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10.

1- Meiosis
Yoel Alperin and Hill Belfi

Understandings
Chromosomes replicate in interphase before meiosis
Crossing over is the exchange of DNA material between non-sister homologous
chromatids
Crossing over produces new combinations of alleles on the chromosomes of the haploid
cells
Chiasmata formation between non-sister chromatids in a bivalent can result in an
exchange of alleles
Homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis I
Sister chromatids separate in meiosis II
Independent assortment of genes is due to the random orientation of pairs of homologous
chromosomes in meiosis I

Skills
Drawing diagrams to show chiasmata formed by crossing over

Meiosis

The Reduction of the nucleus to form haploid gametes.

MAJOR DIFFERENCE: NOT A CYCLE

Chromosome Descriptions

BIVALENT
PAIR OF SISTER CHROMOSOMES

Interphase

DNA Replicates- Chromosomes replicate and are attached at a centromere


sister chromatids

Prophase I

Nuclear membrane dissolves


Centrioles move to the poles
Homologous chromosomes associate and and become bivalent
Crossing over and synapsis

Crossing Over
1) Synapsis- homologous chromosomes associate
2) Chiasma Formation- neighboring non-sister chromatids are exchanged
3) Recombination-alleles are swapped

Linked Genes Diagram

Animation

http://media.pearsoncmg.com/intl/ema
/9781447959007_BiolHL_Damon/Animations/ch10p444/index.html

Metaphase I

Random orientation occurs along equator


50% chance of going to a particular pole (Independent of each other)

Anaphase I

Homologous pair separated but sisters remain attached


Reduction division

Telophase I

Cytokinesis begins splitting the cells in 2 diploid gametes

Metaphase II

Sister chromatids align at the equator (variations because of random orientation)


Spindle fibers attach to centromeres

Anaphase II

Sister chromatids are separated and are pulled to poles

Telophase II

New haploid nuclei are formed


END PRODUCT- 4 genetically different haploid gametes

Fertalization

CREATES A DIPLOID GAMETE

Meiosis and Chromosomes

Mendels Law of Independent Assortment

The presence of an allele of one of the


genes in a gamete has no influence over
which allele of another is present
Therefore: Alleles are transmitted independently
Just because one trait is inherited by a parent does not mean other traits are also
inherited

World Context
This section has shown multiple ways in which nature tries to
increase variety in populations, and we have seen the power of
variation in natural selection. Despite our understanding of the
importance of variation for natural selection, biodiversity, and for our
health, countries all over the world are reducing the variety of crops
they plant, and are replacing balanced ecosystems with
monocultures. Are such practices sustainable? Could reducing
variety in the foods we grow and eat increase risks of famine and
other global health crises?