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RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY

M.E.RACHMAN

INTRODUCTION
GOALS PROVIDE OXYGEN & REMOVE
CARBON DIOXIDE
FOUR MAJOR FUNCTION :
1. PULMONARY VENTILATION
2. DIFFUSION OF OXYGEN AND CARBON
DIOXIDE BETWEEN ALVEOLI AND BLOOD
3. TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN AND CARBON
DIOXIDE IN THE BLOOD AND BODY
FLUIDS TO AND FROM THE CELLS
4. REGULATION OF VENTILATION
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PULMONARY VENTILATION
A. MECHANICS OF
PULMONARY VENTILATION
B. PULMONARY VOLUME AND
CAPACITIES
C. MINUTE RESPIRATORY
VOLUME EQUALS
RESPIRATORY RATE TIMES
TIDAL VOLUME
D. ALVEOLAR VENTILATION
E. FUNCTIONS OF THE
RESPIRATORY
PASSAGEWAYS
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A. MECHANICS OF PULMONARY VENTILATION

1. Muscles That Cause Lung Expansion and


Contraction

Lungs expanded & contracted in two ways :

1) Downward and upward of diaphragma


2) Elevation and depression of the rib

A. MECHANICS OF PULMONARY VENTILATION


1.

Muscles That Cause Lung Expansion and Contraction

Respiratory muscles :

Inspiration muscles :
mm. diaphragmatica, mm. intercostales eksterna, m. sternocleidomastoideus, mm.
skalenius (i) posterior, medius et anterior & m. pectoralis mayor et minor.

Expiration muscles :
mm. intercostales interna, otot abdomen (m. rectus abdominis), mm obliqus abdominis
& mm transversus abdominis.

A. MECHANICS OF PULMONARY VENTILATION


2.

Movement of Air In and Out of the Lungs-and the Pressure


That Cause the Movement

Pleural pressure and its changes during respiration


Pleural pressure fluid pressure between pleura visceralis and
pleura parietalis
During inspiration pleural pressure (-5 to -7.5 cm H2O) lung
volume increase 0.5 ltr

Alveolar Pressure
Alveolar Pressure pressure inside alveoli
During inspiration alveolar pressure (0 to -1 cm H2O) lung volume
increase 0.5 ltr

A. MECHANICS OF PULMONARY VENTILATION


2.

Movement of Air In and Out of the Lungs-and the Pressure


That Cause the Movement

Compliance of the lungs


Compliance The extent to which the lungs
expand
Total compliance 200 ml H2O/cm

Compliance diagram elastic force of the


lungs :
1) Lungs tissue (one third)
2) Surface tension of fluid of the alveoli (two thirds)

A. MECHANICS OF PULMONARY VENTILATION


2.

Movement of Air In and Out of the Lungs-and the Pressure


That Cause the Movement

Surfactant, Surface Tension, and Collapse of the Alveoli

Principle of Surface Tension water surface is


always attempting to contract.

Surfactant reduce the surface tension of water


Pressure in Occluded Alveoli caused by surface
tension

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A. MECHANICS OF PULMONARY VENTILATION

2. Movement of Air In and Out of the Lungs-and


the Pressure That Cause the Movement

Effect of the Thoracic Cage on Lung


Expansibility
Inspiration muscle contraction
Expiration pssive process (recoil
Inspiration work :

Compliance Work

1) Compliance work (elastic work)

V .P
2

2) Tissue resistance work


3) Airway resistance work

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C. MINUTE RESPIRATORY VOLUME EQUALS


RESPIRATORY RATE TIMES TIDAL VOLUME

MRV RR TV
= 12 X 500 ml
= 6 L/min.

NORMA
L

MINIMAL MRV 1,5 L/min


(2-4 BREATHS/MIN)

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D. ALVEOLAR VENTILATION
Alveolar Ventilation
rate which new air
reaches alveoli,
alveolar sac, alveolar
ducts or respiratory
bronchiales.
Air (only enough to fill
until terminal
bronchioles)
alveoli (difusi)
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D. ALVEOLAR VENTILATION

Anatomic and Physiologic Dead Space


Anatomic Dead Space Volume of the respiratory system
besides the alveoli other gas exchange area
Physiologic dead space ADS + alveolar dead space

2. Rate of Alveolar Ventilation


Alveolar ventilation per minute total volume new air
eintiring the alveoli per minute

VA Freq (VT VD )
12 (500 150)
4200 ml / min

VA = volume of alveolar ventilation per


minute
Freq = frequency of respiration per
minute
VT = tidal volume
VD = physiologic dead space volume

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E. FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY PASSAGEWAYS

1. Trachea, Bronchi and Bronchioles


Cartilage rings keep them open (trachea end of
bronchus)

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E. FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY PASSAGEWAYS


Muscular wall of the Bronchi and Bronchioles
and its Control
The wall composed mainly smooth muscle
Respiratory bronchiole few smooth muscle

Resistance to Airflow in the Bronchial Tree


Greatest resistance larger bronchi near to the
trachea

Nervous and Local Control of the Bronchiolar


Musculature Sympathetic Dilatation of
the Bronchioles
Norepinephrine/epinephrine dilatation bronchial tree
(beta receptors)
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E. FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY PASSAGEWAYS

Parasympathetic Constriction of the Bronchioles


Acetylcholine constriction bronchioles
Atropin block effect acetylcholine
Parasympathetic nerves activated by :
1) Irritation of epithelial membrane
2) Noxious gases
3) Dust
4) Cigarate smoke
5) Bronchial infection
6) Microemboli small pulmonary arteries

Local Secretory Factors often cause BRonciolar


Constriction
Mast cells histamine & slow substance of anaphylaxis
(allergic reaction especially by pollen)
Other irrirans smoke, dust, sulfur dioxide, acidic elements is
smog.

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E. FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY PASSAGEWAYS

2. Mucous Lining of the Respiratory Passageways and


Action of Cilia to Clear the Passageways

Mucous produces by goblets cells & small submucosal


glands
Nose until terminal bronchioles ciliated epithelium (200 cilia
/cell & velocity 1 cm/min)

3. Cough Reflex

Afferent nerve N. Vagus neuronal circuit medulla


causing :

About 2.5 liters air rapidly inspired


Epiglottis & vocal cord closes
Abdominal muscles + m.intercostalis int. contract forcefully
Vocal cord & epiglottis sudenly open widely

Larynx & Carina especially sensitive from irritation

Sneeze Reflex

Irritation in nasal afferent impulses N.V medulla


causing :
Similar cough reflex + uvula depression

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E. FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY PASSAGEWAYS

5. Normal Respiratory Function of the Nose


Nasal cavities functions :
Warmed
Humidity
Filtered
Turbulent precipitation particles endtrapped in
the mucous coating & transported by cilia to
the pharynx
Almost no particles > 6 m diameters enter the
lungs
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E. FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY PASSAGEWAYS

5. Vocalization
Speech involved :
Spesific speech nervous control centers
Respiratory control centers of the brain
Articulation and resoance structures mouth &
nasal
Two mechanical function :
1) Phonation
2) Articulation and Resonance

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