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Aggregates intended for either

Bitominous(asphalt) or Portland cement
concrete pavement, should be of good
quality in accordance with the requirements
of AASHTO standard or Item-703 of the DPWH
specification which generally provides that:

The aggregates shall consist of hard durable

particles or fragments of crushed stone,
crushed slag or crushed rock or natural gravel.

Aggregates must undergo various test to

be classified as good quality

Test for strength

Test for soundness

Test for affinity and swell

Test for resistance to polishing

Degradation Test

Test of strength
The criterion for aggregate strength test is the Los Angeles
Rattler test (AASHTO)

Rattler test is done in a hollow cylinder closed at both



The cylinder is rotated 500 revolutions at speed of 30 to

33 rounds per minute

3. After testing the sample is passed on to NO.12 sieve.

Those that passes through it are set aside the amount of
loss is the difference between the original and final
weight expressed in percent.
4. The FHWA recommended that aggregates for a dense
graded mixture shall have 50 or less coefficient of wear.
5. For open graded mixture, the requirement is 40 or less.
However, percentage may be set in cases where excellent
aggregates are abundantly available.

Test for soundness

Soundness refers to the resistance of materials to

deterioration from the effect of action like freezing and
thawing. The common test for soundness is the application
with sodium or magnesium sulfate. (AASHTO T-104)

Test for affinity and swell

Strong and durable pavement must have binder that

adhere or stick firmly to the aggregate particles. If
the binder separates or strips-off from the
aggregate, the pavement will disintegrate under

Another reaction of the pavement is to pit when the

aggregates are pulled-off caused by running wheels.
In the event that pavement mixture swells, the
interlock and friction between the particles are
destroyed resulting to collapse of the pavement

Test for Shape and Texture

A relatively rounded smooth aggregate particles like natural gravel is recommended

for Portland cement concrete pavement because the mixture is workable. Meaning
easily manage and consolidated inside the forms.

The angular or cubical shape and rough surface texture aggregate has been proven
excellent material for asphalt pavement because it has stronger interlocking action
and well adherence of asphalt binder to the particles

A thin or elongated piece of dirt is considered undesirable material for either

asphalt or concrete pavement.

The AASHTO standard specifications for asphalt pavement aggregate has no specific
stipulation as to the control of the shape or surface texture.

Test for Resistant to Polishing

One good criterion for pavement design is the high

coefficient of friction between the tire and the road

A good asphalt or concrete road is when the rubber

tire is in direct contact with the aggregate and not
with the binder

Degradation test

Some aggregates degrade in the presence of water. This is

measured through mechanical agitation in water under
designation test T-210 of AASHTO

Particle size

For dense graded pavement- the particle size of aggregate

ranges from coarse to dust.


For open graded pavements- one or more layer of the coarse

rock of uniform size is used.


For sheet asphalt- the mineral aggregate is a carefully graded

sand and mineral dust.

Aggregate for Bituminous Pavement

For bituminous or asphalt pavement, the aggregates constitute

88% to 96% by weight or more than 75% by volume.

AASHTO standard specification

the aggregates that consist of hard durable particles of
fragments of stones gravel and sands or other fine mineral
particles free from vegetable matter and lumps or balls of
clay and of such nature that it can be compacted readily to
form a firm, stable layer. It shall conform to the grading
requirements when tested by AASHTO T-11 and 27

Aggregate for Portland cement concrete


In order to obtain high quality concrete, road agencies

have imposed almost without exception that all
aggregates shall pass appropriate tests for strength,
soundness, wear or combination of these three.

Mineral Filler

The strength of road pavement will be increased if

dust additives which dense the graded mixture is
added. It is called mineral filler that reduces the
void contents in the mixture.

Dust additive is classified into:

Finely powdered limestone


Hydrated lime

Portland cement

Trap rock dust

Fly ash

The DPWH standard specifications relative to mineral filler

states that:

Mineral filler shall consist of finely divided mineral

matter such as rock dust,slag dust, hydrated
lime,hydraulic cement, fly ash or other suitable mineral
matter. It shall be free from organic impuritiesand at the
time of use shall be sufficiently dry to flow freely and
shall be essentially free from agglomeratons

AASHTO further stipulates that all minerals other than

hydrated lime orPortland cement,the Plastic Index value
shall be 4 or less.

Bituminous material

Bituminous material or asphalt in short, is a viscous liquid

used as binder for aggregates in road construction. At
normal temperature, asphalt is either slightly thicker than
water or hard but brittle material that breaks under a
hammer blow when cold.