIT
PENYELESAIAN BREEDING PROBLEM
Efisiensi reproduksi

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RECORD
NUTRITION
ESTROUS DETECTION
MANAGEMENT

HERD
HEALTH

DAYS OPEN

FEMALE

(85 days)

FERTILITY

CONTROL GENITAL
DISEASE

PREGNANCY

ARTIFICIAL
INSEMINATION

REDUCE AGE AT 1ST


CALVING
INCREASE % COWS CYCLING
TREAT PROBLEM COWS

DIAGNOSIS

IMPROVE AI TECHNIQUE
USE GOOD QUALITY SEMEN
BREED COWS IN STANDING
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HEAT

Advantages of Using AI
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Maximize use of outstanding sires. Thus,


enhancing the genetic value of the herd.
Providing access to high quality sires at
modest prices. Also, avoid price of
ownership.
Improve herd by selecting the best sire
match for female.
Records and genetic traits available
Prevention of disease transmission(stds)

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Advantages Continued
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Shortening of the birthing season


Improved merchandising through the use
of well publicized sires with known
reputations.
Increased safety no aggressive males
on farm (bull, stallion)
Life Insurance for the sire, will still
have offspring after he is deceased.

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Disadvantages of Using
AI

Requires skilled technician.


More labor intensive, females must be
watched to detect estrus.
Must have special handling facilities.
Training sires for collection
Accentuates poor traits if a poor sire is
selected
May increase the spread of disease

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Technology Transfer from


Develop to Under-develop Countries:
Cost, Simplicity

Insemination Sperm Wash


Oligo-spermic cap-Sperm Wash
IVF
ICSI

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Ciri birahi

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Components of Male Reproductive


Capacity
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Libido
Physical ability to mate
Total available sperm production
Quality of sperm produced
Size of testes - sperm production
Scrotal circumference
Size of cauda epididymis - storage of reserve sperm
Cryptorchidism
Testicular hypoplasia
Effect of ejaculation of sperm production

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Process of Artificial
Insemination

Semen Collection
Two

methods

Artificial

vaginas
electroejaculation

Semen Processing, Storage and


Handling
Insemination

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Rejection and accepted

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Semen
Collection
Male
is trained to mount a
teaser animal or dummy
Penis is directed into an
artificial vagina that is
temperature controlled to
be the same temperature
as the female.
Ejaculation occurs

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Frequency of collection
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Bulls

Sheep

Twice a day 2 days/week- frozen semen


Three times a week otherwise
Many times a day for several weeks

Boars and Stallions

Every other day


If everyday is required for short period, let
rest for 2-3 days between intensive
collection.
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BENTUK ABNORMAL SPZ


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Semen Analysis
NORMAL ALAMI

Alkalinity=7.2 to 7.6

Normal discharge=2-5 ml per


ejaculation

Sperm count is roughly 50130 million per ml of


ejaculate.

Morphology= <35% are


abnormal

Motility= 60% exhibit


forward motility

Survival=can live 48 hours


after ejaculation

Sterility=less than 20 million


sperm/ml

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SYARAT MINIMAL SPZ


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Semen
Processing

Dillution
Can

be diluted so that more animals can be


bred with one ejaculate

Freezing
Use

liquid nitrogen at -320F

Storage
Put

into ampules or plastic straws.

Liquid nitrogen tanks


Horse and swine semen is generally not
frozen

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Insemination
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Estrus detection in female


Timing is important sperm need to be
injected into oviduct at ovulation
Semen is thawed and placed in
inseminating device.
Technician inserts speculum into female
reproductive tract into cervix
Inseminating tube is inserted and sperm is
deposited.
Technician is well trained to avoid
damaging the reproductive tract of
females.
Cleanliness and sterilization are very
important to reduce disease transmission.

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Procedure
Cattle s
Rectovaginal technique -Straw inseminating

gun or pipet

Sheep

Speculum straw inseminating gun or pipet


Laparoscopic insemination (most common)

Swine

Cork screw pipet

Semen is deposited directly into the uterine horns


by way of surgical procedure.

pipet is hooked to bottle containing semen

Horse

Vaginal method

Straw inseminating gun or pipet


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Macho Sperm Theory


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Damaged sperm may


still fertilize an egg.
Some toxins may alter
the sperms
chromosomes which
carry genetic
information
Results infertility and
miscarriage to birth
defects, learning
disabilities and
childhood cancer and
kidney cancer

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Procedures for cattle

Collect semen
Freeze semen
Identify cow in heat
Thaw semen
Rectal palpation
Pass inseminating gun
Insemination Tubes
Deposit semen

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Bovine Estrous Cycle


19-23 days in mature cows
19-22 days in heifers
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Cycle is divided into four


periods:
Pro Est Metestrus
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Diestrus

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Insemination Timeline

SpermViability
12 to 30 h
Ova viability

spermtransport

8 to 12 h

6h

24 - 32 h
Onset of Estrus

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Ovulation

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Procedures for cattle

Collect semen
Freeze semen
Identify cow in heat
Thaw semen
Rectal palpation
Pass inseminating gunInsemination Tubes
Deposit semen

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Cows
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Procedures for swine

Lubricate spirette tip


Pass through to cervix (semen not attached)
Rotate clockwise through cervix
Attach semen bottle
Deposit semen

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Procedures for Horses

Collect semen and extend


Identify mare in heat
Prepare semen (syringe and
insemination tube)
Vaginal palpation
Pass insemination tube
Deposit semen in uterus
Syringe and
Insemination Tube

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Mares
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Future

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Growing
industry
Semen sexing

Semen
sexing
Two million
cells

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Sperm Producing Capacity


SPERM

BULL

BOAR

RAM

STALLION

x 106
/gram of
testis/day

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27

25

20

Testis wt.
(grams)

350

360

275

200

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19

14

Total
sperm
production
. (x 109
sperm)
Length of
Spermato
genesis
(Days)
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61

34

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Semen and ejaculation


characteristics of farm species
CATTLE
DAIRY
Volume
(ml)
6
Sperm
concentrati
on
(billion/ml)
1.2
Total sperm
(billion)
7
Motile
Sperm %
70
Morphologi
cally normal
sperm %
80
pH
6.5-7.0

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BEEF

HORSE
SHEEP SWINE
S

1-2

225* 400

60* 100

1.0

3.0

0.2

0.15

45

65

75

60

70

80
6.5-7.0

90
5.9-7.3

60
6.8-7.3

70
6.2-7.8

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Hafez (1992), Austin & Short (1982)


Toelihere (1985), Hunter (1981),
Sulisbury & Van Demark
(1985).Macfarlane at.al. (1992

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See you
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