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# Centre For Foundation Studies

## Department of Sciences and Engineering

FHMM1014 Mathematics I

Chapter 1
Number and Set
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Content
1.1 Real Numbers System
1.2 Indices and Logarithm
1.3 Complex Numbers
1.4 Set

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## 1.1 Real Numbers

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Real Numbers
What number system have you been using most of

## A real number is any number that has a decimal

representation.

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## Set of Real Numbers

(i) Natural Numbers, N
Counting numbers (also called positive integers)

N = { 1, 2, 3, }
Whole Numbers:

## W {0} N {0,1, 2,3,L }

(ii) Integers, Z
Natural numbers, their negatives, and 0.

Z = {, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, }
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## Set of Real Numbers

(iii) Rational Numbers, Q
Numbers that can be represented as a b ,
where a and b are integers and b 0.
All rational number can be represented by:
(a) terminating decimal numbers
such as 5 2 2.5, 1 2 0.5, 3 4 0.75
(b) nonterminating repeating decimal numbers
such as 2 3 0.666..., 2 15 0.1333...
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## Set of Real Numbers

(iv) Irrational Numbers, I
Numbers which cannot be expressed as a ratio of two
integers. They are non-terminating & non-repeating
decimal numbers.

2,

3,

5, e , , K K

Note: The square roots of all natural numbers which are not
perfect squares are irrational.

## (v) Real Numbers, R

All rational and irrational numbers.
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## Set of Real Numbers

R
Q

Z
N

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## Real Number Line

Origin

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4

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Example 1 (a)
Identify each number below as an integer, or
natural number, or rational number or irrational
number.
8,

21,

2.005,

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0,

23
,
9

0.3333,

0.5381,

0.1234,

7, 1.5,

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## Operations on Real Numbers

(i) Commutative Law
* Addition : a b b a
* Multiplication : a b b a

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## Operations on Real Numbers

(ii) Associative Law
* Addition : a (b c) (a b) c
* Multiplication : a (bc ) ( ab)c

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## Operations on Real Numbers

(iii) Distributive Law

(1) a (b c) ab ac
(2) a (b c) ab ac

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## Operations on Real Numbers

(iv) Identity Law
* Addition : a 0 0 a a
* Multiplication : a 1 1 a a

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## Operations on Real Numbers

(v) Inverse Law
*Addition : a ( a ) ( a ) a 0
*Multiplication :

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a a 1
1
a

1
a

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## Operations on Real Numbers

(vi) Zero Property Law
* Multiplication :

a b 0 a 0 or b 0

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Example
Example11(b)
(b)
Identify the law that justifies each of the following statements:

(a) x ( x y ) x x x y
(b) (2 x 3) 5 2 x (3 5)
2

(c) 2 x (5 3 x) (2 x 5) 3 x
(d) If a b 0, then a b
(e) If ( x 5)( x 4) 0
x 5 0 or x 4 0
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Example 1(b)

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Solution

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## Interval Notations for Real Numbers

For any two different real numbers, a and b, with a < b:
The open interval is defined as the set

(a, b) {x : a x b}

## The closed interval is defined as the set

[a, b] {x : a x b}

## The half-closed (or half-open) interval is defined as

(a, b] {x : a x b} or [a, b) {x : a x b}

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Example 2
(i) Express each interval in terms of inequalities,
and then graph the interval.
(a) [1, 8)
(b) [2.5, 8]
(c) (3, )
(ii) Graph each set.
(a) (1,3) [2,8]
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## (b) (1,3) [2,8]

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Example 2

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Solution

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Absolute Values
The absolute value (or modulus) of a real number, x
is denoted by x .

x if
x
x if

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x0
x0

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Absolute Values

x a a x a
x a x a , x a

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Example 3
Find the values of x if
(i)

3x 1 5

(ii)

2x 6 x ,
2

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x0

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Example 3

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Solution

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1.2
Indices and
Logarithms
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1.2 Exponents
If a is any real number and n is a positive integer, then
the nth power of a is:

a aa a
n

(multiply a n times).

## The number a is called the base and

n is called the exponent.

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Properties of Exponents
For m,n Integers and a, b Real numbers ,
1
n
m
n
mn
(v)
a
n
(i) a a a
a
n
n n
m
n
mn
(vi) (ab) a b
(ii) a a a

(iii) ( a ) a
m n

(iv) a 1
0

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mn

a
a
(vii) n
b
b
a
(viii)
b

b

a

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Exponential Equation
An equation with a variable in the exponent is
called an exponential equation.
Property :
x
y
** If a 0 , a 1, and a a , then x y.
x
y
If
a

0
,
a

1
,
and
x

y
,
then
a

a
.
**

## Note : Both bases must be the same!!

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Example 4
Solve (a)
(b)

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2 16
16 64
x

2 x 1

x 3

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Example 4

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Solution

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Example 5
Solve the equation

2 x 3

3(2 ) 16 0 .

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Example 5

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Solution

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Exponential Functions
The exponential function with base a is defined
for all real numbers x by:

f ( x) a

## where a > 0 and a 1.

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Example 6
2

If f ( x) 2 , find f (1), f
5
x

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and f (3)

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Example 6

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Solution

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## Natural Exponential Base

Definition of e :

1 1 1 1 1
e ... 2.71828...
0 1! 2! 3!
n 0 n !
e can be defined in many other ways, one which arises
from the study of compound interest defines e as
n
1

e lim 1
n
n

x x
x
x
e 1 ...
1! 2! 3!
n 0 n !
x

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## Natural Exponential Base

y 3x

y ex

y 2x

x
x
2
and
3
, because e is between 2 and 3.
** e is between
** Note: Same y-intercept (0, 1).
x
x
x
** For x 0 , the graphs show that 3 e 2 .
x
x
x
** For x 0 , the graphs show that 3 e 2 .
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## Graphs of Exponential Function

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## Natural Exponential Functions

Find the values of

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e , 3e

0.32

and e

3.8

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Logarithm
Definition of logarithm :
For a 0, a 1, and x 0,

xa

means log a x n

0
1

a
**

log a 1 0

** a a

log a a 1

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## Graphs of Logarithmic Functions

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Properties of Logarithms

(ii) log a

x
y

log a x log a y

## (iii) log a x p log a x

p

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Properties of Logarithms

log b c
(iv) log a c
log b a
1
(v) log a b
log b a
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Example 7
Solve the equations
(i)
(ii)

## log 3 x 2 log 3 x log 9 27

2 log x 3 log 9

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9
x
4

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Example 7

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Solution

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Example 7
(ii) 2 log x 3 log 9

Solution

9
x
4
1
2

2 log 3 3 log 3 x
9

log 3 x
log 3 9
4

log 3 x
2
9

log 3 x
4
4

log3 x 9 log3 x 8 0
log3 x 8 log3 x 1 0
2

log 3 x 8 or log 3 x 1
x 38
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or

x 31
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Common Logarithm

## log b x n where the base b 10.

Natural Logarithm is when the base,

be.

Note : log10 x lg x
log e x ln x

lg10 1, ln e 1
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Example 8
Solve the equation below:

e 2 x 4e x 12 0

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Example 8

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Solution

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## 1.3 Complex Numbers

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## 1.3 Complex Numbers

For example, the equation x 9 0 has no real
solution. If we try to solve this equation, we will get
2

x 9
But this is impossible, since square of any real
number is positive. Hence Mathematicians
invented the complex number system to solve all

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Complex Numbers
A complex number in Cartesian form :

z a ib
(real part)

(imaginary part)

## where a, b are real numbers and

i 1 or i 1.
2

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Conjugates
For the complex number z a ib
we define its complex conjugate to be:

z a ib

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## Operations of Complex Numbers

(a ib) (c id ) (a c) i (b d )
Subtraction:

(a ib) (c id ) (a c) i(b d )

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Multiplication:

Division:

## (a ib) (a ib)(c id ) (ac bd ) i (bc ad )

(c id ) (c id )(c id )
c2 d 2

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Example 9
Express the following in the form of a single complex
number a + ib :
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

(3 6i ) (6 2i)
(3 6i) (6 2i)
(3 6i)(6 2i)
3 6i
1 2i

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Example 9

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Solution

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## Square Root of Negative Numbers

When i 2 1

i 2 i, where i 1

Therefore, for

x 2 9 32 (1) 32 i 2
x 32 i 2 3i
i.e the square root of a negative number will have 2
roots, same as square root of a positive number.
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## Square Root of Negative Numbers

For example,

(i)

3 i 3

(ii)

3 4 3 i 4 3 2i

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Example 10
Solve the equation

x 2 3x 6 0

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Example 10

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Solution

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Argand Diagram
To graph the complex number a + bi (or x + yi)
we plot the ordered pair of numbers (a, b) or
(x, y) in the Cartesian plane.
y

Imaginary axis

| z | a b r
2

P( x , y )

a + bi

bi

r
r =length
a
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Real axis

x
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Example 11
Graph the complex numbers:

(a) z1 3 4i
(b) z2 6 8i
(c) ( z1 z2 )

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Example 11

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Solution

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Modulus
The modulus (or absolute value) of the complex number
z x iy
is:

| z | x y
2

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Argument
y

P( x , y )

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## The argument of z, denoted

by arg(z), is the angle
between OX and OP.
The principal arguments is

## The angle is positive if

x counterclockwise and
negative if clockwise.

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## Example (a): Argument

(1) What is arg(z) if z = 1 + i?
From the diagram,

| y |
tan

|
x

|
1

1
tan
4
1
1

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## Example (b): Argument

(2) What is arg(z) if z = 1 + i?
From the diagram,

| y |
tan

|
x

|
1

1
tan
1
3

4
1

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## Example (c): Argument

(3) What is arg(z) if z = 1 i?
From the diagram,
| y |
tan

|
x

|
1

1
tan
1

4
1

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## Example (d): Argument

(4) What is arg(z) if z = 1 i?
From the diagram,

| y |
tan
| x |

1
tan
1

3

4
4
1

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Example 12
Find the modulus and argument of the complex numbers:

(a)
(b)

3 4i
6 7i

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Example 12

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Solution

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## Square Roots of a Complex Number

x iy?
How to find
Let the answer be a ib
. Hence
x iy a ib
x iy (a b ) i (2ab)
2

x a 2 b2

y 2ab

## Equating the real & imaginary parts will produce 2 new

equations. x and y can be obtained by solving these 2
equations.
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Example 13
Evaluate: (i)

(ii)

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3 4i
6i

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Example 12

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Solution

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## Polar or Trigonometric Form

If is the argument of a complex number,
x = r cos and y = r sin ,
y
where
r z x2 y2
1 y
arg( z ) tan
x

P( x , y )
r

for

So,
z = r cos + ir sin
0
z = r(cos + i sin )
This is the polar form of a complex number.
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Example 14
Write these complex numbers, which are in Cartesian
forms, in Polar (trigonometric) form.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

z 3
z 6i
z 3 4i

(iv)

z 2 3 2i

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Example 14

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Solution

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Example 14
(iii)

Solution

z 3 4i
r 32 42 5
4
arg( z ) tan 0.2952 for
3
z 5 cos(0.2952) i sin(0.2952)
1

(iv)

z 2 3 2i
r (2 3) 2 (2) 2 4

2
5
arg( z ) tan
6
2 3

5
5

z 4 cos i sin
6

6
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Example 15
1 1
(a) Given z i, find
4 2
i the modulus of z;
(ii) , the argument of z, where .
(b) Given z1 2 3i and z2 6 8i.
1
3
Express
in the Cartesian form of x yi.
z1 2 z1 z2
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Example 15

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Solution

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1.4 Sets

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Set
SET = Any collection of objects specified in
such a way that we can tell whether any
given
object is or is not in the
collection.
Each object in a set is called a member, or element, of
the set. Capital letters are often used to designate
particular sets.

## a A means a is not an element of set A

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Set
Let set A : { x x is an even positive integer which is
less than 13 }.

## Set A = { 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12}

4 A , 10 A

9 A , 13 A

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Subset
If each element of a set A is also an element of set B,
then A is a subset of B.
If set A and set B have exactly the same elements,
then the two sets are said to be equal.
Notation :

A B

means

A is a subset of B

A B

means

A is not a subset of B

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Universal Set
A set that contains all the elements of the set in a
specific discussion is called the universal set. It is
represented by the notation .

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Empty Set
A set without any elements is called the empty, or null,
set. It is represented by the notation .

Note :

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## is a subset of every set.

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Example 16
If A = { 3, 2, 2, 3 } , B = { 3, 3, 2, 2 } , and
C = { 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3 }.
Indicate whether the following relationships are TRUE
(T) or FALSE (F):-

AB
AC
C

A B
BC
B

BC

AC

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BC
CA
A
B A
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Example 17
(a)

(i) { 0}
(b)

(ii) { 0}

## List all the subsets of the set { 1, 2, 3, 4 }.

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Operations of Sets

Union

Intersection

Difference

Complement

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Union
The union of sets A and B , denoted by A B ,
is the set of all elements formed by combining all the
elements of A and all the elements of B into one set.

A B { x x A or x B }
x may be an element of set A or set B or both.
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Intersection
The intersection of sets A and B , denoted by A B ,
is the set of elements in set A that are also in set B .

A B { x x A and x B }
x is an element of both set A and set B .
If A B , the sets A and B are said to be
disjoint or mutually exclusive.
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## Difference between 2 Sets

The difference between set A and set B,
is the set of elements in set A but not in set B.

A B { x x A but x B }

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Complement
The complement of A , denoted by A 'or A, is the set
of elements in that are not in A .

A' { x x , x A }

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Venn Diagram
Union :
A

A B
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Venn Diagram
Intersection :

A B
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Venn Diagram
Intersection : (A and B are mutually exclusive)
A

A B
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Venn Diagram
Complement :

A'

A A'
A A'
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Venn Diagram
Difference :

A B

A B A B'
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Example 18
If A = { 2, 4, 6 } , B = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 } ,
C = { 3, 8, 9 } , and = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}.
Find :-

A B
(iii) B C
(i)

(v)

A'

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(ii)

A B

(iv) B C
(vi) C '
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Example 18

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Solution

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Example 19
Given that

{x : 20 x 30, x },
A {x : x is multiple of 2},
B {x : x is a divisible by 3},

Find:

(i)
(ii)

(A B) '
B' C

## (iii) A ' B '

(iv) A C

(v) (A C ) ' B
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Example 19

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Solution

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Example 20
Given {x 5 x 10, x R}
A {x 1 x 8, x R}
B {x 3 x 5, x R}
C {x 2 x 7, x R}
Find, in interval notation, each of the following sets:
(a) A B C
(b) A B

(c ) ( A B ) C
( e) ( A C ) B
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(d ) ( B C ) A
105

Example 20

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Solution

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## Algebraic Laws on Sets

Commutative law

Associative law

Distributive law

De Morgans law

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Commutative Law
For any two sets A and B,

A B B A

A B B A

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Associative Law
For any three sets A, B and C,

A ( B C ) ( A B) C A B C
A ( B C ) ( A B) C A B C

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Distributive Law
For any three sets A, B and C,

A ( B C ) ( A B) ( A C )
A ( B C ) ( A B) ( A C )

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De Morgans Law
For any two sets A and B,
First law :

## Complement of the union is the intersection of the complements.

Second law :
Complement of the intersection is the union of the complements.

## ( A B )' A' B'

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Example 21
By using set algebra, prove that, for any sets A and B,

(i) A ( A ' B) A B
(ii) [ B ' ( A B ') ']' A B

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Example 21

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Solution

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Example 22
By using set algebra, prove that, for any sets A and B,

(i) B ( B A) A B
(ii) A B A ' A B '

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Example 22

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Solution

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The End
Of
Chapter 1
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