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# ANALYSIS OF AN AUTOMOBILE

WHY ANALYSIS ??

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Structural analysis comprises the set of physical laws and mathematics
required to study and predict the behavior of structures
This analysis is used to judge the ultimate loads
This analysis incorporates the fields of mechanics and dynamics
Examples are buildings, bridges, aircraft, train wagon, car and ships
This is theoretical analysis and deals with computation of
deformations, internal forces and stresses
Basically structural analysis is alienated in below mentioned verities
of analysis
Strength of materials method
Elasticity method
Finite element method

ANALYSIS OF AN AUTOMOBILE

LINEAR STATIC

## NON LINEAR STATIC

DYNAMIC

BUCKLING

THERMAL
CFD

FATIGUE OR DURABILITY
OPTIMIZATION

CRASH
NOISE, VIBRATION, AND HARSHNESS ANALYSIS

## LINEAR STATIC ANALYSIS

LINEAR :This analysis deals with stress strain diagram.
= E
STATIC :There are two conditions for static analysis
Df / dT =0
2) Equilibrium condition
( Fx, Fy, Fz)+( Mx,My,Mz)=0
Practical applications :Aerospace, Automobile, Offshore and civil engineering
pro-mechanica, Catia etc

## NON LINEAR ANALYSIS

In this analysis there are three parameters
Geomentrical : Deals with the deflection
= PL3/3 EI
Contact : To simulate the physical gap between two parts
Material based : it is three types
Metallic nonlinear:
Automobile, Aerospace, Ship industries. For low cycle fatigue
analysis, we can take this data as input
Non Metallic-non linear: Automobile, Aerospace, rubber, plastic, asbestos, fibre
components
Creep: At elevated temperature even small magnitude force if kept applied over long
time period would cause failure
Applications: Nuclear /Thermal power plants, civil engineering
Software's used : Abaqus, Nastran, Ansys, Marc, Radioss ,LS-dyna

## FATIGUE OR DURABILITY ANALYSIS

calculations for life of the structure when subjected to repetitive load
S-N curve or -N curves gives the basic knowledge for calculations of fatigue

## Damage < 1 safe

Damage > 1 fail
Application
: All Automobile components
Softwares used : MSC Fatigue.FEMFAT,FE SAFE,LMS

DYNAMIC ANALYSIS
Dynamic analysis can be done in two ways
[M] +[C]+[k]U=F(t)
Free (natural frequency): The frequency with which any object will vibrate (no
external force applied)
forced: The frequency with which object will vibrate with response to external
force applied
Applications : subjected to force / displacement / velocity / acceleration varying
With respect to rate of frequency
Softwares used :Nastran, Ansys, Abaqus, Matlab, I-deasNX, Radioss

## NOISE,VIBRATION,AND HARSHNESS ANALYSIS

Also known as noise and vibration (N&V), is the study and modification of the noise
and vibration characteristics of vehicles, particularly cars and trucks
Harshness is a subjective quality, and is measured either via "jury" evaluations, or
with analytical tools that provide results reflecting human subjective impressions
Interior NVH deals with noise and vibration experienced by the occupants of the
cabin, while exterior NVH is largely concerned with the noise radiated by the vehicle,
and includes drive-by noise testing
In some cases the NVH engineer is asked to change the sound quality, i.e. adding
or subtracting particular harmonics, rather than making the car quieter

BUCKLING ANALYSIS

C2 EA
(l/k)2

## Applicable only for compressive load (columns)

Slender beam & sheet metal parts
Bending stiffness<<<axial stiffness
Large lateral deformation
Output from software is critical value of load
Applications : vacuum vessel, long gear shifter rod analysis
Softwares used : Nastran, Ansys ,Abacus

THERMAL ANALYSIS

## Applications: Engine, Radiator , Exhaust System, Power Plants, Satellite Design

Softwares Used : Ansys,Nanstran,Abaqus,I-deas NX

OPTIMIZATION
Basically in two categories
Geometrical Parameters
Shape optimization
For optimizing geometrical parameters, there is no particular software
But we can set some pre defined parameters within specified limits
In shape case : usually restricted to only linear static & normal mode of dynamics
In this software can give hint for addition or removal of geometry
Applications : prototype designing
Softwares used : Optistruct, Tosca, Nastran, Ansys

## COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS(CFD)

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the branch of fluid mechanics which uses
Numerical methods to analyze fluid dynamics problems.
Fluid Mechanics

## Fluid Statics (Hydrostatics)

Fluid at rest
Easy from calculation point of view
No variation wrt time, less realistic view
Linear equations
Civil engineering: Dam design

Fluid Dynamics
Fluid in motion
Calculations are more complex
Variation wrt time considered.
Non-linear equations
Aerospace, automobile & valves.

Applications : drag prediction and stream lining of a car, combustion chamber design to
check an optimum fuel-air mixing
Softwares used : Fluent ,star CD ,CFX,CFD Expert

CRASH ANALYSIS
MAINLY IN THREE CATAGORIES
CRASH TEST :
To find deformation, stress and energy absorbing capacity of Various
structural components of a vehicle hitting a stationary or moving object. The
component is said to be crashworthy if it meets the plastic strain and energy
targets.
DROP TEST:
It is free fall test carried out to check the structural integrity of the component
PEDESTRAIN :
To find the effects of crash on human body and making the ride safe for driver
as well as passengers.

CRASH TEST
A crash test is a form of destructive testing usually performed in order to ensure
safe design standards in Crashworthiness and crash compatibility for automobiles
or related components
Crash tests are conducted under rigorous scientific and safety standards. Each
crash test is very expensive so the maximum amount of data must be extracted
from each test. Usually, this requires the use of high-speed data-acquisition, at
least one triaxial accelerometer and a crash test dummy
Crash test integrates the biomechanics to study about safety of occupants
Main tests in the Crash analysis of the car is
Front impact test
Rear impact test
Side impact test
Offset impact test
Pole or street light impact test
Pedestrian impact test

BIO MECHANICS
The application of mechanical principles to living organisms. This includes
bioengineering, the research and analysis of the mechanics of living
organisms and the application of engineering principles to and from biological
system

## Thermodynamics,continuum mechanics and mechanical engineering disciplines

such as fluid mechanics and solid mechanics, play prominent roles in the study of
biomechanics. By applying the laws and concepts of physics, biomechanical
mechanisms and structures can be simulated and studied.

CRASH DUMMY
Crash test dummies are full-scale anthropomorphic test devices (ATD) that
simulate the dimensions, weight proportions and articulation of the human body
instrumented to record data about the dynamic behavior of the ATD in
simulated vehicle impacts
Gathers the information of variables such as velocity of impact, crushing force,
bending, folding, or torque of the body, and deceleration rates during a collision
for use in crash tests. They remain indispensable in the development of and
ergonomics in all types of vehicles, i.e. from automobiles to aircraft.
BioRID is a dummy designed to assess the effects of a rear
impact
CRABI is a child dummy used to evaluate the effectiveness
of child restraint devices
SID is the side impact dummy
THOR is an advanced male dummy
The dummies contain three types of sensors
Accelerometers
Motion sensors

FRONT IMPACT
Frontal crash testing: For frontal crash test, the car is driven at a speed of 35
miles per hour into a wall. Wall resembles another car driving at a same speed.
This testing is mainly done to determine the impact of head collision. The testing
area is fitted with a camera that records the action or impact of collision

REAR IMPACT
IIHS is the only US organization to asses rear crash protection.Both static and motion
tests are required for the IIHS to evaluate the rear crash protection. In the static one, a
crash test dummy sized as an average adult male is put in the driving seat which is tilted
at about 25 degrees. The head restraint should be 3.5 inches or less from the top of the
head and less than four inches from the back of the head. If it is adjustable (which in
most cases is), measurements are taken in both the down position and the most
favorable position

SIDE IMPACT
Side impact crash testing: In side impact crash test, the car is driven against a
trolley of 1,368 kg that slides with the sides of the car. The trolley is composed of
aluminum to imitate another vehicle bumper. The fitted cameras record the impact
of collision from the sides of the car

OFFSET IMPACT
In the frontal offset impact test :a vehicle is aligned with a rigid barrier with a
deformable aluminum face so that 40% of the width of the vehicle strikes the
barrier on the driver's side
The vehicle runs into the barrier at 64 km/h (40 mph), in order to measure and
evaluate the impact on the dummies' head, chest, and legs - as well as to check
the condition of the deformed vehicle. Because a smaller portion of the vehicle's
structure sustains the force, the impact on the dummy is weaker than in a full
frontal impact

## STREET LIGHT OR POLE IMPACT

Euro NCAP introduced the 'pole' test in 2000 to assess the degree of protection
offered
The car is propelled front and sideways at 18mph (29kph) into a rigid pole. The
pole is relatively narrow, and usually penetrates the side of the car deeply

PEDESTRIAN IMPACT
Estimates injuries to pedestrians struck by a vehicle travelling
at 40km/h
it consists of dummy components projected at the vehicle front and bonnet to
evaluate injury risk for the head of an adult and child, upper leg and knee.

ROLL OVER
Roll-over Tests which tests a car's ability (specifically the pillars holding the roof) to
support itself in a dynamic impact. More recently dynamic rollover tests have been
proposed as opposed to static crush testing (video)

## MESHING AND MESHING ELEMENTS

Meshing : method of reducing degrees of freedom from infinite to finite with help of
discretization
This is the input for crash analysis software
Basic meshing notations are
Nodes and elements
Nodes are the vertices of the elements
Types of elements
1-D elements :element shape is line
2-D elements :shape is quad, tri
3-D elements :shape is tetra, penta,hex,pyramid

## CRASH AVOIDANCE SYSTEMS

Crash avoidance systems and devices help the driver and help the vehicle itself to
avoid a collision. It includes the fallowing functions
The vehicle's headlamps, reflectors, and other lights and signals
The vehicle's brakes, steering, and suspension systems
A subset of crash avoidance is driver assistance systems, which help the driver to
detect ordinarily-hidden obstacles and to control the vehicle. It includes:
Traction control systems which restore traction if driven wheels begin to spin
Tire pressure monitoring systems or Deflation Detection Systems
Reverse backup sensors, which alert drivers to difficult-to-see objects in their path
when reversing
Electronic Stability Control, which intervenes to avert an impending loss of control
Lane departure warning systems to alert the driver of an unintended departure
from the intended lane of travel
Adaptive cruise control which maintains a safe distance from the vehicle in front
Anti-lock braking systems
Electronic brake force distribution systems
Cornering Brake Control systems
Emergency brake assist systems
Forward Collision Warning Systems
Dynamic Brake Control systems

SENSOR ROLE
Crash sensors collect the data necessary to make decisions about air bag
deployment.
Crash sensors measure how quickly a vehicle slows down in a frontal crash or
accelerates to the side in a side-impact crash. Some vehicles are equipped with a
sensing system designed to detect the onset of a rollover crash.
Frontal crash sensors may be located in the front of the vehicle near the engine,
in the passenger compartment, or sometimes in the electronic control unit (ECU).
Side-impact crash sensors may be located in the ECU, the door, the doorsill, or
between the front and rear doors.
Rollover crash sensors may be located in the ECU or at the vehicle's center of
gravity.
Severe or panic braking alone cannot cause an air bag to deploy; air bags
deploy only in crashes

## RATIONALISATION IN DESIGNING THE SENSORS

Nissan design: combines radar sensors and a computer system to judge a car's
speed and the distance to the vehicle in front
Toyota design: The AVM, or "around view monitor," shows what's surrounding the
car from all around, putting together photo images from the cameras to help
drivers steer into tight parking spots
very useful in a crowded country like Japan
Toyota design: Intelligent Parking Assist system, in which the car parks by itself
even if the driver has no hands on the steering wheel
calculating from its built-in computer, steering sensor and a tiny camera in the
rear the proper route into a parking spot

SAFETY MEASURES
Seatbelts limit the forward motion of an occupant, stretch to slow down the occupant's
deceleration in a crash, and prevent occupants being ejected from the vehicle
Airbags inflate to cushion the impact of a vehicle occupant with various parts of the
vehicle's interior
Laminated windshields remain in one piece when impacted, preventing penetration of
control of the car immediately following a collision. tempered glass side and rear windows
break into granules with minimally sharp edges, rather than splintering into jagged
fragments as ordinary glass does
Crumple zones absorb and dissipate the energy of a collision, displacing and diverting it
away from the passenger compartment and reducing the impact force on the vehicle
occupants
Side impact protection beams
Collapsible steering columns reduce the risk and severity of driver impalement on the
column in a frontal crash
pedestrian protection systems
Padding of the instrument panel and other interior parts of the vehicle likely to be struck
by the occupants during a crash

## AIR CUSHION RESTRAINT SYSTEM

Airbags were created to prevent a driver and/or passenger from hitting the
interior structure of the vehicle in a car accident. When an airbag deploys, it
protects the occupants from moving forward into the steering wheel or
dashboard
airbag must inflate quickly, it can deploy at an extreme force, typically at a
speed of 100 miles per hour.
Airbag is a gas generator containing a mixture of nan3, KNO3, and Sio2
The more complex sensors, called Micro- Machined Accelerometers are
mounted inside the control module, or airbag brain itself. These actually
measure the speed and severity of the crash
control module detects true crash, and it will send an impulse to the igniter
After deflation of the airbag, Simply open the doors or windows to ventilate
the vehicle
Now a days head protecting air bags also being fitted in cars

## SEAT BELTS AND LATCHES

A seat belt, sometimes called a safety belt, is a safety harness designed to secure
the occupant of a vehicle against harmful movement that may result from a collision or
a sudden stop i.e. preventing the passenger from being thrown from the vehicle
Types of seat belts
Lap
Sash
3-point
LATCH is a system that makes child safety seat installation easierwithout using
seat belts
Fasten the child safety seats lower attachments to the vehicles lower anchors.
Tighten and adjust according to the instructions and check for a secure fit
LATCH is required on child safety seats and most vehicles manufactured after
September 1, 2002.

## WHAT IS NCAP AND ITS ROLES

NCAP : NEW CAR ASSESSMENT PROGRAM
Organization, that deals with biomechanics research focuses on reducing
transportation-related injuries and fatalities.
NCAP roles
It executes the fallowing tests on the costumer's vehicle
safety and child restraint systems
rollover injury risk
vehicle to vehicle compatibility
airbag system performance
occupant injury tolerances
blunt traumatic aortic injury (TAI)
side-impact injury patterns
crash investigation variables
automotive fire safety

NCAP AGENCIES
ARAI

IIHS

NCAP US

FMVSS

NHTSA

Euro NCAP

ANCAP

NASVA

Japan

## CRASH TEST RATINGS

The most significant safety determinant is

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Body Structures according to aerodynamics
Provision of Structural Integrity
Optimum stiffness
Controlled energy absorption during crash
Sufficient durability (>10years)
Sufficient openings in hollow parts
give access and drainage of anticorrosion
chemicals and paints during
Manufacturing feasibility
Necessary access for welding tools

SUITABLE MATERIALS
Manufacturing engineers and designers suggests the material depending
upon the fallowing parameters
Functional area of the component
based on strength-per-unit mass
fatigue limit
chemical Protective and cost
COMMON QUALITIES
weight reduction
Aluminum
Plastic
Sandwich structure

## TOP TEN SAFETY CARS IN 2009

Mercedes-Benz M Class
Safety Features: Dual front and rear sidemounted airbags; front and rear head
restraints that reduce neck injuries

Audi Q7
Safety Features: Driver and passenger
side airbags for chest and pelvis
under the instrument panel to protect
feet and legs.
REST OF THE CARS YOU CAN SEE
IN SHARE FOLDER