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• MPEG

Motion Picture Expert Group


Moving Picture Encoded Group

Prateek raj gautam(725/09)


MPEG-1
 Optimized for bitrates around 1.5 Mbit/s
• mainly designed for error-free digital storage media
• multiplexing of audio, video and data
• 352x240 pixels a 30 frames/sec [ NTSC based ]
• 352x288 pixels at 25 frames/sec [ PAL based ]
Applications
• CD, digital multimedia, and video database
(e.g. video-on-demand)
MPEG-2
• 2-15 or 16-80 Mbit/s bit rate

• Applications:
• satellite, cable, and terrestrial broadcasting,
digital networks, and digital VCR
Basics of MPEG
Types of pictures frames
I (intra) frame

compressed using only intraframe coding

Moderate compression but faster random access


P (predicted) frame

Coded with motion compression using past I frames or P frames

Can be used as reference pictures for additional motion compensation


B (bidirectional) frame

Coded by motion compensation by either past or future I or P frames


D (DC) frame

Limited use: encodes only DC components of intraframe coding
FRAME SEQUENCE
MPEG Compression is Based on
Processing
8 x 8 Pixel Blocks
Only Moving Areas Have to Be Coded
MOTION VECTOR
MOTION VECTOR
• Try to match each block in the actual picture to content
in the previous picture. Matching is made by shifting
each of the 8 x 8 blocks of the
• Two successive pictures pixel by pixel each direction
-> Motion vector
• Substract the two blocks -> Difference block
• Transmit the motion vector and the difference block
MPEG: Video Encoding
Regulator

Frame + Quantizer VLC


DCT
Memory - (Q) Encoder

Q-1
Pre Buffer
Predictive frame

Motion vectors
processing IDCT

+ Output
Input
Motion Frame
Compensation Memory

Motion
Estimation
MPEG-2

Why another standard?
− Support higher bit rates e.g., 80-100 Mbits/s for HDTV
instead of the 1.15 Mvits/s for SIF
− Support a larger number of applications
− The encoding standard should be a toolkit rather than a
flat procedure

Interlaced and non-interlaced frame

Different color subsampling modes e.g., 4:2:2, 4:2:0, 4:4:4

Flexible quantization schemes – can be changed at picture level

Scalable bit-streams

Profiles and levels
THANK YOU