Você está na página 1de 60

Chapter 14:

Motivation Theory and Practice

Types of content theories:


Hierarchy
ERG

of needs theory

theory

Two-factor
Acquired

theory

needs theory

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence


motivation?
Motivation and individual needs
Motivationthe forces within the individual that

account for the level, direction, and persistence of


effort expended at work.

Needs

Unfulfilled physiological and psychological desires of an


individual.

Explain workplace behavior and attitudes.

Create tensions that influence attitudes and behavior.

Good managers and leaders facilitate employee need


satisfaction.

Study Question 2: What are the different types of


individual needs?
Hierarchy of needs theory

Developed by Abraham Maslow.


Lower-order and higher-order needs affect
workplace behavior and attitudes.
Lower-order needs:
Physiological, safety, and social needs.
Desires for physical and social well being.
Higher-order needs:
Esteem and self-actualization needs.
Desire for psychological growth and
development.
Management 9/e - Chapter 14

Study Question 2: What are the different types of


individual needs?

Hierarchy of needs theory


Deficit

principle

A satisfied need is not a motivator of


behavior.

Progression

principle

A need at one level does not become


activated until the next lower-level need
is satisfied.
Management 9/e - Chapter 14

Figure 14.1 Opportunities for satisfaction in


Maslows hierarchy of human needs.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence


motivation?

ERG theory
Developed by Clayton Alderfer.
Three need levels:
Existence needs desires for
physiological and material well-being.
Relatedness needs desires for satisfying
interpersonal relationships.
Growth needs desires for continued
psychological growth and development.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

Study Question 2: What are the different types of


individual needs?

ERG theory
Any/all

needs can influence behavior at

one time.
Frustration-regression

principle.

An already satisfied lower-level need


becomes reactivated when a higher-level
need is frustrated.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

Study Question 2: What are the different types of


individual needs?

Two-factor theory
Developed by Frederick Herzberg.
Hygiene factors:
Elements of the job context.
Sources of job dissatisfaction.

Satisfier

factors:

Elements of the job content.


Sources of job satisfaction and
motivation.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

Figure 14.2 Herzbergs two-factor theory.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

10

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence


motivation?

Acquired needs theory


Developed by David McClelland.
People acquire needs through their life
experiences.
Needs that are acquired:
Need for Achievement (nAch)
Need for Power (nPower)
Need for Affiliation (nAff)

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

11

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence


motivation?

Acquired needs theory


Need for Achievement (nAch)

Desire to do something better or more


efficiently, to solve problems, or to master
complex tasks.

People

high in (nAch) prefer work that:

Involves individual responsibility for


results.
Involves achievable but challenging goals.
Provides feedback on performance.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

12

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence


motivation?

Acquired needs theory


Need for Power (nPower)
Desire to control other persons, to
influence their behavior, or to be
responsible for other people.
Personal power versus social power.

People

that:

high in (nPower) prefer work

Involves control over other persons.


Has an impact on people and events.
Brings public recognition and attention.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

13

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence


motivation?

Acquired needs theory


Need

for Affiliation (nAff)

Desire to establish and maintain friendly


and warm relations with other persons.

People

high in (nAff) prefer work that:

Involves interpersonal relationships.

Provides for companionship

Brings social approval.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

14

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence


motivation?

Questions for summarizing the

content theories of motivation:


How many different individual needs

are there?
Can a work outcome or reward satisfy

more than one need?


Is there a hierarchy of needs?
How important are the various needs?

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

15

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of


motivation?

Process theories of motivation

How people make choices to work hard or not.


Choices are based on:
Individual preferences.
Available rewards.
Possible work outcomes.

Types of process theories:

Equity theory.
Expectancy theory.
Goal-setting theory.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

16

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of


motivation?

Equity theory
Developed

by J. Stacy Adams.

When

people believe that they have


been treated unfairly in comparison to
others, they try to eliminate the
discomfort and restore a perceived
sense of equity to the situation.

Perceived inequity.

Perceived equity.
Management 9/e - Chapter 14

17

Figure 14.3 Equity theory and the role of social


comparison.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

18

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of


motivation?

Equity theory
People

respond to perceived negative


inequity by changing

Work inputs.

Rewards received.

Comparison points.

Situation.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

19

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of


motivation?
Managerial implications of equity theory
Underpaid people experience anger.
Overpaid people experience guilt.
Perceptions of rewards determine motivational

outcomes.
Negative consequences of equity comparisons
should be minimized, if not eliminated.
Do not underestimate the impact of pay as a
source of equity controversies in the workplace.

Gender equity.
Comparable worth.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

20

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of


motivation?

Expectancy theory
Developed by Victor Vroom.
Key expectancy theory variables:
Expectancy belief that working hard will
result in desired level of performance.
Instrumentality belief that successful
performance will be followed by rewards.
Valence value a person assigns to
rewards and other work related outcomes.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

21

Figure 14.4 Elements in the expectancy theory of


motivation.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

22

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of


motivation?

Expectancy theory
Motivation

(M), expectancy (E),


instrumentality (I), and valence (V) are
related to one another in a
multiplicative fashion:
M=ExIxV

If

either E, I, or V is low,
motivation will be low.
Management 9/e - Chapter 14

23

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of


motivation?

Managerial implications of
expectancy theory
To

maximize expectancy, managers


should:

Select workers with ability.

Train workers to use ability.

Support work efforts.

Clarify performance goals.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

24

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of


motivation?

Managerial implications of expectancy


theory

To maximize instrumentality, managers


should:

Clarify psychological contracts.

Communicate performance-outcome
possibilities.

Identify rewards that are contingent on


performance.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

25

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of


motivation?

Managerial implications of
expectancy theory
To

maximize valence in a positive

direction, managers should:


Identify
Adjust

individual needs.

rewards to match individual

needs.
Management 9/e - Chapter 14

26

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of


motivation?

Key issues and principles in the


goal-setting process:
Set

specific goals.
Set challenging goals.
Build goal acceptance and commitment.
Clarify goal priorities.
Provide feedback on goal
accomplishment.
Reward goal accomplishment.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

27

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of


motivation?
Goal-setting theory

Developed by Edwin Locke.

Properly set and well-managed task goals can


be highly motivating.

Motivational effects of task goals:

Provide direction to people in their work.

Clarify performance expectations.

Establish a frame of reference for feedback.

Provide a foundation for behavioral selfmanagement.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

28

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of


motivation?

Goal-setting theory
Participation in goal setting

unlocks the motivational potential of goal


setting.
management by objectives (MBO) promotes
participation.
when participation is not possible, workers
will respond positively if supervisory trust
and support exist.
Management 9/e - Chapter 14

29

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement


play in motivation?

Fundamentals of reinforcement theory

Reinforcement theory focuses on the impact of


external environmental consequences on behavior.

Law of effect impact of type of consequence on


future behavior.

Operant conditioning:

Developed by B.F. Skinner.

Applies law of effect to control behavior by


manipulating its consequences.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

30

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement


play in motivation?

Operant conditioning strategies:


Positive

reinforcement

Increases the frequency of a behavior


through the contingent presentation of a
pleasant consequence.

Negative

reinforcement

Increases the frequency of a behavior


through the contingent removal of an
unpleasant consequence.
Management 9/e - Chapter 14

31

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement


play in motivation?

Operant conditioning strategies:


Punishment

Decreases the frequency of a behavior


through the contingent presentation of
an unpleasant consequence.

Extinction

Decreases the frequency of a behavior


through the contingent removal of an
pleasant consequence.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

32

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement


play in motivation?

Successful implementation of
positive reinforcement is based on
Law of contingent reinforcement
Reward

delivered only if desired


behavior is exhibited.

Law of immediate reinforcement


More

immediate the delivery of a


reward, the more reinforcement
value it has.
Management 9/e - Chapter 14

33

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement


play in motivation?

Guidelines for using positive


reinforcement:
Clearly

identify desired work behaviors.


Maintain a diverse inventory of rewards.
Inform everyone about what must be
done to get rewards.
Recognize individual differences when
allocating rewards.
Follow the laws of immediate and
contingent reinforcement.
Management 9/e - Chapter 14

34

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement


play in motivation?

Guidelines for using punishment:

Tell the person what is being done


wrong.

Tell the person what is being done right.

Match the punishment to the behavior.

Administer punishment in private.

Follow laws of immediate and contingent


reinforcement.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

35

Figure 14.5 Applying reinforcement strategies: case


of total quality management.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

36

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement play


in motivation?

Schedules of reinforcement:

Continuous reinforcement administers a reward each


time a desired behavior occurs.
Intermittent reinforcement rewards behavior only
periodically.
Acquisition of behavior is quicker with continuous
reinforcement.
Behavior acquired under an intermittent schedule is
more permanent.
Shaping is the creation of a new behavior by positive
reinforcement of successive approximations to it.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

37

Study Question 4: What are the alternative


approaches to job design?
Job.

A collection of tasks performed in support of


organizational objectives.

Job design.

The process of creating or defining jobs by


assigning specific work tasks to individuals and
groups.

Jobs should be designed so that both


performance and satisfaction result.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

38

Study Question 4: What are the alternative


approaches to job design?

Job simplification.
Standardizing work procedures and
employing people in well-defined and
highly specialized tasks.
Simplified jobs are narrow in job scope
and low in job depth.
Automation.
Total mechanization of a job.
Most extreme form of job simplification.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

39

Study Question 4: What are the alternative


approaches to job design?

Potential
advantages of job
simplification:
Easier and quicker
training of workers.
Workers are less
difficult to
supervise.
Workers are easier
to replace.
Development of
expertise in doing
repetitive tasks.

Potential
disadvantages of job
simplification:
Productivity suffers.
Cost increases due
to absenteeism/
turnover of unhappy
workers.
Poor performance
may result from
worker boredom/
alienation.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

40

Figure 14.6 A continuum of job design alternatives.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

41

Study Question 4: What are the alternative


approaches to job design?
Job rotation and job enlargement:

Expands job scope.

Job rotation.

Increases task variety by periodically shifting


workers among jobs involving different task
assignments.

Job enlargement.

Increases task variety by combining two or


more tasks previously assigned to separate
workers.

Horizontal loading.
Management 9/e - Chapter 14

42

Study Question 4: What are the alternative


approaches to job design?

Job enrichment.
Building

more opportunities for

satisfaction into a job by expanding its


content.
Expands

both job scope and job depth.

Frequently

accomplished through

vertical loading.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

43

Study Question 4: What are the alternative


approaches to job design?

Critical psychological states:


Experienced meaningfulness of work.
Experienced

responsibilities for work

outcomes.
Knowledge

of actual results of work

activities.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

44

Study Question 4: What are the alternative


approaches to job design?

Core job characteristics:


Skill variety.
Task

identity.

Task

significance.

Autonomy.
Feedback.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

45

Study Question 4: What are the alternative


approaches to job design?

Moderating variables:
Growth-need

strength (GNS).

People with high GNS will respond most


positively to enriched jobs.

Knowledge
Context

and skills.

satisfactions.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

46

Study Question 4: What are the alternative


approaches to job design?

Improving core job characteristics:


Form

natural units of work.

Combine

tasks.

Establish

client relationships.

Open

feedback channels.

Practice

vertical loading.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

47

Study Question 4: What are the alternative


approaches to job design?

Checklist for enriching jobs:

Remove controls that limit peoples discretion


in their work.

Grant people authority to make decisions


about their work.

Make people understand their accountability


for results.

Allow people to do whole tasks or complete


units of work.

Make performance feedback available.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

48

Study Question 4: What are the alternative


approaches to job design?

Compressed workweek.
Any work schedule that allows a fulltime job to be completed in less than
the standard 5 days of 8-hour shifts.
Benefits more leisure time, lower
commuting costs, lower absenteeism,
and potentially improved performance.
Disadvantages increased fatigue,
family adjustment problems, increased
scheduling problems, possible customer
complaints, and union opposition.
Management 9/e - Chapter 14

49

Study Question 4: What are the alternative


approaches to job design?

Flexible working hours.


Any

work schedule that gives employees

some choice in the pattern of their daily


work hours.
Core

time all employees must be


at work.
Flextime allows employees to
schedule around personal and family
responsibilities.
Management 9/e - Chapter 14

50

Study Question 4: What are the alternative


approaches to job design?

Potential benefits of flexible working


hours:
People

have greater autonomy in work


scheduling while ensuring maintenance
of work responsibilities.

Organizations

can attract and retain


employees who have special non-work
responsibilities.

Worker

morale may be improved.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

51

Study Question 4: What are the alternative


approaches to job design?

Job sharing.
One

full-time job is split between two


or more persons.

Work sharing.
An

agreement between employees to


cut back their work hours to avoid
layoffs or termination.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

52

Study Question 4: What are the alternative


approaches to job design?
Potential advantages of work sharing:

Trained and loyal workers can be retained


while temporarily cutting labor costs.

Continued work but with reduced earnings


for those who would otherwise be laid off.

Potential disadvantages of work sharing;

Employees who might otherwise be protected


by seniority may suffer an income loss.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

53

Figure 14.7 Job design and individual work outcomes


using the core characteristics model.

Source: Reprinted by permission from J. Richard Hackman and Greg R. Oldham, Work Redesign (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980), p. 90.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

54

Study Question 4: What are the alternative


approaches to job design?

Telecommuting.
A

work arrangement that allows a

portion of scheduled work hours to be


completed outside of the office.
Hoteling.
Virtual

offices.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

55

Study Question 4: What are the alternative


approaches to job design?
Potential advantages of telecommuting:

Freedom from
Constraints of commuting.
Fixed hours.
Special work attire.
Direct contact with supervisors.
Increased productivity.
Fewer distractions.
Being ones own boss.
Having more personal time.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

56

Study Question 4: What are the alternative


approaches to job design?

Potential disadvantages of

telecommuting:

Working too much.


Having less personal time.
Difficulty in separating work and personal life.
Less time for family.
Feelings of isolation.
Loss of visibility for promotion.
Difficulties supervising work-at-home
employees from a distance.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

57

Study Question 4: What are the alternative


approaches to job design?

Part-time work.
Work done on any schedule less than
the standard 40-hour workweek and
does not qualify person as a full-time
employee.
Contingency workers
Part-time workers who supplement the
full-time workforce, often on a long-term
basis.
Now constitute 30 percent of the
American workforce.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

58

Study Question 4: What are the alternative


approaches to job design?

Implications of part-time work:


Provides employers with flexibility in
controlling labor costs and dealing with
cyclical labor demands.
Temporary workers may lack
commitment and be less productive.
Contingency workers are often paid
less and dont receive important fringe
benefits.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

59

Figure 14.8 A sample flexible working hours


schedule.

Management 9/e - Chapter 14

60