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THE DEVELOPMENT OF EFFECTIVE

INSECT ATTRACTANT

VIMAL A/L SEVAGERU


SUPERVISOR: MR. MUHAMMAD
SHARIR

Introduction
Mosquitoes become a threat to society either when they
occur in such great density that they cause a nuisance or
when they transmit diseases.
Many people turn to insect repellents to keep mosquitoes
away, but these insect repellents often contain a toxic
pesticide that is hazardous to human health.
This pesticide usually contain DEET (Diethyl-metatoluamide), which is linked to health issues such as
memory loss, headache, weakness, fatigue, muscle pain,
joint pain, tremors and shortness of breath in human
being.
Carbon dioxide is a major compound given out during
breathing and plays a vital role in the host searching
process of mosquitoes. It is often incorporated in
commercial traps, which serves as bait for capturing
mosquitoes (Smallegange et al., 2011).

This research is an attempt to


develop an easy and cheap method
to produce carbon dioxide by using
yeast sugar solution in plastic
bottles. Under anaerobic conditions,
yeast converts sugar into carbon
dioxide and ethanol. This idea is
implemented in this research to test
its effectiveness under
Malaysiastropical rainforestclimate.

Objectives
To determine the effectiveness of mosquito trap
using attractant with different amount of yeast
(1g, 2g, 5g, and 10g).
To determine the rate of carbon dioxide
produced using different amount of yeast.
To determine the effectiveness of mosquito trap
using two different types of sugar (white sugar
and brown sugar).
To determine the effectiveness of mosquito trap
using two different colour of the trap bottle
(colourless and black).

Literature Review
Sampling adult mosquitoes
Adult female mosquitoes use a combination of olfactory, visual and
thermal cues to locate a host (Hoel, 2005)

Adult female mosquitoes use a combination of olfactory,


visual and thermal cues to locate a host (Hoel, 2005).
Mosquito attraction to host is facilitated by intrinsic
genetic factor as well as extrinsic factor, such as heat,
water vapor, carbon dioxide and various odors emanating
from host (Busvine, 1976)
They detect chemical and physical cues during host seeking activity.
Chemical cues include carbon dioxide, lactic acid, and odors that are
produced by vertebrates.
Physical cues include radiant and convective heat, moisture, sound
and surface structure (Hoel, 2005).

Sampling Mosquitoes with Light Traps


Light traps in earlier days use paraffin or acetylene lamps to
catch insects with various trap designs, different light
sources and factors influencing catch size (Busvine, 1976).
Some insects react positively to light, whereas others
become disoriented when exposed to light
Barr et al (1960) reported that the efficiency for collecting
Culex tarsalis increased with light intensity of bulb. Four
traps were equipped with 20-, 25-, 50-, and 70-watt
incandescent bulb. The experiment was done four times for
16 nights. The number of mosquitoes caught appeared to
be directly proportional to the light intensity and showed no
repellency at the highest intensity tested (Barr et al., 1960).

Sampling Mosquitoes with Carbon Dioxide Traps


Carbon dioxide given out by host serves as a guide for mosquitoes
to detect host (Gillies, 1980)
Carbon dioxide by itself does not have a powerful attractant
effect, but has an important combined effect (Gillies, 1980)
Snow (1970) demonstrated the attractiveness of carbon dioxide to
mosquitoes by exposing two human subjects, one wearing an
absorption apparatus and the second breathing normally. Two
subjects were placed on two sub-catching sites 100m apart.
Absorption apparatus filters the amount of carbon dioxide given
out while breathing up to 95.5% (Snow, 1970). Fewer mosquitoes
approached the subject wearing with breathing apparatus. Snow
(1970) concluded that reducing the carbon dioxide output did not
affect the proportional of mosquitoes attempting to feed once
within close range.

Figure 1: Carbon dioxide absorption apparatus

Methodology
Design of
mosquito
trap

Preparation
of
attractant

Field study
1

Carbon
Dioxide
Analysis

Field Study
2

Modify trap
design and
content

Data
Analysis

Research Parameter
Field study 1
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

30g white sugar


1g of yeast + 30g white sugar
2g of yeast + 30g white sugar
5g of yeast + 30g white sugar
10g of yeast + 30g white sugar

Field study 2
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)

30g brown sugar


1g of yeast + 30g brown sugar
2g of yeast + 30g brown sugar
5g of yeast + 30g brown sugar
10g of yeast + 30g brown sugar