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STRUCTURAL MATRIX

ANALYSIS

TOPICS

MATRIX STIFFNESS METHOD


MEMBERS AND NODES
LOCAL AND GLOBAL DEGREE OF
FREEDOM

MATRIX STIFFNESS METHOD

the degree of indeterminacy of a structure is


equal to the no. of equations in addition to
the equilibrium equations necessary to
determine completely the reaction forces

the degree of kinematic indeterminacy is


equal to the total number of degrees of
freedom of a structure that must be
constrained to ensure zero displacement of a
structure, excluding boundary constraints

PLANE TRUSS

A
two-dimensional
framework
of
straight prismatic members connected
at their ends by frictionless hinged
joints, and subjected to loads and
reactions that act only at the joints and
lie in the plane of the structure.

PLANE TRUSS

GLOBAL AND LOCAL COORDINATE


SYSTEMS

In the matrix stiffness method, two


types of coordinate system are
employed to specify the loading data
and to establish the force-displacement
relation. These are referred to as global
and local coordinate systems.

Global Coordinate System

The global coordinate system is a right-handed


xyz coordinate system with the plane structure
lying in the xy plane.

When analyzing a plane 2-dimensional structure,


the origin of the global xy coordinate system can
be located at any point in the plane of the
structure, with xy axes oriented in any mutually
perpendicular direction in the structures plane.

Local Coordinate System

Since it is convenient to derive the forcedisplacement relationships in terms of the force


& displacements. In the directions along and
perpendicular to members, a local coordinate
system is defined for each member of the
structure.

The origin of the local xyz coordinate system for


a member maybe arbitrarily located at one of the
ends of the member in its undeformed state.

EXAMPLE

DEGREES OF FREEDOM

The independent joint displacement (Translation


and rotation) that are necessary to specify the
deformed shape of the structure when subjected
to arbitrary loadings

For trusses, since the joints are assumed to be


frictionless hinges, they are not subject to
moments and therefore, their rotations are zero.
Thus, only joint transaction must be considered
in establishing the DOF of trusses

DEGREES OF FREEDOM

EXAMPLE
The five joint
displacement can be
collectively written in
matrix form as

JOINT LOAD VECTOR

Are external load applied to the joint are


specified in the global direction of the x & y aces
and vice versa. Any loads initially given in
inclined direction is resolved into their x & y
components before proceeding to analysis

JOINT LOAD VECTOR


Number of joint
Number of joint
Number of
degrees of = displacements of - displacements of
the unsupported
the restrained by
freedom
structure
supports.

NDOF + NR =NCJT (NJ)

EXAMPLE

Load component in x-dir = 150cos30 = 129.9 k


Load component in y-dir = 150sin30 75 k

The five joint load of the


truss can be collectively
written in matrix form as

REACTION VECTOR

A support that prevents translation of this


structure in a particular direction exerts a
reaction force on the joint in that direction
The three supports of the truss can be
collectively expressed in matrix form as

REACTION VECTOR

EXAMPLE 1

Identify the DOF & restrained


coordinates of the truss:

EXAMPLE 1 - SOLUTION:

MEMBER STIFFNES RELATIONS IN


THE LOCAL COORDINATE SYSTEM

P=Sd
S= structure stiffness matrix
d = joint displacement
P = external loading

The stiffness matrix for a member


expresses the forces at the ends if the
member as functions of the displacements
of those ends.

Member end displacements and forces are

numbered by beginning at the end of the


member designated b, where the origin
of the local coordinate system is located,
with the translation and force in the ydirection. The displacements and forces
are at opposite end of the member,
designated e, are then numbered in the
same sequential order.

Q = ku

EXAMPLES

Example 1

Example 2
CALCULATE THE AXIAL FORCE IN THIS MEMBER