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Piagets Stages of

Cognitive Development

The principal goal of education is to


create men who are capable of
doing new things, not simply
repeating what other generations
have done- men who are creative,
inventive and discovers.
-Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget
August 8, 1896- September
16, 1980

Jean Piaget was a


Swiss clinical
psychologist
known for his
pioneering work in
child
development.
Piaget's theory of
Cognitive
Development and
epistemological
view are together
called "genetic

Basic Cognitive Concepts


Schema
Piaget used the term schema to refer
to the cognitive structures by which
individuals intellectually adapt and
organize their environment.

Assimilation
This is the process of fitting new
experience into an existing or
previously
created
cognitive
structure or schema.

Accommodation
This is the process of creating a
new schema,involves altering one's
existing schemas, or ideas, as a result
of
new
information
or
new
experiences.

Equilibrium
Piaget believed that people have
the natural need to understand how
the world works and to find order,
structure, and predictability in their
life

PIAGETS STAGES OF
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Stage 1. Sensori-motor Stage
Stage 2. Pre-Operational Stage
Stage 3. Concrete- Operational
Stage.
Stage 4. Formal Operational Stage.

Sensori-motor Stage
The first stage corresponds from birth
to infancy. This is the stage when a child
who is initially reflexive in grasping,
sucking and reaching becomes more
organized in his movement and activity.

Object Permanence
This is the ability of the child to
know that an object still exist even
when out of sight

Pre-Operational Stage
This stage covers from about two
to
seven
years
old,
roughly
corresponding to the preschool years.
This stage the child can now make
mental representations and is able to
pretend, the child is now ever closed to
the used of symbols.

Symbolic Function
This is the ability to represent objects
and events. A symbol is a thing that
represents something else

Egocentrism
This is the tendency of the child to
only see his point of view and to assume
that everyone also has his same point of
view.

Centration
This refers to the tendency of the
child to only focus on one aspect of a
thing or event and exclude other
aspects

Reversibility
Pre-operational children still has the
inability to reverse their thinking.
They can understand that 2+3 is 5, but
cannot understand that 5-3 is 2.

Animism
This is the tendency of children to
attribute
human
like
traits
or
characteristics to inanimate objects.
When a child is asked, where the sun
is, he/she will reply, Mr. Sun is asleep.

Transductive Reasoning
This
refers
to
the
preoperational
childs
type
of
reasoning that is neither inductive
nor deductive.

Concrete-Operational Stage
This stage is characterized by
the ability of the child to think
logically but only in terms of
concrete objects.
This cover approximately the
ages between 8-11 years or the
elementary school years

Decentering
This refers to the ability of the child
to perceive the different features of
objects and situations.
No longer is the child focused or
limited to one aspect or dimension.
Allows the child to be more logical
when dealing with concrete objects
and situations

Reversibility
During the stage of concrete
operations, the child can now
follow that certain operations can
be done in reverse.
Example is they can understand
that a ball of clay shaped into a
dinosaur can again be rolled back
into a ball of clay.

Conservation
This is the ability to know that
certain properties of objects like
number mass, volume, or area do not
change even if there is a change in
appearance.

Seriation
This refers to the ability to order or
arrange thing in a series based on one
dimension such as weight, volume or
size

Formal Operational Stage


In the final stage of formal
operations
covering
ages
between 12 and 15 years,
thinking becomes more logical.
They can now solve abstract
problems and can hypothesize

Hypothetical Reasoning
This is the ability to come up with
different hypothesis about a problem
and to gather and weigh data in order
to make a final decision or judgment.

Analogical reasoning
This is the ability to perceive the
relationship in one instance and then
use that relationship to narrow sown
possible answers in another similar
situation or problem.

Deductive Reasoning
This is the ability to think
logically by applying a general
rule to a particular instance or
situation.

Piagets findings and


comprehensive theory, we can
derive the following principles:
Children will provide different
explanations of reality at different
stages of cognitive development
Cognitive development is
facilitated by providing activities
or situations that engage learners
and require adaptations.

Learning materials and activities


should involve the appropriate level of
motor or mental operations for a child
of given age; avoid asking students to
perform tasks that are beyond their
current cognitive capabilities

Use teaching methods that


actively involve students and
present challenges