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Tissues of the

Body

Tissue
An aggregation of cells and cell
products of similar structure and
embryonic origin that perform a
common function

Histology
The study of tissues, especially
their structure and arrangement

1.Epithelial Tissues
They are composed of cells which form
a continues layer of sheet covering the
body surface or lining cavities within the
body.
They are compactly placed, bonded
together by the intercellular cement for
strength and often supported below by a
basement membrane.
Function: protection, absorption, sensation,
secretion , excretion, surface
transport .

Examples::
Stratum corneum of skin
Lining of the digestive tract
Lining of the Kidney tubules
Lining of windpipe and lungs
Criteria in classifying Epithelial tissues
1.Shape of cells
2.Arrangement of cells
3.Combination of shape and arrangement
4.Function

A. According to shape of cells:


1.Squamous cell is thin flattened cell
resembling the tiles in a floor or scalelike,
Examples:
stratum corneum of skin
inner surface of blood vessels
2. Cuboidal cell- the height of cell body
which is about equal to the width. It has
cube-like appearance.
Examples:
Kidney tubules, Salivary glands,
Thyroid glands

3. Columnar cell- the height of the cell


body
greatly exceeds the width resembling
pillars.
B. According to arrangement of cells in
epithelial sheets
1.Simple-composed of a single layer of cells
Example:
Inner surface of the tympanic
membrane of the ear,
Lining of blood vessels.
Bowmans capsule

2. Transitional- cells are arranged in two or


more distinct layers of varied cell shape that
is, the superficial layer is of large umbrella
shaped
cells, and its middle layer is composed of
several layers of polygonal cells and the
basal layer is composed of low columnar
cells or small polyhedral cells.
Example: urinary bladder
3. Stratified- cells are arranged in two or
more distinct layers.
Example: epidermis ,mouth , epiglottis ,
female urethra

4. Pseudostratified - cells are arranged in two


or more indistinct layers .
Example: male urethra, excretory ducts
C. According to shape and arrangement
1. Simple squamous or pavement
epithelium is a single layer of flat cells or thin
platelike cells are arranged in a single layer.
a. endothelium- lining of the vascular
organs
b. mesothelium serous membrane lining of
the large intestine, closed cavities such as
pleura of the lungs, pericardium of the heart,
and the peritoneum of the coelum.

2. Simple cuboidal epithelium is made up


of one layer of box-like cells.
Example:
Lining of ducts
Thyroid glands
The kidney tubules such as the
uriniferous tubules
3.Simple columnar epithelium is a layer of
columnar cells that adheres to one
another along their longitudinal or lateral
surface; nucleus is elongated but usually
basal in position.

Example: Tunica mucosa- it is the


innermost lining of the alimentary canal or
digestive tract from the stomach to the
anal region.
4. Stratified squamous epithelium- is made
up of two or more layers of flattened cells.
Example:
Lining of the nose and mouth cavities
Lining of vagina
Stratum corneum of the vertebrate
skin
Outer portion of the cornea of the eye

5. Stratified columnar- is made up of


several layers of columnar cells .
Example:
Stratum germinativum of the skin
Innermost layer of the epiglottis
Part of the urethra
Folds of conjunctiva
6. Stratified cuboidal is made up of several
layers of cuboidal cells .
Example:
Epidermis of many tailed amphibians

Epithelial Types
Simple Epithelium
Simple squamous inside blood vessels
Simple cuboidal lines ducts, ex. Kidney
tubules, mucous glands
Simple columnar lining of small
intestine
Pseudostratified Columnar trachea,
bronchi

Epithelial Tissue

Epithelial Tissue

Epithelium-Human Stomach

Glandular Epithelia
Epithelial
tissues
illustrate a
basic biological
principle: that
structure
closely
correlates with
function

Figure 4.4

Connective Tissue
Binds the cells and organs
of the body together
All connective tissues
consist of two basic
components: cells and
extracellular fibers
Two types of connective
tissue are:
Connective tissue proper
Specialized connective
tissue

Section 4-1

Connective Tissue

Connectiv
e Tissue

Connective Tissue
An important structural component of organs
Consists of two types:
Dense connective tissue
Loose connective tissue

Connective Tissue

Specialized Connective Tissues


Perform specific functions essential to homeostasis
The body contains three types of specialized
connective tissue:
Cartilage
Bone
Blood

Cartilage
Consists of specialized
cells embedded in a
matrix of extracellular
fibers and other
extracellular material

Blood
Contains blood cells,
platelets, plasma

Osseous Tissue
Bone
Consists of bone cells
(osteocytes) and a
calcified cartilage
matrix
Two types of bone
tissue exist:
spongy and
compact

Osseous Tissue

Muscle Tissue
Consists of specialized cells that contract when
stimulated
The body has three types of muscle tissue:
Skeletal (voluntary)
Cardiac (involuntary)
Smooth muscle (involuntary)

Muscle Tissue

M
u
s
c
l
e
T
i
s
s
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e

Nervous Tissue
Contains specialized
cells that conduct
impulses
Conducting cells, called
neurons, transmit
impulses from one region
of the body to another.
Nonconducting cells,
neuroglia, are a type of
nervous system
connective tissue.

Nerve Tissue

Nerve Tissue

Organ Systems
Tissues combine to form organs.
Organs are discrete structures that have evolved to
perform specific functions
Most organs do not function alone, they are part of
a group of cooperative organs, called an organ
system.