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Cellular Systems

Market
GSM

Overview
Services
Sub-systems
Components

GPRS
EDGE

Worldwide cellular subscriber growth

Mobile Wireless Generations

Data
Rate,
Quality,
Capacity,
Services

3.9G About Broadband


SAE/LTE, UMB
WiMAX
3G About data
EVDO, WCDMA,
HSPA, EDGE
2.5G
GPRS, 1xRTT
2G - Digital
GSM, TDMA,
CDMA,PDC, DECT

1G - Analog
AMPS, TACS, NMT
1980

1990

2000

2010

Growth in peak and average spectral efficiency

Peak efficiency lies


around upper line
Average efficiency of
deployed systems lags
well behind
Capacity growth and will
level off due to
interference
Cells need to get
smaller!!

Source: Agilent

Migration To 3G
3G

2.75G
Intermediate
Multimedia

2.5G
2G

Multimedia

Packet Data

Digital Voice

1G
Analog Voice

GPRS

GSM

EDGE

W-CDMA
(UMTS)

384 Kbps

Up to 2 Mbps

115 Kbps

NMT

9.6 Kbps

GSM/
GPRS

TD-SCDMA

(Overlay)
115 Kbps

2 Mbps?

TDMA
TACS

9.6 Kbps

iDEN
9.6 Kbps

iDEN
PDC

(Overlay)

9.6 Kbps

AMPS

CDMA 1xRTT

CDMA

PHS

1984 - 1996+

14.4 Kbps
/ 64 Kbps

1992 - 2000+

PHS
(IP-Based)

144 Kbps

64 Kbps

2001+

2003+

cdma2000
cdma2000
1X 1X-EV-DV
EV-DO revA
Over 2.4 Mbps

2003 - 2004+
Source: U.S. Bancorp Piper Jaffray

Global Technology Roadmap: 3G to 4G

3GPP

3GPP2

WiMAX

WCDMA

CDMA1x

HSDPA

EV-DO
Rev 0

HSUPA

EV-DO
Rev A

EV-DO
Rev B

Fixed
WiMAX

LTE

EV-DO
Rev C

Mobile
WiMAX

3G rel99 Architecture (UMTS)

2G MS (voice only)

CN
BSS
E

Abis

PSTN

PSTN

B
BSC
Gb

BTS

MSC
Gs

GMSC

VLR

SS7

2G+ MS (voice & data)

IuCS
RNS

Gr

HLR

ATM
Iub

IuPS
RNC

AuC

Gc

Gn
SGSN

Gi

IP

PSDN

GGSN

Node B
3G UE (voice & data)
BSS Base Station System

CN Core Network

SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node

BTS Base Transceiver Station

MSC Mobile-service Switching Controller

GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node

BSC Base Station Controller

VLR Visitor Location Register


HLR Home Location Register

RNS Radio Network System

AuC Authentication Server

RNC Radio Network Controller

GMSC Gateway MSC

UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

AMPS

Design Goals of AMPS


The very first cellular phone technology Conceived by Bell Labs
High voice quality (near wire line)
Small coverage area (cell radius: 1-16 miles)
Large cells thermal noise limited and small cells interference limited
666 channels (later increased to 832 channels)
Low power mobile (handheld) transmitters (4 watts or less)
Medium power base stations (100s of watts)
Low blocking (2%) during busy hour
Immediate service (1-5 business days; now 1-5 hours)
System capacity for 100,000 or more customers per city

Characteristics of AMPS

Frequency range (45 MHz separation):


824 MHz ~ 849 MHz for mobile stations to transmit
869 MHz ~ 894 MHz for base station to transmit
3 KHz analog voice channels modulated on to 30 KHz channels
FM (frequency modulation) for voice
MFM (Manchester frequency modulation) at 10 kbps for data
Control channels
Voice channels

AMPS Frequency Allocation

Band A

Transmit:

824 MHz ~ 835 MHz and 845 MHz ~846.48 MHz

Receive:

869 MHz ~ 880 MHz and 890 MHz ~ 891.5 MHz

Transmit:

835 MHz ~ 845 MHz and 846.5 MHz ~ 849 MHz

Receive:

880 MHz ~ 890 MHz and 891.5 MHz ~ 894 MHz

Band B

312 usable RF pairs divided by 7 (the reuse factor)


= roughly 45 channel pairs per cell

Digital Cellular - D-AMPS


During 1990s, analog cellular service increased in popularitycarriers
wanted to add capacity (besides just breaking up cells into smaller
sizes) and wanted to add new servicesled to development of digital
cellular
Designed with backward compatibility in mind

Digital Cellular
Advantages
more efficient use of bandwidth (more capacity)
new services (caller ID, call waiting, data service)
improved security (harder to listen in because digital bits are
scrambled when they are multiplexed using TDMA or CDMA

D-AMPS (IS-54)
800-900 MHz and 1900 MHz
TDMA/FDMA
6 slots per channel/2 slots per conversation
30 KHz channel
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation

Emphasis on vehicular traffic


AT&T called their 800-900 D-AMPS system PCS

FDMA/TDMA in D-AMPS

FDMA: divide assigned bandwidth into several


channels
TDMA: 3 calls (2 time slots each) per channel
Frq1 TS 1 TS 2 TS 3 TS 4 TS 5 TS 6
Frq2 TS 1 TS 2 TS 3 TS 4 TS 5 TS 6
Frq3 TS 1 TS 2 TS 3 TS 4 TS 5 TS 6
Frq4 TS 1 TS 2 TS 3 TS 4 TS 5 TS 6

CDMA (IS-95)
Most systems use direct sequence SS
1.25 MHz channels (in narrowband)
Same frequencies used in all cells

means no need for complex frequency coordination

10 fold capacity gain over AMPS


Main problem is controlling power

Other CDMA Benefits


No hard capacity limit
too many users increases general level of system noise, but doesn't
block caller
Soft handoffs
using same frequency in each cell means that handoffs can be
gradual
Variable rate vocoding (voice coding)
reduces bit rate when caller not speaking
Multipath signal processing techniques increase signal integrity
More secure transmissions

GSM

GSM: Overview
GSM

formerly: Groupe Spciale Mobile (founded 1982)


now: Global System for Mobile Communication
Pan-European standard (ETSI, European Telecommunications
Standardisation Institute)
simultaneous introduction of essential services in three phases (1991,
1994, 1996) by the European telecommunication administrations
(Germany: D1 and D2)
seamless roaming within Europe possible
today many providers all over the world use GSM (more than 212
countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia, America)
more than 4.3 billion subscribers
more than 70% of all digital mobile phones use GSM
over 10 billion SMS per month in Germany, > 360 billion/year worldwide

Performance characteristics of GSM (wrt. analog sys.)


Communication

mobile, wireless communication; support for voice and data


services

Total mobility

international access, chip-card enables use of access points of


different providers

Worldwide connectivity

one number, the network handles localization

High capacity

better frequency efficiency, smaller cells, more customers per cell

High transmission quality

high audio quality and reliability for wireless, uninterrupted phone


calls at higher speeds (e.g., from cars, trains)

Security functions

access control, authentication via chip-card and PIN

Architecture of the GSM system


several providers setup mobile networks following the GSM standard within
each country
components

MS (mobile station)
BS (base station)
MSC (mobile switching center)
LR (location register)

subsystems
RSS (radio subsystem): covers all radio aspects
NSS (network and switching subsystem): call forwarding, handover, switching
OSS (operation subsystem): management of the network

GSM: overview
OMC, EIR,
AUC
HLR
NSS
with OSS
VLR

MSC

GMSC

VLR

fixed network

MSC

BSC
BSC
RSS

GSM: elements and interfaces

radio cell
MS

BSS

MS

Um

radio cell
MS

BTS

RSS

BTS
Abis
BSC

BSC

A
MSC
NSS

MSC

VLR

signaling

VLR
HLR

GMSC
IWF
O

OSS

EIR

AUC

OMC

ISDN, PSTN
PDN

GSM: system architecture


radio
subsystem
MS

network and
switching subsystem

MS

ISDN
PSTN
MSC

Um
BTS

fixed
partner networks

Abis
EIR
SS7

BTS

BSC

VLR

BTS
BTS
BSS

HLR

BSC
A

MSC
IWF

ISDN
PSTN
PSPDN
CSPDN

System architecture: radio subsystem


radio
subsystem
MS

network and switching


subsystem

MS

Components
MS (Mobile Station)
BSS (Base Station Subsystem):
consisting of

Um
BTS

Abis

BTS

BSC

MSC

BTS (Base Transceiver Station):


sender and receiver
BSC (Base Station Controller):
controlling several transceivers

Interfaces
BTS
BTS
BSS

A
BSC

MSC

Um : radio interface

Abis : standardized, open interface with


16 kbit/s user channels
A: standardized, open interface with
64 kbit/s user channels

System architecture: network and switching subsystem


network
subsystem

fixed partner
networks

ISDN
PSTN

Components
MSC (Mobile Services Switching Center):
IWF (Interworking Functions)

MSC

SS7

EIR

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)


PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network)
PSPDN (Packet Switched Public Data Net.)
CSPDN (Circuit Switched Public Data Net.)

HLR
Databases

VLR
MSC
IWF

ISDN
PSTN
PSPDN
CSPDN

HLR (Home Location Register)


VLR (Visitor Location Register)
EIR (Equipment Identity Register)

Radio subsystem
The Radio Subsystem (RSS) comprises the cellular mobile network up to
the switching centers
Components

Base Station Subsystem (BSS):


Base Transceiver Station (BTS): radio components including sender, receiver,
antenna - if directed antennas are used one BTS can cover several cells
Base Station Controller (BSC): switching between BTSs, controlling BTSs,
managing of network resources, mapping of radio channels (Um) onto terrestrial
channels (A interface)

BSS = BSC + sum(BTS) + interconnection

Mobile Stations (MS)

GSM: cellular network


segmentation of the area into cells
possible radio coverage of the cell

cell

idealized shape of the cell

use of several carrier frequencies


not the same frequency in adjoining cells
cell sizes vary from some 100 m up to 35 km depending on user
density, geography, transceiver power etc.
hexagonal shape of cells is idealized (cells overlap, shapes depend on
geography)
if a mobile user changes cells
handover of the connection to the neighbor cell

Example coverage of GSM networks (www.gsmworld.com)


T-Mobile (GSM-900/1800) Berlin

Vodafone (GSM-900/1800)

e-plus (GSM-1800)

O2 (GSM-1800)

Network and switching subsystem


NSS is the main component of the public mobile network GSM

switching, mobility management, interconnection to other networks, system


control

Components
Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC)
controls all connections via a separated network to/from a mobile terminal
within the domain of the MSC - several BSC can belong to a MSC
Databases (important: scalability, high capacity, low delay)

Home Location Register (HLR)


central master database containing user data, permanent and semi-permanent
data of all subscribers assigned to the HLR (one provider can have several
HLRs)
Visitor Location Register (VLR)
local database for a subset of user data, including data about all user currently
in the domain of the VLR

Mobile Services Switching Center


The MSC (mobile switching center) plays a central role in GSM

switching functions
additional functions for mobility support
management of network resources
interworking functions via Gateway MSC (GMSC)
integration of several databases

Functions of a MSC

specific functions for paging and call forwarding


termination of SS7 (signaling system no. 7)
mobility specific signaling
location registration and forwarding of location information
provision of new services (fax, data calls)
support of short message service (SMS)
generation and forwarding of accounting and billing information

Operation subsystem
The OSS (Operation Subsystem) enables centralized operation,
management, and maintenance of all GSM subsystems
Components

Authentication Center (AUC)


generates user specific authentication parameters on request of a VLR
authentication parameters used for authentication of mobile terminals and
encryption of user data on the air interface within the GSM system

Equipment Identity Register (EIR)


registers GSM mobile stations and user rights
stolen or malfunctioning mobile stations can be locked and sometimes even
localized

Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC)

different control capabilities for the radio subsystem and the network subsystem

Mobile Terminated Call


1: calling a GSM subscriber
2: forwarding call to GMSC
3: signal call setup to HLR
4, 5: request MSRN from VLR
6: forward responsible
MSC to GMSC
7: forward call to
current MSC
8, 9: get current status of MS
10, 11: paging of MS
12, 13: MS answers
14, 15: security checks
16, 17: set up connection

HLR

4
5

3 6
calling
station 1

PSTN

GMSC

10

VLR

8 9
14 15
MSC

10 13
16

10

BSS

BSS

BSS

11

11

11

11 12
17
MS

Mobile Originated Call


1, 2: connection request
3, 4: security check
5-8: check resources (free circuit)
9-10: set up call

VLR

3 4
PSTN

5
GMSC

MSC

8
2 9
MS

1
10

BSS