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EXAMINATION

Examination in 5 (or 8) Parts


(Each part has a 70% pass mark)
1. Technical Paper (1h 15min)
6 Questions given (4 answers required)
Question #1 must be answered
Answer 3 other questions from the remaining 5 questions

2. Interpretation of Welding Symbols (1h)


Engineering drawing has welding symbols for 12 joints
Interpret the symbols & comment on any errors or inconsistencies

3. Fracture Face Examination (1h)


Examine fracture faces of 2 specimens & interpret modes of failure

4. NDT Reports (1h)


Scrutinise 3 NDT Reports & list all errors and all omissions

5. Oral (~ 10 to 15 min)
1 Question: - subject will be related to supervision of welding inspectors
or to safety matters

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EXAMINATION
Examination in 5 (or 8) Parts
(Each part has a 70% pass mark)
If a candidate for the Senior Welding Inspector Examination does
not
hold a recognised qualification in Radiographic Interpretation
(a CSWIP or PCN Certificate) he is required to sit 3 additional
examination parts, namely: 6. Radiographic Interpretation (1h 30min)
6 dense metal welds - steel

7. Multi-Choice Radiographic Theory Paper (30min)


30 questions

8. Radiographic Density & Sensitivity (1h)


Densitometer calibration using a Density Strip
Sensitivity calculations for 5 welds
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THE SENIOR WELDING INSPECTOR


A Senior Welding Inspector may be Senior through
being put in charge of a team of Welding Inspectors.
In this role he may have a predominantly managerial
role that requires organising and supervising their
work and so may have title of Team Leader or
Supervisor.
In other circumstances he may have a more
technically demanding role that requires detailed
knowledge of particular activities.
The CSWIP Senior Welding Inspector Course is
intended to cover aspects of both these roles.
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THE SENIOR WELDING INSPECTOR


TYPICAL REQUIREMENTS - TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE
Welding Technology
(Welding Inspector . plus)
NDT Techniques
( ability to carry out / interpret)
Codes/Application Standards
(ability to interpret)
Planning Systems
(ability to understand and also supply
inspection
scheduling to project schedule)
Quality Assurance
(ability to plan & carry out some auditing)

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THE SENIOR WELDING INSPECTOR


LEADERSHIP / SUPERVISION
A Supervisor is a person who has been given
authority and responsibility for: planning the work of others
controlling this work
A Supervisor is a man in the middle between
operators and management and subject to pressures
from both directions

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THE SENIOR WELDING INSPECTOR


LEADERSHIP
Is leadership an ability that a person is born
with or can it be acquired !!!!!! ?????
Personality is very influential - hence
leadership sometimes considered to be in the
genes and a person referred to as a born
leader
Ability to be a good leader can be improved by
experience & from knowledge of management
techniques through training

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THE SENIOR WELDING INSPECTOR


TYPICAL REQUIREMENTS - LEADERSHIP SKILLS /
ABILITY
Complex mixture of skills & attitudes - such as
being prepared to accept responsibility
willing to direct the work of others
willing, and able, to delegate tasks to others
having a commitment to ones staff
able to solve / overcome problems (from greater & wider
experience)
able to do all (or most of) the work done by ones staff
able to communicate - downwards & upwards within the
Company

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THE SENIOR WELDING INSPECTOR


What Makes a Good Leader / Supervisor ?
Qualities that are associated with a Good Supervisor are: has good technical skill & knowledge and good at solving
problems
has ability to quickly determine priorities
is intelligent and confident
shows good judgement
has enthusiasm for work and is usually cheerful & optimistic
sets a good example at work - high standards - leads by example
has no favourites and able to apply discipline fairly
is approachable - good listener - and prepared to consult staff
informs staff of important decisions affecting them and backs his
team
is able to identify needs of team and obtain equipment and
training

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THE SENIOR WELDING INSPECTOR


Morale & Motivation of Staff
What are the signs of low morale in the work
place ?
Compile a List
How can morale be raised ?
Apply good leadership qualities - list actions

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PRODUCTION PLANNING
PRESSURE VESSEL FABRICATION

T = Tier

N3

H = Head
N=
Nozzle

T1
N1

H1

T2

W1

S1

T3
W2

N2

S2

W = Wrapper plate
S = Saddle
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H2

PRODUCTION PLANNING
PRESSURE VESSEL: Typical Production Sequence
1. Prepare drawings & material list

11. Fit & weld

2. Order materials - plate

12. Mark out, cut & roll wrapper


plates

- fittings

- N1 + H1

3.

4.

- heads

13. Weld W1 & W2 to shell plates

5.

- welding
consumables

14. Fit & weld nozzles N2 & N3

6. Mark out, cut & roll shell plates


7. Weld longitudinal
seams

15. Cut, assemble & weld saddles S1


& S2
16. Fit & weld S1 & S2 to W1 & W2

8. Fit & weld

- T3 to H2

9.

- T2 to (T3 H2)

18. Pressure test

10.

- N1 + H1

19. Blast & paint

17. Carry out all final inspection

20. Deliver
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PRODUCTION PLANNING
PRESSURE VESSEL: Typical Production Sequence

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Drawings
Material procurement - plate
- fittings
- heads
- welding
consumables
Mark, cut & roll shell plates
Weld longitudinal seams
Fit & weld T3 to H
Fit & weld T2 to T3H2
Fit & weld N1 to H1
Fit & weld N1H1 to T2T3H2
Cut & roll W1 & W2
Weld W1 & W2 to shell
Fit & weld N2 & N3
Cut, assemble & weld S1 & S2
Fit & weld S1 & S2 to W1 & W2
Complete final Inspection
Pressure test
Shot blast & paint
Deliver

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Can use forward or reverse-schedule planning


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30

29

28

27

26

25

24

23

22

21

20

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

OPERATION

Bar Chart or Gantt Chart

Welding Procedure Qualification


A Preliminary Welding Procedure Specification (pWPS) is written for each test weld
required
Welder makes a test weld in accordance with the pWPS
Welding Inspector records all welding details used for making the test weld (asrun details)
(EN standard states that an Independent Examiner or Examining Body or a Third
Party Inspector may be required to monitor the qualification process)
Finished test weld is subjected to NDT by the specified methods
(EN Standard requires visual, MT or PT & RT or UT)
Test weld subjected to destructive testing according to specified methods
Application Standard or Client may require additional tests such as impact tests,
hardness tests (for some materials - corrosion tests)
Welding Procedure Qualification Record (WPQR) prepared giving range of
qualification allowed by the Welding Standard (EN or ASME IX)
WPQR package submitted to Independent Examiner for endorsement (& usually
to Client)
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Welder Qualification
A WPS is written for a each test weld required

Welder makes a test weld in accordance with the WPS


Welding Inspector checks that weld is made according to the WPS requirements
(EN standard states that an Independent Examiner or Examining Body or a Third
Party Inspector may be required to monitor the qualification process)
Finished test weld is subjected to NDT by the specified methods
(EN Standard requires visual, MT or PT & RT or UT)
Test weld may need to be destructive tested for certain materials or welding
processes

A Welder Qualification Certificate is prepared giving range of qualification


allowed by the Welding Standard (EN or ASME IX)
The Welder Qualification certificate is submitted to Independent Examiner for
endorsement
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Destructive Testing
WELD PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION TESTING
(example)
1 2 3 4
5
SPECIMEN TYPE
POSITIONS
12
11

pipe diameters
> 323.9mm

6
7
8

macro + hardness
transverse tensile
12
Charpy weld metal
Charpy fusion line

1, 9, 11
2, 8, 10,
3, 5, 6
4, 7

10 9

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Destructive Testing
QUANTITATIVE TESTS & QUALITATIVE TESTS
QUANTITATIVE TESTS
for measuring a quantity ( quantity = a mechanical property
)
typical mechanical tests

- tensile test
- hardness test
- Charpy V-notch test (& CTOD)

QUALITATIVE TESTS
for assessing joint quality (quality = good fusion & free from
defects)
typical qualitative tests

- bend tests
- macro examination
(micro examination for some metals)

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- fillet fracture & nick-break tests


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Destructive Testing
Tensile Testing - Transverse Tensile Test
gauge
lengt
h

weld

Position of failure not usually in weld metal but in base


material or HAZ
TEST OBJECTIVE
To measure the Tensile Strength of the welded joint
RESULTS

Satisfactory if Tensile Strength greater than min.


specified for base metal
(Some standards accept 95% of base material Tensile Strength)
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Destructive Testing
Tensile Testing:

from WPQ test piece

All-Weld Tensile
Test

electrode classification test


piece

gauge length: all weld


metal

TEST OBJECTIVE
To measure Yield Strength & Tensile Strength of weld
metal
(% Elongation also measured & usually also %
Reduction of Area)

RESULTS
Satisfactory if all values are not less than minimum
specified for base metal (or required by desig) at ambient or
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2005, TWI temperature
Ltd
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at elevated

Destructive Testing
MECHANICAL TESTING:
Charpy V-notch Test
Positions

For each notch position 3 specimens are tested . May need to take
test pieces from weld metal, fusion line, fusion line + 2, fusion line
+ 5 from both weld faces and from root - total of 36 tests
weld metal
(surface)

weld metal (root)

fusion line +
5mm
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fusion line

fusion line +
2mm

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Destructive Testing
MECHANICAL TESTING:
Charpy V-notch Impact
Testing
TEST OBJECTIVE
To measure the
impact toughness of
each region of the
weld joint (weld
metal, HAZ & base
metal) at a specified
temperature that is
related to the
service conditions
RESULTS
Satisfactory if all
values are not less
the minimum
specified by the
Application Standard
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Welding Technology
HAZ
TOUGHNESS
unwelded
Toughness
Charpy
V-notch
energy
(Joules)

good
toughness in
steel at
design temp.
low
toughness in
HAZ at design
temp.

unwelded
fine
grained
steel

no
significant
change in
HAZ
toughness if
moderate
heat input
used

design
temperature

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degraded
HAZ

HAZ toughness
transition temp. has
shifted to a higher
temperature
(caused by high heat
input welding)

Impact Test
Temperature

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Maximum
Temperatur
e

Welding Technology
THE HEAT AFFECTED ZONE
(HAZ)
solid
weld
meta
l

solid-liquid transition zone

grain growth zone


recrystallised
zone
partially transformed
zone
tempered
zone
unaffected base
material

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Destructive Testing
MECHANICAL TESTING: Hardness Testing
usually the hardest
region
fusion line
(fusion
boundary)

~1.5 to 3mm
HA
Z

HA
Z

HARDNESS TEST METHODS


Vickers
example 248 HV10
Rockwell
example Rc 22
Brinell
example 220 BHN-W (not usually used on
macro sections)

TEST OBJECTIVE
joint

To measure the max. hardness in the weld

RESULTS
max.
Standard

Satisfactory if no values are above the


specified by the Application

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(always in HAZ for steels)

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Welding Technology
HAZ Hardness of Carbon-Manganese
Steels
HAZ
Hardness

intermediate heat-input will


give satisfactory hardness
low heat-input
welding tends
to give a high
HAZ hardness
high heatinput welding
tends to give a
softer HAZ

fast
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Rate of Cooling of
HAZ
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slow

Welding Technology
HAZ Hardness of Low-Alloy
Steels (such as the higher Cr-Mo
grades)

HAZ
Hardness

low heat-input
welding

high heat-input
welding

HAZ hardness always high (> ~ 400


HV)
fast
cooling
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Time to
Cool

slow
cooling

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Destructive Testing
QUALITATIVE TESTS: Bend Tests
for joint thicknesses
< ~ 12mm

face in tension = face bend

root in tension = root bend

for joint
thicknesses > ~
12mm
full thickness of joint in tension = side
bend
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Destructive Testing
QUALITATIVE TESTS: Fillet Fracture & Nick Break
Tests
Tests are used instead of radiography or ultrasonic examination
to show
that satisfactory fusion has been achieve
that the weld is has no defects
FILLET FRACTURE

force

fracture from
root
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machined
slot

NICK-BREAK
machined
slot

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PWHT
Steels are given a PWHT to reduce residual stresses caused
by welding [and also to temper (soften) the hardest regions of
the HAZ]
The main benefit of reducing residual stresses is to improve
resistance to brittle fracture - explained as follows: Residual stresses can be higher than the max. allowed
design stress and are powerful driving forces for propagating
flaws (usually cracks)
In the as-welded condition, the steel joint has a lower
tolerance to flaws that may become initiation points for
brittle cracks
A crack that could cause brittle fracture is called a critical
crack
The size of a critical crack depends on the material
toughness and total stress that the crack experiences in the
joint (design + residual)
Anas-welded
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2005, TWI Ltd

jointWorld
may only
be able
to tolerate
a small
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PWHT
Removal of Residual Stress

Yield
Strength
(N/mm2 )

500
400
300

Cr-Mo steel typical

At PWHT temp. the


yield strength of steel
reduced so that it it is
not strong enough to
give restraint.

C-Mn steel typical

Residual stress
reduced to very low
level by straining
(typically < ~ 0.5%
strain)

200
100
100 200

300 400 500

600 700

Temperature
(C)
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PWHT
Other Benefits of PWHT
The toughness of the HAZ may be improved - particularly for
the more hardenable low alloy steels & improves brittle
fracture resistance
Removal of residual stress will give steels resistance to stress
corrosion cracking in certain media - for example in sour
oil/gas, in ammonia or in contact with nitrates and chlorides
It enables a welded component to be machined to accurate
tolerances that may otherwise be impossible due constant rebalancing of tensile and residual stresses when metal is
removed during machining. This may be referred to as a
stabilising* PWHT
(* not to be confused with stabilised when referring to stabilising
stainless steels by alloying additions of Nb or Ti)

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PWHT
PWHT Procedures - Basic Requirements
A PWHT should specify the following: The max. heating rate
usually from 300 or 400C depending on Code or item to ensure
temp. gradients are not excessive (up to ~ 200C/h max. may be
allowed)
large temp. gradients cause high stresses which may give
cracking or distortion

The soak temperature


depends on steel type and usually specified by Code (~550 to
~750 C )

The soak time


to ensure full thickness, and whole item, is at soak temp.
Codes typically require 1h per 25mm of max. joint thickness

The max. cooling rate


Copyright
usually
2005, TWIto
Ltd400

orWorld
300C Centre
- same reasons
as for heating
for Materials
Joiningrate

PWHT
PWHT Procedures -Additional Considerations
Before a PWHT commences it is necessary to: Decide the number of thermocouple attachments and their
positions
so that the temperature of the whole component is monitored

If the item needs to be given any additional support


to avoid distortion due to self-weight because it is relatively
weak at the soak temp.

For Localised PWHT

Need to also specify: The width of the heated band


to ensure that residual stresses at a distance from the weld are
removed

The width of the temp. decay bands beyond the heated


zone
to ensure high stresses are not produced by large temperature
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gradients

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Post Weld Heat Treatment


Localised PWHT
PWHT procedures also need to also specify: The width of the heated band
to ensure that residual stresses at a distance from the weld are
removed
should be specified by Code

The width of the temp. decay bands beyond the heated


zone
to ensure high stresses are not produced by large temperature
gradients
should be specified by Code - usually same width as heated band

The position of the thermocouples to monitor the width of


temp
heated bands and
the temp.
in the decay bands
heatedgradient temp
.
deca
y
pipeline
weld

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band

.
deca
y

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Cracking in Weld Joints


RE-HEAT CRACKING
Cracking that occurs when weld joints in certain steels when
they are being heated to their PWHT temperature or are put into
elevated temp. service without PWHT
re-heat )

( this gives this type of cracking the name

Susceptible PWHT temp.range ~ 500 to ~ 650C or service 350


- 550 C
Cracking occurs in the HAZ - usually in the zone that has the
largest grain size
(the grain growthgrain
zone growth
nearest to the
zone
fusion line)

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Cracking Mechanisms
RE-HEAT CRACKING
Re-heat cracking occurs because: some strengthening of the steel occurs during heating to the
PWHT temp. (or if in as-welded condition while in service at an
elevated temp.)

strengthening occurs by carbide formation

formers

- steels with Vanadium, Chromium and Molybdenum are most


susceptible because these elements are strong carbide

the carbides & nitrides strengthen the grains so that relief of


residual stresses takes place by all the strain concentrating at
the weaker grain boundaries
if the steel contains certain levels of impurities (such as Tin,
Arsenic & Phosphorus) they concentrate at the grain
boundaries and reduce their rupture strength
the presence of large grains in the HAZ means that the
impurities are more concentrated and such regions become
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Cracking Mechanisms
AVOIDING RE-HEAT CRACKING
The risk of re-heat cracking can be minimised by: using steel that has very low impurity levels
various formulas have been developed to relate sensitivity to
cracking to levels of impurities
for particularly sensitive steels (usually those with higher
Vanadium) ensure that: weld bead positions and heat input are controlled to give a
fine
grained HAZ (temper-beading)
avoid stress concentrations - poor fit-up and sharp weld
toes
heat through the sensitive temperature range quickly
during PWHT

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Quenched & Tempered Steels


Q & T STEELS

Steels that are strengthened by rapid cooling from an elevated


temperature (quenching)

Quenching temperature depends on steel composition but typically


~900C

Steels are very strong in the quenched condition but ductility and
toughness usually too low for any application

Tempering reduces the as-quenched strength and gives usable


ductility and toughness

Tempering temperatures typically ~550 to 760C

Strengthening by quenching is achieved by certain alloying additions


that allow the stronger phases (martensite & bainite) to form (rather
than the ferrite)

The % of the alloying elements that allow strengthening must be


high enough to allow the stronger phases to form through the full
thickness

For some steels, the alloying levels need to be higher in thick


sections to ensure through- hardening

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Quenched & Tempered Steels


EXAMPLES of Q & T STEELS
Typical Mechanical Properties
STEEL TYPE
AISI 4130
UNS G41300
W. Nr. 1.7218
ASTM A 505, 646
AISI 8630
UNS G86300
W. Nr. 1.6545
ASTM A 322, 331, 505
AISI 4140
UNS G41400
W. Nr. 1.7225
ASTM A 322, 331, 505, 519, 646
AISI 4340
UNS G43400
W. Nr. 1.6565
ASTM A 332, 505, 519, 547, 646

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0.28
0.33

0.38
0.43

Si

Mn

Cr

0.04

0.40
0.60

0.8
1.1

0.15
0.30

0.15
0.30

Mo

Ni

0.15
0.25

0.70
0.90

0.40
0.60

0.40
0.70

0.70
1.00

0.80
1.10

0.15
0.25

0.60
0.80

0.70
0.90

0.20
0.30

1.65
2.00

Nb

Yield / 0.2%PS
(N/mm2)

Tensile Strength
(N/mm2)

Elongation
(% on 50mm)

water quenched & tempered at 595 to 480C


(100mm round section)
540 to 655
703 to 800
20 to 25
water quenched & tempered at 595 to 480C
(100mm round section)
495 to 595

660 to 780

21 to 26

oil quenched & tempered at 650 to 540C


(100mm round section)
580 to 685
772 to 883
19 to 23
oil quenched & tempered at 650 to 540C
(100mm round section)
786 to 1000
924 to 1138
16 to 20

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Quenched & Tempered Steels


EXAMPLES of Q & T STEELS
Other
STEEL TYPE

Si

Mn

Cr

Mo

Ni

A 335-P91
X10CrMoVNb9-1
(steel number 1.4903)

0.08
0.12

0.50

0.30
0.60

8.00
9.50

0.85
1.05

0.40

12CrMoV11-1
(steel number 1.4922)

0.17
0.23

0.40

0.30
1.0

10.0
12.5

0.80
1.20

0.30
0.80

A 335-P911

0.10
0.13

0.10
0.30

0.30
0.60

8.50
9.50

0.90
1.10

0.20
0.40

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Nb

0.06
0.10

0.18
0.25

0.030
0.070

0.20
0.35
0.15
0.25

0.06
0.10

Mechanical Properties
Yield / 0.2%PS
(N/mm2)

Tensile Strength
(N/mm2)

Elongation
(% on 50mm)

Al
0.040

= 415

585

= 22

= 500

700 -850

= 16

0.050
0.080

W
0.90
1.10

= 440

= 620

= 22

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Quenched & Tempered Steels


EXAMPLES of Q & T STEELS
Typical Chemical Composition

Typical Mechanical Properties (t=25mm)

STEEL TYPE
Ti

Al

Other

Yield/0.2%PS
(N/mm2)

0.09

0.04

0.015

N (min) 0.0015
B (max) 0.005

= 700

780 - 930

= 18

0.04

0.06

0.04

0.018

N (min) 0.0015
B (max) 0.005

= 900

940 - 1110

= 16

2.0

0.04

0.06

0.04

0.018

N (min) 0.0015
B (max) 0.005

= 960

980 -1150

= 16

3.0

0.04

0.08

0.02

0.020

N (min) 0.0015
B (max) 0.005

= 1100

1250 - 1550

= 12

Si

Mn

Cr

Mo

Ni

Nb

WELDOX 700

0.20

0.60

1.60

0.70

0.70

2.0

0.04

WELDOX 900

0.20

0.50

1.60

0.70

0.70

2.0

WELDOX 960

0.20

0.50

1.60

0.70

0.70

WELDOX 1100

0.21

0.50

1.40

0.80

0.70

Tensile Strength
(N/mm2)

Elongation
(% on 50mm)

WELDOX is a registered Trade Name of SSAB Oxelosund

Chemical compositions and tensile properties of some HSLA steels used for structural applications

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Quenched & Tempered Steels


Welding of Q & T Steels

Alloying additions used to achieve strengthening also will


give hardening of the HAZ

Higher HAZ hardness give higher risk of cracking and the


need to always use low Hydrogen welding processes and
also the need to use pre-heat for most grades

Higher HAZ hardness usually mean that many of these


steels require PWHT to improve resistance to brittle
fracture

Careful control of heat input - not too high - may be


needed for some steel types to avoid softening of the HAZ
and loss of strength

For the highest strength grades there may be difficulty in


achieving matching strength weld metal that has good
toughness and ductility

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Pre-Heat & Interpass Temperature


Pre-Heat Temperature
Applied to reduce risk of cracking - helps to allow H to
escape from the weld joint and can reduce hardness of HAZ
for some steels
Pre-heat temperature should be checked on both sides of
the joint at a distance of at least 75mm from joint edge
Pre-heat should be checked on the other side from the preheated side - if access allows
If hand held gas pre-heating is used, temp. should be
checked a short time after the heating torch has been
removed

Interpass Temperature
This is the temp. at the position that the welder will restart welding in a muti-run weld
Temperature should be measured on the steel as close as
practical
to Ltd
the re-start
(it can
be taken
on the
Copyright
2005, TWI
Worldposition
Centre for
Materials
Joining