Você está na página 1de 24

CHAPTER 5:

CHEMICAL BONDS
IONIC BONDS

COVALENT BONDS

Formation:

Formation:
Metal atoms + non metal Non-metal atoms + nonmetal atoms ions
atoms ions
Involve sharing of
Involve transfer of
electrons from metal non- electrons b/w non-metal
atoms
metal
PRODUCT:
PRODUCT:
Ionic compounds
covalent compounds
May exist in solid at room temp May exist in solid, liquid & gas
high melting and boiling point
Low melting and boiling point
Can conduct electricity
Do not conduct electricity

EXPLANATI
ON

IONIC COMPOUND

COVALENT
COMPOUND

1. Melting
& Boiling
point

High
ions attracted by strong
electrostatic forces
amount of heat -needed
break strong ionic bonds hold the ions together

Low
compound - held
together by weak
intermolecular forces
(van der Waals
forces)
energy required
-overcome the forces

2.
solid state-xconduct
Conducting electric -ions in fixed
electricity
position + xmove freely
aqueous /molten stateions move freely - transfer
electric

Consist of neutral
molecules-cannot
conduct electricity in
ANY state

3. Solubility Most soluble in H2O


H2O molecule attract

Most soluble in
organic solvent

EXAMPLE IONIC COMPOUND: FORMATION OF


MgO

Mg atom has proton no of ...


Electron arrangement Mg atomMg atom has . valence electron
To achieve stable ... electron arrangement, Mg atom releases ...e to form ..

O2 atom has proton no of ..


Electron arrangement O2 atomO2 atom has Valence electron
To achieve stable . electron arrangement, O2 atom accepts .e to form .
The oppositely-charged ions, Mg2+ & O2- formed are strongly attracted to each

EXAMPLE COVALENT COMPOUNT : FORMATION


OF H2O

O2 atom has proton no of ...


Electron arrangement O2 atom .. & has . valence electron
O2 atom needs ... more electron to achieve stable ... electron arrangement
H atom has proton no of ..
Electron arrangement H atom-. & has Valence electron
H atom needs ... more electron to achieve stable ... electron arrangement
hydrogen atoms will combine with oxygen atom through . electron.
Each .. Hydrogen atoms contribute . electrons while .. Oxygen atom
contributes electrons for sharing
.. Oxygen atom is bonded to each .. Hydrogen atoms by a shared pair of

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE


SCIENTIST HISTORICAL
Antoine
lavoiser

1st scientist to classify substances including light & heat into


metal & non-metal
Fail! a few other compounds were also considered as elements

Johann
Dobereiner

Divides element into groups of 3 elements similar properties


(Dobereiner triads)

John
newlands

Arranged known elements in order of increasing atomic mass


Known as LAW of OCTAVEs
FAIL!-obeyed by first 17 elements only

Lothar
meyer

Plot graph atomic volume vs atomic mass for all known elements
Success in showing the properties of the elements formed a
periodic pattern against their atomic masses

Dimitri
mendeleev

Arrange elements (like Newlands did), group according same


chemical properties & left gaps for element xdiscovered yet

Henry
mosely

Rearranged the elements in order increasing proton no. in


periodic table

ARRANGEMENT OF AN ELEMENT IN
THE PERIODIC TABLE
Vertical column: GROUP1-GROUP18
Each group similar properties

Horizontal rows: PERIOD 1- PERIOD 7


For element with 1 or 2 valence electron,
Group no of element = valence electron

For element with 3 to 8 valence electron,


Group no of element = valence electron +
10

Outermost shells are full = group 18


No of shells = position of period

Group 18 (noble gas) -monoatomic


Changes in physical
properties the group

explanation

Small atomic
size/radius

No of occupied shells increases

Low Melting & boiling


point

Forces attraction b/w atoms


stronger
More heat energy required to
overcome the forces of
attraction

Low density

Increasing in atomic masses is


more compared to atomic radius
(volume of atom)
X conduct electricity
Weak conductor of heat

All noble gases are INERT which


means chemically unreactive
Helium = 2 valence electron/duplet
electron arrangement
Heliu
Other gases = 8 valence electron/
He
2
m
octet electron arrangement
These arrangement are very stable
Neon Ne
2.8
as the outermost occupied shells
Argon Ar
2.8.8
are full. atoms of noble gases do
not release, accept or share
Krypt
Kr
2.8.18.8
electrons among each other or with
on
other atoms
Xenon Xe 2.8.18.18.8
That is why noble gases exist as
monoatomic (consist 1 atom)
2.8.18.32.1
Radon Rn
gases and are chemically
8.8
unreactive (inert)

USES OF GROUP 18 ELEMENTS


Helium

Use to fill airship & weather balloons


Used by diver where a mixture of He & O2 is
used as an artificial atmosphere

Neon

Used in advertising light bulbs


Used in landing bulb in airways

Argon

Fill electric bulb used as a carrier gas in liquid


gas chromatography

Krypton

Used in lasers & flash lamps in photography

Xenon

Used in electron tubes & stroboscopic lamps

Radon

Use in treatment of cancer coz it is radioactive

GROUP 17 (HALOGENS)
EXIST AS DIATOMIC MOLECULE
(F2,Cl2,Br2,I2)

Non metal
Fluorine
Chlorine
Bromine
Iodine

F
Cl
Br
I

2.7
2.8.7
2.8.18.7
2.8.18.18.7

Light yellow
Greenish yellow
Brown
Purplish black

Gas
Gas
Liquid
Solid

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Cannot conduct electricity & heat in all state
Colour become darker WHEN GOING DOWN THE
GROUP
Atomic size
= no of shells
Low density
=increases in mass > increase in radius
Low melting & boiling
molecules attracted by weak Van de Waals forces,
a little energy required to overcome these forces
Melting & boiling point
molecular size , force attraction become stonger,
more heat energy required to overcome the forces

CHEMICAL REACTION WITH H2O


X2

HALOGEN

H2O
WATER

HX

HOX

ACIDS SOLUTION

CHLORINE Solution turns blue litmus paper red then white


Cl2 + H2O
HCl + HOCl
BROMINE

Solution turns blue litmus paper red then white


Br2 + H2O
HBr + HOBr

IODINE

Solution has no effect on blue litmus paper


l 2 + H 2O
Hl + HOl

CHEMICAL REACTION WITH IRON WOOL


X2

HALOGEN

2Fe
IRON

2FeX 3
IRON (III) HALLIDE

CHLORINE iron wool burns brightly(BROWN SOLID FORMED)


3Cl2 + 2Fe
2FeCl3
BROMINE

IODINE

iron wool glows brightly


3Br2 + 2Fe

2FeBr3

iron wool burns slowly


3l2 + 2Fe

2FeI3

CHEMICAL REACTION WITH NaOH


X2

HALOGEN

2NaOH
SODIUM
HYDROXIDE

2NaX + NaOX + H 2O
SODIUM
HALLIDE

SODIUM WATER
HALATE(I)

CHLORINE dissolve quickly in alkali


Cl2 + 2NaOH
2NaCl + NaOCl + H2O
Colourless solution formed

BROMINE

dissolve in alkali in slower rate than alkali


Br2 + 2NaOH
2NaBr + NaOBr + H 2O
Colourless solution formed

IODINE

dissolve slowly in alkali


l2 + 2NaOH
2Nal + NaOl + H2O
Colourless solution formed

Chemical properties of all elements is similar bcoz no of


valence electron same & achieve the stable octet electron
arrangement.
All atoms in halogens have 7 valence electron & attain an
octet electron arrangement by receiving 1 electron to form
- charged ion
The reactivity of the halogens depend on the ease of the
atom to gain electron
When going down the group, the no of shells increases,
the atomic size also increase
The outer shells becomes further from the nucleus
The forces attraction b/w nucleus becomes weaker
The trenght of the nucleus of halogens atom to attract
an electron into outer shells decrease
The reactivity of the halogen decreasing

GROUP 1 ELEMENTS (ALKALI


METALS)
LITHIUM
SODIUM
POTASSIUM
RUBUDIUM
CAESIUM
FRANCIUM

Li
Na
K
Rb
Cs
Fr

2.1
2.8.1
2.8.8.1
2.8.18.8.1
2.8.18.18.8.1
2.8.18.32.18.8.1

Very reactive
Soft metals with low density
Good conductor of heat & electricity

Change in physical properties


down the group
DENSITY
Low but increasing
in atomic mass more
compared to in atomic
radius

ATOMIC RADIUS
Increasing
No of shells increase
Distance b/w valence
electron & nucleus also

MELTING & BOILING


POINT
Decreases
of atomic radius causing
the metallic bond b/w
atoms bcome weaker

ELECTROPOSITIVITY
Increases
As atomic radius
bcome longer, the force
attraction b/w nucleus &
single valence electron

Chemical properties of
alkali metals
All alkali metals have similar chemical properties coz:All atoms in alkali metals have valence electron & attain an
octet or duplet electron arrangement by releasing 1 electron
to form + charged ion
The reactivity of alkali metals increases when down the
group: atomic size from lithium to francium
The single valence electron in the outermost shells become
further from the nucleus
Force attraction b/w nucleus & valence electron = weaker
Hence, it is easier to release the single valence electron to
achieve stable electron arrangement group 1 elements

Reaction alkali metals with O2


The white solid dissolve in H2O to produce colourless
solution

Turn red litmus paper to blue

LITHIUM

Burns with a red flame in O2 to form


white lithium oxide
4Li + O2 2Li2O

SODIUM

Burns with a yellow flame in O2 to form


white sodium oxide
4Na + O2 2Na2O

POTASSIUM Burns with a lilac flame in O2 to form


white potassium oxide
4K + O2 2K2O

Reaction alkali metals with H2O


Produce colourless solution
Turn red litmus paper to blue
LITHIUM

Move slowly on the H2O surface with


soft hiss sound

SODIUM

Melt to become a small sphere


Move rapidly & randomly on the H2O
surface with hiss sound

POTASSIUM Melt to become a small sphere


Burns with a lilac flame
Move rapidly & randomly on the H2O
surface with hiss & pop sound

Reaction alkali metals with Chlorine


Liberates white fumes which become a white
solid at the end of the reaction
LITHIUM

Burns slowly with a red flame in Cl2 to


form white lithium chloride
2Li + Cl2 LiCl

SODIUM

Burns rapidly & brightly with a yellow


flame in Cl2 to form white sodium chloride
2Na + Cl2 NaCl

POTASSIUM Burns rapidly & brightly with a lilac flame


in Cl2 to form white potassium chloride
2K + Cl2 KCl

PERIOD 3
Proton no
e. arrangmnt

Na

Mg

Al

Si

Cl

Ar

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

2.8.3

2.8.4

2.8.5

2.8.6

2.8.7

2.8.8

2.8.1 2.8.2

Atomic radius

DECREASING

Physical state
At room temp.

SOLID

Electronegativity

GAS

INCREASING

Metallic
properties

METAL

SEMI
-METAL

NON-METAL

Electrical
conductivity

GOOD CONDUCTOR

WEAK

CANNOT CONDUCT

Chem. Prop.

BASIC
OXIDE

AMPHOT
ERIC
OXIDE

ACIDIC OXIDE

BASIC OXIDE: metal oxide dat can react with acid to form salt and water
ACIDIC OXIDE: non-metal oxide dat can react with alkali to form salt & water
AMPHOTERIC OXIDE: oxides dat can react both alkali & acid to form salt &
water

ATOMIC RADIUS DECREASES


BCOZ:
All the atoms of the element have
3 shells occupied with electrons
Increasing in proton no causes
the no of positive charge in the
nucleus
Nucleus attraction on the valence
electrons
The atomic radius of elements

ELECTRONEGATIVITY
INCREASES BCOZ:
Electronegativity: the strength of
an atom in an molecule to attract
electrons towards its nucleus
Atomic radius decreases due to
the increasing nucleus attraction
on the valence electrons
The strength of nucleus to
attract electrons also stronger

TRANSITION ELEMENTS
ALL TRANSITION ARE
Ductile + malleable
High tensile strength
High melting & boiling point
High density
Good conductors of heat &
electricity

SPECIAL CHARACTERISTIC
Show oxidation no in
their compund
Form coloured
ions/compound
Useful catalyst

Uses in Industries
catalyst

Process

Manufacturi
ng

Iron

Haber

ammonia

Platinu
m

Ostwald

nitric acid