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Power Quality

Improvement

INTRODUCTION OF POWER
QUALITY
Power Quality is a combination of Voltage profile,
Frequency profile, Harmonics contain and reliability of
power supply.

The Power Quality is defined as the degree to which


the power supply approaches the ideal case of stable,
uninterrupted, zero distortion and disturbance free supply.

This presentation represents an overviews of electric


power quality with special emphasis on power quality
problems.
The adverse impact on utility of customers and their
mitigation techniques.
This presentation also deals with serious power quality
problems such as voltage distortion due to current
harmonics, flicker ,voltage sag and voltage surge..etc
Power quality is related to deliver of CLEAN
electric power that compile with industry standards.

CAUSES OF POOR POWER QUALITY

Variation in voltage magnitude and frequency.

Variation in magnitude can be due to sudden rise or fall of


load , outages, repetitive varying loading pattern in rolling
mills, power electronic converters, inverters, lightning..etc

Variation in frequency can rise of out of system dynamics


or harmonics injection.

POWER QUALITY COVERS


1.

Reliability :- continuous availability,


interruption/breakdown/outage free

2.
.
.
.
.

Parameters:Voltage- flicker, swell, sag/dip, unbalance


Frequency- drop or rise
Harmonics contains- SCR, converters, inverters etc.
Transients

SOURCES OF POOR POWER QUALITY


Non

linear loads
Arcing loads
Switching operation
Reactive loads
Atmospheric condition
Unstable loads
Neighboring unbalance system

TYPICAL POWER QUALITY


PROBLEMS
Voltage

Sags :- A reduction in RMS voltage or

current at the power frequency.

Voltage Surge:- voltage variation can be


positive (higher than normal) or negative (lower
than normal)

Transients:-

it manifest only as a short


duration change in voltage due to switching
ON and OFF the loads.

Harmonics:-

it is an integer multiple of
fundamental frequency in the sine wave of
power supply or simply distortion of
waveforms.

Lightning:-

It produces very high currents, for


a short time interval, but enough to cause fires
or to destroy microcircuits.

IMPACT OF POOR POWER QUALITY

The effect of poor power quality problems has serious implication on


the utilities and customers.
Higher losses in transformers, cables .
Neutral wire burning due to third harmonics generated by non linear
loads.
Power factor capacitors may punctures.
Energy meters will give faulty readings.
Solid state protective relays may damaged .
Speed drives may shut down.
Motor will increase core and cu losses
Non sinusoidal waveforms will reduce the efficiency of motors.
Electronic computer may loss data due to voltage variation .
Domestics TV and other equipments are affected by the poor quality.

SYMPTOMS
PROBLEM

OF

POWER

QUALITY

Electronic controlled system that stop unexpectedly


Abnormal failure of electronic systems
Transformer overheating
Motor failing
Power factor capacitors failing
Test results will unreliable

TECHNIQUES TO MITIGATE
POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS
Compensation

techniques can be broadly classified into


two main categories:1. Passive techniques
2. Active techniques
Passive techniques employ the following devices.
* Passive Shunt L-C Filters
* Power Factor Correction Capacitors
Active techniques employ the following devices.
*PWM Active Filters.

SOME OTHER TECHNIQUES


Segregate sensitive loads on separate
branch circuits , fed from a separate panel
board , fed from a separate feeders
Use of harmonics rated circuit breakers,
panel board and transformers.
Use surge and lightning protection.
Oversize phase conductors to minimize
voltage drop.
Choose material of superior quality.

CONCLUSION
The wide spread applications of non-linear power
electronics loads increases the poor power quality in the
electric systems. This presentation has focused broadly on
the utilities and customers in the power system. At the
same time, the sources of poor power quality and their
mitigations techniques has discussed in brief. The
effectives means of compensation through various
techniques have also been highlighted.

THANK YOU!!!