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1.2.1 Aerated bulk density, abd

The particles are separated from each
other by a film of air and are not in direct
contact with each other.
Bulk density after the powder has been
Some of the methods in obtaining the
aerated density: Poured bulk density, pbd

Powder is pored into a container
Height of fall is fixed
The powder in the container must not be
Mass of powder is determined
Volume of powder is the volume inside the
cup. Tap bulk density, tbd

Bulk density of a powder, which has been
compacted by tapping or vibration
following a specific procedure.

1.3 Voidage, or porosity

The volume of the voids within the bed.
i.e. the volume occupied by air divided by
the total (overall) volume of the bed.
Void volumes includes the pores within
the particles if they are porous.

1.4 Powder Flowability Determination

No flowability test is universally applicable.
Thus series of powder flow behaviour must
be tested experimentally according to the
need of industrial application such as
powder streams in industrial storage,
transport and processing, in terms of their
range of applicability, cost and difficulty of
Since the state of the powder varies for
different types of applications, the test
chosen has to reflect the state of powder in
the actual process.
Below are some of the tests commonly
required in determining flow behaviour in
selected process plant

1.5 Compressibility (from bulk

Compression tests are mainly used for
quality control, product evaluation and to
measure the tendency for caking.
One of the way to express differences
between tap density and aerated density:

1.6 Angle of Repose

Definition: the angle of the free surface of a pile
of powder to the horizontal plane.
Whenever a heap of powder is being formed, the
angle of inclination of the free surface to the
horizontal can take any value up to a maximum.
Any attempt to build up a heap with steeper sides
results in its collapse.

Depending on the condition under which the

pile has been poured and how the angle is
measured, different values of angle can be
obtained for the same powder.
When a mixture of uniformly sized granular
particles consisting of components with
different angle of repose is poured on a heap,
the particles having steeper angle of repose
tend to concentrate in the center of the

1.7 Hausner Ratio, HR

The ratio of tbd/ abd is called the
Hausner ratio, HR (Grey and Beddow
If the ratio:
HR >1.4 : Group C
1.25 < HR < 1.4 : Transition AC
HR < 1.25 : Group A, B or D

Other available types of test such as:

Funnel/discharge est
Fluidization index, deaeration, permeability
Floodibility test
Pick up velocity
Pseudoviscosity and suspension-flow behaviour
index etc.

Thank you