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coil.

TRANSFORMER ACTION

is the action that creates the emf.

PRIMARY COIL

is the coil thats connected to the primary source of supply or

takes electrical energy from AC source of supply.

SECONDARY COIL

is the coil which the voltage of mutual induction is induced and

which feeds energy to the load. It received energy by

electromagnetic induction and deliver to loads.

Mutual flux changes in magnitude and direction. There still be

created an induced emf in secondary winding Es and induced

Note:

both induced emfs are created by the same mutual flux.

coils are form wound and are of the cylindrical type. The

general form of this coils maybe circular or oval. In small type

size core type transformer, a simple rectangular core is used

with cylindrical coils which are either circular or rectangular in

form. but for large size core type transformer round or

circular cylindrical coils are used.

Where:

Eav average induced emf in coil.

maximum flux

t time for flux to change by m (mxwell)

Note:

electrical energy can be transformed by:

a. INDUCTION no electrical connection between source and

load (Ex. transformer).

b. CONDUCTION when there is c conductor that links

between source and load. (Ex. transmission and

distribution).

Basic information that is placed on the nameplate of large power

transformer.

a.

b.

c.

Voltage Rating

KVA / MVA Rating

amount of fault current that due to transformer can withstand.

e. B.I.L. Rating (Basic Insulation Level)

- KVA rating of insulating oil

the

Rp = primary resistance (ohms)

Xp = reactance of primary winding (ohms)

Rc = resistance representing of iron losses (ohms)

Ic = current flowing (amperes)

Xm = magnitizing reactance of primary winding (ohms)

Im = current flowing in the magnetizing reactance (current)

Rs = resistance in the secondary winding (ohms)

Xs = reactance in the secondary winding (ohms)

Np = primary turns

Ns = secondary turns

Ep = primary voltage

Es = secondary voltage

Is = secondary current

Divide:

primary and secondary voltages

I

Vg

Ep

E = 4.44 Npm x 10-8 (primary)

Es = 4.44 Nsm x 10-8 (secondary)

Es

VL

Note:

ideal transformer if its core loss is less and has no leakage flux

and has no cupper loss. ( m = mA)

Where:

Ep = primary winding induced voltage.

Es = secondary winding induced voltage

= frequency (Hz)

N = number of turns in coil

Np = No. of turns in primary coil

Ns = No. of turns in secondary

m = mutual flux (maxwell)

A = area in core (cm)

m = flux density

equal to secondary ampere turn

Where:

Np / Ns = turns ratio

Ip / Is = current ratio

a = transformer ratio

KVA rating of transformer refers to its KVA output.

KVAp = KVAs

Where:

Zp / Zs = impedence ratio

Ep = voltage induced in primary winding

Es = voltage induced in secondary winding

Polarity Marking to avoid mistakes in banking and paralleling

of transformer.

Additive Polarity

Subtractive Polarity

Example:

The 2,300 volt primary winding of a 60-cycle transformer has

4,800 turns. Calculate: (a) the mutual flux; (b) the number of

turns in the 230-volt secondary winding.

Given:

Ep = 2,300v

Np = 4,800

Solution:

a.)

b.)

F = 60 hz

Example:

the maximum flux in the core of a 60-cycle transformer that

has 1,320 primary turns and 46 secondary turns is 3.76 x

maxwells. Calculate the primary and secondary induced

voltages.

Given:

F = 60 Hz

Calculate Ep and Es

Solution:

Np = 1,320turns

Ns = 46 turns

Example:

the secondary winding of a 4,600/230-volt transformer has 36

turns. How many turns are there in the primary winding?

Given:

Vp = 4,600 v

Solution:

Vs = 230 v

Ns = 36 turn

Example:

The volts per turn in a 25-cycle 2,400/230-volts transformer is

8. calculate: (a) the primary and secondary turns; (b) the

maximum flux in the core.

Given:

Vp = 2,400 v

Solution:

a.)

b.)

Vs = 230 v

Primary Voltage (Vp)

Secondary Voltage(Es)

Primary current (Ip)

Secondary Current (Is)

Ep x Ip = Es x Is

Example:

The secondary load current of a 2,300/115-volts/transformer is

46 amp. Calculate the primary current.

Solution:

Example:

The primary and secondary currents of a transformer were

measured and found to be 3.8 and 152 amp, respectively. If

the secondary load voltage is 116 volts, what is the primary

emf?

Solution:

Transformation Ratio:

The ratio of primary to secondary turns Np:Ns, which equals

the ratio of primary to secondary induced voltages Ep:Es,

indicates how much the primary voltage is lowered or raised.

The turn ratio, or the induced-voltage ratio, is called the ratio

of transformation, and is represented by the symbol a. thus

measured at the secondary terminals.

and

are those

in secondary terms

in primary terms

SEATWORK

Example 1

A 25-kva 2,300/230-volt distribution transformer has the following

resistance and leakage-reactance values: Rp = 0.8; Xp = 3.2; Rs =

0.009; Xs = 0.03. calculate the equivalent values of resistance,

reactance and impedance; (a) in secondary terms; (b) in primary

terms.

Example 2

A 25-kva 2,300/230-volt distribution transformer has the following

resistance and leakage-reactance values: Rp = 0.8; Xp = 3.2; Rs =

0.009; Xs = 0.03. calculate the equivalent values of resistance,

reactance voltage drops for a secondary load current of 109 amp: (a)

in secondary terms: (b) in primary terms.

ASKAREL OIL is non-flammable insulating liquid w/c when

decomposed by an electric are evolves non-explosive gases.

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

1. The transformer is usually used to change the values of

voltage.

2. Transformer operates at a power factor depending on the

power factor of the load.

3. A good transformer oil should absolutely free from sulfur,

alkalies & moisture.

4. The working principle of transformer is mutual induction.

5. The lamination of a core on a transformer are made of silicon

steel sheet.

6.

reduce eddy current losses.

Defined parameters

Note:

No load voltage means the input voltage to the

transformer when it is in operation or load

PRIMARY SIDE

Ip = rated primary current

Vp = rated primary voltage (output) voltage

Rp = resistance of the primary winding

flux in the primary).

Ep = induced voltage in the primary winding (because of the

mutual flux).

Zp = impedance of the primary winding.

Zp = Rp + j Xp

Np = number of turns in the primary winding

Vpnl = input voltage to the primary (real input voltage)

SECONDARY SIDE

Is = rated secondary current

Vs = rated secondary voltage (output voltage) (real output)

Rs = resistance of the secondary winding

Xs = reactance of the secondary winding

Es = induced voltage in the secondary (because of mutual flux)

Zs = Rs + j X s

Ns = number of turns in the secondary winding

Vsnl = input voltage to the secondary side. (no load secondary

voltage) fictious.

GENERALLY

m = maximum mutual flux (common to primary and

secondary). This flux travels around the core.

= this is a useful flux

= this is a working flux

a

= transformation ratio

= turns ratio

= induced voltage ratio

= rated voltage ratio

= inverse current ratio

REFER THE CIRCUIT TO THE PRIMARY SIDE (transfer all data

from secondary to primary).

Approximate:

In = too small; temporary neglected

Ip

VPNL

Rp

Xp

aRs

aXs

Vp = aVs

Is/a

L

O

A

D

Is = aIp

EL = ELP + ELS

= Ip2Rp + Is2Rs

= Ip2Rp + a2Ip2Rs

= Ip2 (Rp + a2Rs)

Rep equivalent resistance of the transformer only referred to primary

side.

Rep = Rp + aRs

ELP = Ip2Rep

Xep equivalent reactance of the transformer only referred to the

primary side.

Zep = Rep + j Xep

SIMPLIFIED DIAGRAM:

Ip

Rep

Xep

L

O

A

D

VPNL

VPNL = Vp + IpZep

Vp

data from primary to secondary)

Rp/a

Xp/a

Rs

Xs

Is

aIp

= VSNL

KVA LOAD =

= KVAsec

LO

A

D

ELECTRICAL LOSSES;

EL = ELP + ELS

= Ip2Rp + Is2Rs

secondary side.

EL =

Is2Res

side.

secondary side.

Zes2 = R2es +

X2es

SIMPLIFIED DIAGRAM:

Is

Res

VSNL

Xes

VS

VSNL = Vs + Is

Zes

PERCENT VOLTAGE REGULATION

L

O

A

D

Additional Formulas:

%Z = percent impedance rating

%R = percent resistance rating

%X = percent reactance rating

GENERALLY

%Z = %R + j%X

(%Z)2 = (%R)2 + (%X)2

(Zpu)2 = (Rpu)2 + (Xpu)2

EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

USING PRIMARY VALVES

PRIMARY SIDE

SECONDARY SIDE

OR OUTPUT IS VARIED. (Transformer is operating at different

loads).

RULES:

load or rated load.

KVA output (below rated or above rated).

maximum efficiency condition.

NOTE:

when computing for efficiency and voltage regulation of a

transformer regulation, the following should be clearly specified:

1. Power factor of the load

2. KVA output of the load

TRANSFORMER LOSSES

a) Electrical losses is also called resistance or cupper

losses.

resistance

These

of

losses

primary

are

primarily

(Rp)

the KVA load.

and

due

to

secondary

the

(Rs)

the Square of

EL1 =

Ip12Rep

Divide /

EL2 =

Ip22Rep

irregardless of any change in KVA. output or load power factor.

NOTE:

this is loss will only change or vary if there is change in the

primary voltage (Vp) or supply frequency.

1. HYSTERESIS LOSS (Ph) -

(such as high grade silicon steel) because it has high value

permeability and low hysteresis.

1. EDDY CURRENT LOSS (Pe) this loss can be minimized or

Coreloss = PH +

Pe

TYPES OF TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY

a) ORDIARY EFFICIENCY ()

over all efficiency or conventional efficiency.

of

General Formulas:

Where:

TL = EL +

COL

Po = KVAOUTPUT x

P.F.

PIN = Po + TLOSSES

@ FULL LOAD:

PIN = Po1 + TL1

TL1 = EL1 + CLOSS

PIN = Po2 + TL2

TL2 = EL2 + COLOSS

B. MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY

Po = KVA x P.F.

PIN = Po + TL

TL = EL + COLOSS

'mx =

but

EL = CL (max.)

TL = 2EL = 2CL

EQUIVALENT FORMULAS:

Note:

KVA

Where:

KVAoutp

ut

KVA1 = Ip1 Vp /

1000

KVA2 = Ip2 Vp /

1000

EL = (Ip)2 Rep = CL

OBJECTIVE QUESTION:

when will maximum efficiency occur and at what KVA load?

1. It could happen at full load

KVA1 = KVA

1 = max

EL1 = EL = CL

2. It could happen at either overload or below rated load

Example problem: the full load cupper loss in a transformer is

400 watts. At half load, the cupper loss will be

Given:

@full load: KVA2 = KVA1

Reqd:

EL2 = ?

Solution:

Example problem: a 10 KVA, 2400/240 volts distribution

transformer has a primary resistance of 1.2 ohms and a

secondary resistance of 0.058 ohm. Determine the full load

cupper loss.

load, you may not use anymore the subscript.

Given: (nameplate data)

Rp = 1.2 ohm

Rs = 0.058 ohm

Vp = 2400 v

Vs = 240 v

Solution:

EL1

=?

Rep = Rp1 + a2Rs

= (1.2) + (10)2

(0.058)

= 7 ohms

EL = Ip2Rep

= 4.17 Amp.

= (4.17)2 (7)

EL = 121.7 watts

Example problem:

the full load cupper loss and core loss of a 20 KVA, 2500/250v

transformer are 300 watts and 320 watts respectively. What is

the efficiency at half load and unity power factor.

Given:

@ 1st condition: (full load)

EL1

= 300 w

EL2

=?

CL

= 320 w

CL

= 320 w (constant)

KVA1 = 20 KVA

KVA2 = 20 KVA

Vp

= 2500 v

PF

= unity = 1

Vs

= 250 v

= cos-1 (1)

= 0

Reqd:

2 = ? (half load)

Solution:

But

KVA2 = KVA

= 75 Watts

TL2 = EL2 + CL

= 75 + 320

= 395 watts

Subs. Values:

= 98.06%

Transformer percent regulation (%Reg)

at secondary terms.

THREE FLUXES

1. Mutual flux ( m) = links both the primary and secondary

windings.

2. Primary leakage flux () = links with primary winding only

and is varrying I

3. Secondary leakage flux () = links with secondary winding

only and is varrying I.

a) Voltage drop due to leakage reactance = IsRs

b) Voltage drop due to leakage reactance = IsXs

Below are the phasor. Diagram showing how the resistance and

leakage-reactance drop are subtracted from the induced

secondary voltage to yield the secondary terminal voltage.

Es

IsXs

Vs

Is

IsRs

Es

IsXs

V

s

Is

Rs

PF

co

Vs

sin

Is

Rs

Is

Is

R

Is

s

V

s

o

PF

IsXs

Es

Vs

si

n

Vs

leakage reactance drops are subtracted from the impressed

primary voltage to yield primary induced voltage.

Vp

a. @ unity power

factor

IpXp

Vp

Ep

Ip

IpRp

IpXp

Ep

PF

s

co

Ep

Ep

si

n

Ip

Rp

Ip

Rp

Ip

p

R

Ip

Ep

os

PF

IpXp

Vp

Ep

si

n

IpRp

Ep

Rp

Ig

Eg

Ip

Xp

Rm

Xm

Ep

Es

Where:

Rp = Resistance of primary winding

Xp = Reactance of primary winding

Rs

= Resistance of secondary

Xs

Ep = Induced emf of the primary winding

Es

Ig

= Supply current

If

= Primary current

Is

= Secondary current

Pm = Iron losses

Xm = Magnetizing reactance of primary winding

Io

= Exciting current

EQUIVALENT

CIRCUIT

DIAGRAM

OF

PRACTICAL

TRANSFORMER AT NO LOAD

Rp

Xp

Rs

Io

Ig = Io

Eg

Ip = 0

Rm

Xs

Is = o

Xm

Ep

Es

Vs = Es

flows in Rp and Xp and these impedance are so small

that the voltage drop across them are negligible

FULL LOAD

Rp

Eg

Xp

Ep

Rs

Es

Xs

Vs

NOTE:

@ full load, Ig is at least 20 times bigger than Io

IN PRIMARY TERMS

Rep = aRs + Rp

IN SECONDARY TERMS

Xep = aXs + Xp

Zep = Rep + jXep

Zes = Res + jXes

Where:

Res = equivalent resistance referred to the secondary.

Rep = equivalent resistance referred to the primary.

Xes = equivalent reactance referred to the secondary.

Xep = equivalent reactance referred to the primary.

Zes = equivalent impedance referred to the secondary.

Zep = equivalent impedance referred to the primary.

EQUIVALENT VOLTAGE DROP IN TRANSFORMER REFERRED

TO PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SIDE

side.

side.

But:

side.

XesIs = equivalent drop in the secondary side.

Notation:

Rep = equivalent resistance in primary side.

Xep = equivalent reactance in primary side.

Ip = primary current.

Res = equivalent resistance in secondary side.

Xes = equivalent reactance in secondary side.

Is = secondary load current.

LOADING.

1) @ unity power factor load

2.)

3.)

Note:

if the given data of the transformer is in terms of Rep, Xep,

and Zep. Use this formula:

values like %Z, %R and %X. use the corresponding formulas:

a) For unity power factor

c.)

Thus:

Example problem:

The 2300 volts primary winding of 60 cps transformer has

4800 turns. Calculate:

a)

Mutual flux, m

b)

c)

Given:

Reqd:

Ep = 2300 v

Es = 230 v

f = 60 cps

Np = 4800 turns

Solution:

a.)

m, Ns, a

b.)

NS = 480 turns

c.)

or

Example Problem:

a 25 KVA, 2300/230 volts distribution transformer has the

following resistance and leakage reactance value of 0.8 and 3.2

respectively. For primary and 0.009 and 0.03 for secondary

respectively. Calculate the equivalent values of resistance,

reactance and impedance in secondary terms:

a) Secondary terms

b) Primary terms

c.) Equivalent resistance and reactance voltage drop for a

load current of 109 amps in secondary and primary terms.

d.) calculate the present voltage regulation for a unity power

factor.

Given:

Pa = 25 KVA

V = 2300/230v

Rp = 0.8

Xp = 3.2

Rs = 0.009

Xs = 0.03

KVAoutput =

KVApri = KVAsec

Solution:

a) In secondary terms

Xes = Xs + Xp/a

= 0.03 + 3.2/102

= 0.062

Zes = Res + j Xes

= 0.017 + j 0.062

= 0.642 < 74.67

Rep = Rp + a2Rs

= 0.8 + (10)2 (0.009)

= 1.7

Xep = Xp + a2Xs

= 3.2 + (10)2 (0.03)

= 6.2

Zep = Rep + j Xep

= 1.7 + j 6.2

= 6.43 < 74.67

c.)

PRIMARY

VDPR = IpRep

SECONDARY

VDSR = IsRes

= (109)(0.017)

= 1.853 volts

VDSX = IsXes

= (109)(0.062)

= 18.53 volts

= 6.75 volts

VDPX = IpXep

= 67.5 volts

P.F. = 1

= cos-1 (1)

= 00

= 10.87 amps

For unity

VPNL = VP + IpZep

= 2300 00 + (10.87 00)(6.43 74.67)

= 2319.46 1.660 volts

VPNL = Vp + IpZep

= 2300 00 + (10.87 -36.87) x

(6.43 74.67)

= 2355.6 1.04 volts

= cos-1 (0.866)

= 300

VPNL = Vp + IpZep

= 2300 00 + (10.87 300 + (6.43 74.67)

= 2283.3 1.7 volts

Another solution:

For Unity:

= 00

Cos = 1

Sin = 0

cos = 0.8

sin = 0.6

= 36.870

cos = 0.866

sin = 0.5

EXAMPLE PROBLEM:

a 10 KVA, 2400/240 volt distribution. Transformer has a

primary resistance of 1.2 ohm and a secondary resistance of

0.058 ohm. What is the full load cupper loss (Electrical loss).

Given:

Reqd:

Pa = 10 KVA

E = 2400/240 V

Rp = 1.2 ohm

Xp = 0.058 ohm

Solution:

Rep = Rp + a2Rs

= 1.2 + (10)2 (0.058)

=7

ELOSS = Ip2Rep

= (4.17)2 (7)

ELOSS = 121.7223 watts

EXAMPLE PROBLEM:

The full load cupper loss and core loss of 20 KVA, 2500/250

volt transformer are 300 and 320 w respectively. What is the

efficiency at haf-load and unity P.F.

Given:

@ condition 1: (full load)

KVA1 = 20 KVA

Ep = 2500 v

EL1 = 300 w

Es = 250 v

COL = 320 w

KVA2 = KVA1 = 10 KVA

PO2 = KVA2 x P.F.

= 10 x 1

= 10 KW

Reqd:

= ?

Solution:

Sample Problem:

In a 50 kva transformer, the full load cupper loss are exactly

twice the iron losses, and that quarter load, the efficiency is

95%. Calculate the full load efficiency at unity P.F.

KVA1 = 50 kva

EL1 = 2 COL

----------------

@ condition 1: (quarter load)

KVA2 = kva1

= (50) = 12.5 kva

= 95%

Reqd:

= ?

Solution:

TL2 = PIN2 P02

= 13,157.89 12500

= 657.89 watts

But:

TL2 = EL2 + CL ------------

Substitute to

TL2 = EL2 + CL

657.89 = EL2 + 0.5 EL1

---------

Subst. in

657.89 = EL2 + 0.5 EL1

= 0.0625 EL1 + 0.5 EL1

= (0.0625 + 0.5) EL1

= 0.5625 EL1

From eqn.

CL = 0.5 EL1

= 0.5 (1,169.6)

= 584.79 watts

Example Problem

The core loss of a 50 KVA single phase transformer with normal

voltage applied to the primary is 75 watts. The max efficiency

at 60% load of full load. What is the full load efficiency of the

transformer at 0.8 P.F.

Given:

@ condition 1 : (full load)

KVA = 50 KVA

CL = 75 watts (constant)

Note:

Core loss (CL) dont vary at any time of change except when

the applied voltage and frequency is change.

EL1 = ?

PO1 = 50 KVA (0.8)

= 4000 watts

@ condition 2 : (maximum load efficiency)

KVA = 60% KVA

= 0.6 (50)

= 30 KVA

Po = 30 (0.8)

= 24,000 watts

Reqd: = ?

Solution

@ max eff. (E = C )

L

L

Pin1 = PO1 + TL1

but

TL1 = EL1 + CL

= 4000 + 208.3 + 75

= 4283.3 watts

subs.values:

Example Problem:

A 100 KVA transformer has a maximum efficiency of 98% at

10% underload at unity power factor. Evaluate the efficiency at

quarter-load at 0.8 power factor.

Given:

@ max.load:

'mx = 98%

EL1 = ?

PF = 1

@ quarter load:

KVA2 = KVA1

= (100) = 25

KVA

= 20,000 watts

PF = 0.8

Reqd:

= ?

Solution:

KVA = 0.1 KVA1

= 0.1 (100)

PO = 10 KVA (1)

= 10,000 watts

= 10 KVA

T L = E L + C L

But for maximum efficiency: (E = C )

L

L

TL = 2 CL --------------

TL = Pin Po ---------

Subs. in

TL = Pin Po

2CL = 10,204.08 10,000

2CL = 204.08 watts

@ quarter load:

TL2 = EL2 + CL

= 637.75 + 102.04

= 739.79 watts

day efficiency of the transformer. The ration of electrical energy

(kilowatt-hours) output delivered by the transformer in a 24hour period to the energy input in the same period of time (or

a day operation.)

Where:

Wo Electrical energy output

- P x time (kw-hr)

- P x time (kw-hr)

- Wo + WL

= WCORELOSS + WCOPPERLOSS

= WCL + WEL

= (CL x Time) + (EL x Time)

- energy copper loss is present (but not constant)

- energy coreloss is present (it is constant)

- energy output is present.

Note:

1. Full load values/rated values must always be given

(reference data).

2. Solutions maybe in a tabulated form.

3. When transformer is loaded 24 hrs a day operation, energy

coreloss is always constant to be multiplied by 24 hrs .

Condition that may arise later in problem;

a) No load condition (transformer is unloaded) energy copper

loss is zero. Energy coreloss is constant. Energy output is zero.

copper loss is zero. Energy coreloss is zero. Energy output is

zero.

Example problem:

calculate the all day efficiency of 100 kva transformer

operating under the following conditions;

6 hrs on load of 50 kw at 0.73 P.F.

3 hrs on load of 30 kw at 0.82 P.F.

15 hrs with no load on secondary, the iron losses is 1000

watts and the full load copper loss is 1060 watts.

Reqd:

Note: for energy

Solution:

TABULATION FORM

KW LOAD

P.F.

Kw

50

.73

# OF

KVA LOAD

ENERGY

ENERGY

ENERGY

HRS

(Kw/P.F.)

OUTPUT

COL

CUL

Hr.

KVA

Kw-Hr

(CL - t)

(EL - t)

50/0.73

50 (6)

1 (6)

= 68.5

= 300

=6

= 2.98

30

.82

30/0.82

30 (3)

1 (3)

= 36.59

= 90

=3

1 (15)

0.43

N

O

15

= 15

O

A

D

TOTAL:

390

24

3.41

Wo

WCL

WCUL

WO = 300 + 90

= 390 Kw-Hr

WCL = 6 + 3 + 15

= 24 Kw-Hr

WCU = 2.98 + 0.43

= 3.41 Kw-Hr

Win = WO + WLOSSES

= 390 + (24 + 3.41)

= 417.41 Kw-Hr

Example problem:

a 30 kva, 2400/240 volts, 60 hz distribution transformer has a

full load P.F. of unity over a period of 24 hrs. the maximum

efficiency is 95% and it occurs at full load. Calculate the all day

efficiency if it is loaded as follows:

6 hrs at full load

6 hrs at quarter load

12 hrs at no-load

Reqd:

Solution: for maximum efficiency (EL = CL)

TABULATION FORM

Kw

Load

P.F.

# of

Hours

Kva load

(kw/PF)

Kva

Energy

Output

Kw-hr

Energy

CL

Kw-hr

Energy

CUL

Kw-hr

Full

Load

30

30 (6)

= 180

0.789 (6)

= 4.737

0.296

full

load

7.5

7.5 (6)

0.789 (6)

= 4.737

0.296

No load

12

0.789 (12)

= 9.474

WO = 180 + 45

= 225 kw-hr

WCL = 4.737 + 4.737 + 9.474

= 18.948 kw-hr

WEL = 4.737 + 0.296

= 5.033 kw-hr

Win = WO + WLOSSES

= 225 + 5.033 + 18.948

= 230.033 kw-hr + 18.948

Win = 248.948 kw-hr

Example problem:

a 100 kva, 6600/400 volts 60 hz, single phase, core type

transformer has the following average daily load:

Calculate the ratio of the full load cupper loss to the iron loss for

the transformer to be most economical for the above loading.

Reqd:

Solution:

@ full load condition:

KVA1 = 100 KVA

CL1 = ?

(CL = EL1)

L1 = ?

Note:

most economical at maximum eff.

TABULATED FORM

Kva

Load

P.F.

Full load

(100)

0.8

Half load

(50)

0.7

Kw load

Kw

# of hrs

Hr

Wo

Kw-hr

100 (0.8)

= 80

80 (8)

= 640

100 (0.7)

= 70/2

= 35

10

70 (10)

= 700/2

=350

WCL

WEL

Kw-hr

kw-hr

CL (8)

EL1 (8)

= 8 CL

= 8 EL1

CL (10)

EL1 (10)

= 10 CL

= 2.5 EL1

No load

CL (6)

= 6 CL

24 CL

10.5 EL1

WCL = 8CL + 10 CL + 6 CL

= 24 CL

WEL = 8 EL1 + 2.5 EL1

= 10.5 EL1

24 CL = 10.5 EL1

Example Problem:

a 25 kva, single phase transformer operates for one hr @ 20%

overload @ 0.8 PF lagging; three hrs @ full load @ 0.9 PF

leading; 6 hrs @ half-load @ a unity power factor and 10%

loaded @ unity power factor for the rest of the day, the cipper

loss and core loss @ full load are 500 watts and 150 watts

respectively. Find the all-day efficiency.

Given: condition 1: (full load) t = 3 hrs

KVA = 25 KVA

@ condition 2: (overload) t = 1 hr

KVA2 = 1.2 (KVA1)

= 1.2 (25)

= 30 KVA

PO2 = 30 (0.8)

= 24 kw

KVA = 0.5 (KVA)

= 0.5 (25)

= 12.5 kva

@ condition 4: (underload) t = 14 hrs

KVA = 0.1 (KVA)

= 0.1 (25)

= 2.5 KVA

EL1 = 500 watts (0.5 kw)

Reqd:

d = ?

Solution:

Wo = Po x time

= W1 + W2 + W3 + W4

= (25)(0.9)(3) + (30)(0.8)(1) + (12.5)(1)(6)

+ (2.5)(1)(14)

Wo = 67.5 + 24 + 75 + 35

= 201.5 kw-hr

WEL = EL x time

= EL1 + EL2 + EL3 + EL4

WEL = 3.04 kw-hr

WCL = CL x time

= CL1 + CL2 + CL3 + CL4

= (0.15)(3) + (0.15)(1) + (0.15)(6) + (0.15)(14)

WCL = 3.6 kw-hr

Example problem:

the all day efficiency of a 10 kva single phase transformer is

94.7%, when loading as follows:

If the full load cupper loss and @ unity PF is 140 watts. Calculate

the value of core loss.

Given:

d = 94.7%

CL1 = ?

KVA1 = 10 KVA

KVA2 = 0

PF1 = 1

PF2 = 1

t1 = 4 hrs.

T2 = 20 hrs

Reqd:

CL1 = ?

Solution:

WO = P x time

= (10)(1)(4) + (0)(1)(20)

= 40 kw-hr

Case I:

if given data are in terms on Zep, Rep and Xep.

Example Problem:

A 10 kva, 2400/240 volt single phase transformer has the

following resistances and leakage reactances.

a) Find the voltage regulation @ full load and 0.8 lagging

b) What is %VR if the transformer is operating @ 25% overload

and 0.8 PF leading

c) What is %VR of the transformer when it is operating @

maximum efficiency @ unity power factor. Assume coreloss of

60 watts.

Given:

rp = 3 ohms

rs = 0.03 ohms

Xp = 15 ohms

Xs = 0.15 ohm

Solution:

KVAP = KVAS = KVAoutput

(full or rated load)

Rep = Rp + a2Rs

Xep = Xp + a2Xs

= 3 + (10)2 (0.03)

= 15 + (10)2 (0.15)

= 6 ohms

= 30 ohms

= 6 + j30

= 30.59 78.7

ohms

VPNL = Vp + IpZep

= 2400 0o + (4.17 -36.87) (30.6

78.7)

= 2496 1.9500 volts

a) %VR @ 0.8 lagging ( = -36.87)

KVA = ?

EL1 = IP2Rep

= (4.17)2 (6)

= 104.33 watts

VPNL = VP + IPZep

= 2400 00 + (3.16 00)(30.6 78.7)

= 2420.79 2.240 volts

Example Problem:

a 200 kva transformer with impedance of 15% and the PF of

85% lagging. The primary voltage is 6000 volts while the full

load cupper loss is 15 kw. Find the percentage regulation at full

load.

Given:

%Z = 15%

PF = 0.85 lag

cos = 0.85

= 31.788

sin = 0.5268

VP = 6000 volts

EL1 = 15,000 watts

Reqd:

%VR

Solution:

By applying formula

Case II

id the given data of transformer are in terms of %Z, %R & %X.

DERIVATION OF FORMULAS:

@ full load

Where

Divide %R / %R

It follows:

@ full load

Divide %X / %X

Voltage equation:

Where:

Vp = high voltage windage

Vs = low voltage windage

a) Short circuit test (sct)

Purpose: To determine the rated full load cupper loss

Procedure:

a) The low voltage side is short circuited.

b) All measuring AC instrument such as ammeter, voltmeter,

wattmeter are placed on the high voltage side.

c) Energize the high side by a small input voltage.

d) Then solve for; Zep, Rep, Xep.

Figure:

ammeter

variable

resistor

Isc

A

wattmeter

shorted

+

Vin

HVW

LVW

(primary)

(secondary)

Where:

Ise = short circuit current on the low voltage side must be

equal to rated secondary current Is.

Observed readings in all instruments:

A ammeter reading (AMR)

- Ip - rated primary current

V voltmeter reading (VMR)

- Vin (2

5%) Vp

- EL - rated cupper loss.

Where:

Where:

@ full load:

b.)

Purpose: To determine the total rated iron loss

(CORE LOSS).

Procedure:

a)

Voltage.

c)

current.

FIGURE:

Vin

autotransformer

(separation of iron losses)

Note: All fomulas are derived by Steinsmitz law thru theory and

experiments.

Note: All formulas are derived by Steinsmitz Law thru theory an

d experiments.

1st topic: Variation of Copper Loss

a) Voltage Regulation

b) All Day efficiency

c) Maximum and ordinary efficiency

2nd topic: Variation of Core Loss

a)Steinsmitz Law

b)KVA sizing

a)

Efficiency will change

%VR will change

Copper loss will change (very much affected)

Core loss is constant

b.)

%VR will change (very much affected)

Copper loss is affected slightly

Core loss is constant

Slightly change in efficiency

%VR will change

Copper loss is slightly

Core loss will change (very much affected)

d.)

Slight change in efficiency

No change of %VR

Copper loss is slightly affected

Core loss will change (very much affected)

Formulas

Case 1: flux density is not constant

Ph = Khfm1.6

Pe = Kefm2

Where:

f = frequency of the AC source

Ke =

lamination of core)

Where:

m

m

= maximum mutual flux

Pe = eddy current loss; watts

From Ep:

Ep = 4.44Npfm x 10-8

Therefore:

CLOSS = Ph + Pe

1st Condition: (V , f)

2nd Condition: (V , f)

DIVIDE /

CASE 1: flux density (m) is not assumed to be constant.

STEINMITZ LAW:

Ration:

Therefore:

Example Problem:

a 4400v, 60 hz transformer has a core loss of 840 watts of

which one-third is eddy current loss when the transformer is

connected to a 4600v, 50 hz source. Determine the value of

iron loss.

Note:

if the problem does not mentioned coreloss is constant

therefore, do not assume constant.

Given:

Vp = 4400 v

Vp = 4600 v

f = 60 hz

f = 50 hz

CL = 840 w

Pe = (CL)

= (840)

= 280 w

Reqd:

CL = ?

Solution: (Case 1)

CL = Ph + Pe ---------- working formula.

Example Problem:

a 25 cycles, 1000 kva transformer is applied to a 60 cps

system. The full load efficiency of the transformer at 25 cps is

98%. Half of the core, the hysteresis and eddy current loss are

equal at 25 cps. What would be the rating of this transformer

at 60 cps if the transformer was operated at rated voltage.

Given:

f1 = 25 hz

2nd Condition:

f2 = 60 hz

= 98%

KVA2 = ?

EL1 = TL1

Vp2 = ?

CL = TL1

(EL = CL)

Ph1 = Pe1 = CL1

Reqd:

KVA2 = ?

= 0.5 (10,205)

= 5,102.5 watts

CL2 = Ph2 + Pe2

= 3017.56 + 5102.5

= 8116.08 watts

EL2 = TL2 CL2

= 20410 8116.08

EL2 = 12,289.94 watts

Example Problem:

In a 400 v, 50 cps transformer the total iron loss is 2500 watts.

When the supplied potential voltage is 220 v at 25 cps, the

corresponding loss is 850 watts. Calculate the eddy current loss

at normal frequency and potential diff.

Given:

@ 1st month condition:

Reqd:

Pe = ?

@ 2nd condition:

VP1 = 400 v

VP2 = 220 v

f1 = 50 cps

f2 = 25 cps

CL1 = 2500 w

CL2 = 850 w

Solution:

@ condition 1:

CL1 = Pe1 + Ph1

= Ke Vp12 + Kh

2500 = Ke (400)2 + Kh

2500 = 160000 Ke + 1392.88 Kh

Kh = 1.795 114.87 Ke -----

@ condition 2:

CL2 = Pe2 + Ph2

850 = Ke (220)2 + Kh

850 = 48400 Ke + 811.17 Kh -------

Substitute eq in

850 = 48400 Ke + 811.17 Kh

850 = 48400 Ke + 811.17 [ 1.795 114.87 Ke ]

850 = 48400 Ke + 1456 93,179.1 Ke

Example Problem:

A 60 hz, 200 KVA, three winding transformer is rated 2400

volts primary and their two secondary windings, one rated 600

V and the other at 240 volts. There are 200 primary turns and

the rating of each secondary winding is 100 KVA. Calculate the

current in primary when rated current flows @ PF = 1. In the

240 V winding and also rated current flows @ 0.707 lagging in

the 600 volt windings.

Given: f = 60 Hz

KVA = 200 KVA

KVA1 = 100 KVA

VS1 = 600 V

PF2 = 1

VS2 = 240 V

1 = 00

1 = -450

Reqd:

Ip = ?

Solution:

load

1

load

2

Example Problem:

A transformer consist of a primary winding with 500 turns and

two secondary windings of 125 turns and 36 turns. The 125turn secondary windings has 60 ohms. Connected to its

terminals and the 36-turn secondary winding has 3 ohms

connected to its terminal. If the primary is connected to a 120v, 60 hz source, determine the current in primary windings.

Given:

Np = 500 turns

Z = 60 ohms

N = 125 turns

Z = 3 ohms

N = 36 turns

Vp = 120 v

= 60 hz

FIGURE:

load

1

For currents:

load

2

There are only 4 possible transformer combinations:

1. Delta to Delta - use: industrial applications

2. Delta to Wye - use : most common; commercial and industrial

3. Wye to Delta - use : high voltage transmissions

4. Wye to Wye - use : rare, don't use causes harmonics and

balancing problems.

A three- phase transformer is made of three of sets of primary

and secondary windings. Each set wound around one leg of an

iron core assembly. Essentially it looks like three single phase

transformer sharing a joined core as in fig. below.

in either or Y configurations to form a complete unit.

Whether the winding sets share a common core assembly or

each winding pair is a separate transformer, the winding

connection options are the same:

Primary - Secondary

Y

Y

winding connections are the same as for any other three-phase

application: Y connections provide the opportunity for multiple

voltages, while connections enjoy a higher level of reliability

(if one winding fails open, the other two can still maintain full

line voltages to the load).

primary and secondary windings together to form a threephase transformer bank is paying attention to proper winding

phasing (the dots used to denote polarity of windings).

Remember the proper phase relationships between the phase

windings of and Y: (Figure below)

(Y) The center point of the Y must tie either all the - or all

the + winding points together. () The winding polarities

must stack together in a complementary manner ( + to -).

regular Y or configuration can be tricky. Let me illustrate,

starting with Figure below.

transform power from one three-phase system to another. First,

I'll show the wiring connections for a Y-Y configuration: Figure

below.

THREE OF SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER.

a) It is cheaper and economical to operate.

b) It requires lesser space to mount the transformer.

DISADVANTAGE OF THREE PHASE (3) TRANSFORMER vs.

SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER.

a) If one winding becomes disabled the entire operation is

affected, thereby power is interrupted.

b) In 3 of 1, when one transformer becames disabled, the

remaining two transformer can be re-bank in open-delta (V) so

that service can be continued although at reduce capacity

(57.7%) while the damage transformer is being repaired.

Ip = I

Is

Ap

Cp

As

Bp

Cs

Bs

2

transformer because the number of turns per phase and the

amount of insulation is minimum. The transformer works

satisfactorily only if the load is BALANCE.

Ip = I

X

Y

Bp

Ap

As

Cs

Cp

Bs

2

3

where the voltage is to be stepped down. The primary is

always Y-connected with grounded neutral to allow the flow of

zero sequence current in the even of SLGF, source line to

ground fault and DLGF, double line to ground fault

I = Is

1

2

As

Bs

Ap

Cp

Bp

Y

Z

Cs

3

This transformer is generally where it is necessary to stepup the voltage at the beginning at high transmission

lines.

the two transformers have to be oversized to handle the same

amount of power as three in a standard configuration, but

the overall size, weight, and cost advantages are often worth

it. Bear in mind, however, that with one winding set missing

from the shape, this system no longer provides the fault

tolerance of a normal - system. If one of the two

transformers were to fail, the load voltage and current would

definitely be affected.

X

Ap

Cp

Bp

As

Cs

Bs

which insulation problem is not so urgent because it increases

the number of turns per phase. No difficulty is experienced

from unbalanced load.

Delta Connections:

is used for neighborhood and small commercial loads close to

the supplying substation. Only one voltage is available between

any two wires in a delta system. The delta system can be

illustrated by a simple triangle. A wire from each point of the

triangle would represent a three-phase, three-wire delta

system. The voltage would be the same between any two wires

(see figure 1-3).

Figure 1-3:

Wye Connections:

Figure 1-4:

Bank:

transformer of the proper size and turns ratio is not available,

three single phase transformers can be connected to form a

three phase bank. When three single phase transformers are

used to make a three phase transformer bank, their primary

and secondary windings are connected in a wye or delta

connection. The three transformer windings in figure 1-5 are

labeled H1 and the other end is labeled H2. One end of each

secondary lead is labeled X1 and the other end is labeled X2.

Figure 1-5:

and C. The primary leads of each transformer are labeled H1

and H2 and the secondary leads are labeled X1 and X2. The

schematic diagram of figure 1-5 will be used to connect the

three single phase transformers into a three phase wye-delta

connection as shown in figure 1-7.

Figure 1-6:

Figure 1-7:

The open delta transformer connection can be made with only

two transformers instead of three (figure 1-8). This connection

is often used when the amount of three phase power needed is

not excessive, such as a small business. It should be noted

that the output power of an open delta connection is only 57%

of the rated power of the two transformers. For example,

assume two transformers, each having a capacity of 25 kVA,

are connected in an open delta connection. The total output

power of this connection is 43.5 kVA (50 kVA x 0.87 = 43.5

kVA).

Another

figure

percentage

given

assumes

for

a

this

closed

calculation

delta

bank

is

87%.

This

containing

form a closed delta connection, the total output would be 75

kVA (3 x 25 = 75 kVA). If one of these transformers were

removed and the transformer bank operated as an open delta

connection, the output power would be reduced to 58% of its

original capacity of 75 kVA. The output capacity of the open

delta bank is 43.5 kVA (75 kVA x .58% = 43.5 kVA).

computed in the same manner as a standard delta-delta

connection when three transformers are employed. The voltage

and current rules for a delta connection must be used when

determining line and phase values of voltage current.

Closing a Delta:

for proper polarity before making the final connection and

applying power. If the phase winding of one transformer is

reversed, an extremely high current will flow when power is

applied. Proper phasing can be checked with a voltmeter at

delta opening.

connection is closed, the voltmeter should indicate 0 volts. If

one phase winding has been reversed, however, the voltmeter

will indicate double the amount of voltage.

It should be noted that a voltmeter is a high impedance device. It

is not unusual for a voltmeter to indicate some amount of

voltage before the delta is closed, especially if the primary has

been connected as a wye and the secondary as a delta. When

this is the case, the voltmeter will generally indicate close to

the normal output voltage if the connection is correct and

double the output voltage if the connection is incorrect.

Electrical Code Article 450-3(b) states that each transformer

600 volts, nominal or less, shall be protected by an individual

over current device on the primary side, rated or set at not

more

than

125%

of

the

rated

primary

current

of

the

amps or more and 125% of this current does not correspond

to a standard rating of a fuse or nonadjustable circuit breaker,

the next higher standard rating shall be permitted. Where the

primary current is less than 9 amps, an over current device

rated or set at not more than 167% of the primary current shall

be permitted. Where the primary current is less than 2 amps,

an overcurrent device rated or set at not more than 300% shall

be permitted.

Example #1:

What size fuses is needed on the primary side to protect a 3

phase 480v to 208v 112.5 kVA transformer?

1.732 (square root of 3).

To solve: P / I x E

125 %.

Code 240-6).

Example #2:

phase 208v to 480v 3kVA transformer?

To solve: P / I x E

v, nominal, or less, having a an overcurrent device on the

secondary side rated or set at not more than 125% of the

rated secondary current of the transformer shall not be

required to have an individual overcurrent device on the

primary side if the primary feeder overcurrent device is rated

or set at a current value not more than 250% of the rated

primary current of the transformer.

600 v, nominal, or less, shall be protected by an individual over

current device on the secondary side, rated or set at not more

than 125% of the rated secondary current of the transformer.

Where the secondary current of a transformer is 9 amps or

more and 125% of this current does not correspond to a

standard rating of a fuse or nonadjustable circuit breaker, the

next higher standard rating shall be permitted. Where the

secondary current is less than 9 amps, an overcurrent device

rated or set at not more than 167% of the secondary current

shall be permitted.

Example:

3 phase 480v/208v 112.5 kVA transformer?

To solve : P / I x E

1

As

Ap

Cp

Y

Z

Cs

2

3

Note:

Transformer.

It is employed when:

a) Three phase load is too small to warrant to installation of full

phase transformer.

b) When one of the transformer in a delta-delta bank () is

disabled, so that us continued at reduced capacity until the

faulty transformer is repaired or a new one is substituted.

c) When it is anticipated that in the future, the load will increase

necessitating the closing of open delta.

Equivalent Circuit Diagram

86.6%

50%

vice versa. It consist of 2 identical 1 x

50% tap & the other an 86.6% tap on their primary windings.

3

L

O

A

D

Let:

Note:

OPEN-DELTA BANK

L

O

A

D

Example Problem:

two transformer are connected open delta delivering a load of

100 KVA at a power factor of 0.8 lagging. Calculate the power

delivered by each x4mer?

Given:

SL = 100 KVA

L = 0.8 lagging

= -36.870

Reqd:

T-1

T-2

L

O

A

D

100

KVA

Example Problem:

two single phase distribution transformer connected in open

delta will supply power to a 200 Hp, 3 induction motor

operating at 0.707 OF and 90% efficiency. Solve the minimum

size in KVA of each transformer needed to supply the power

without being over loaded.

Given:

Example Problem:

An electrical utility company is supplied by two single phase

x4mers bank in rated 75 KVA capacity. What is the maximum

3 load in kw that the bank can carry without overloading

considering that the load has a lagging PF of 0.8.

Given:

Example Problem:

Three single phase (3) transformer each rated 75 KVA are

bank in delta supplying a 3 load drawing 160 KVA at 0.8

lagging PF. If one x4mer has burned out and is removed for

repair, solve for the amount of overloading of the remaining

units.

Given:

Example Problem:

An open-delta bank, consisting of two single phase x4mers is

operating with a balance 3 load of 50 KVA, 440 V at 0.8 PF

lag and a single phase load of 10 kw resistive connected across

AC leg. Determine minimum ratings of the two x4mers.

Assume a phase sequence a-b-c.

Given:

10 kw

a

C

T-1

Icc

T-2

N

b

Ibb

440 V

50

kva

0.8

lag

L

O

A

D

Ia

L 10kw

440 v

PF = 1

Ic

Example Problem:

a 3 transformer connected on delta on the primary side step

down. The voltage from 13200 v 460 v and delivers 750 kva, 0.8

PF lagging to the load. Calculate:

a) Transformation ratio

b) The current delivered to the load

c) The current in primary line wires

d) The current that flows in the transformer winding

Given:

Connected

SL = 750 kva

Vs = 460 V

Reqd: a, ISL, IPL and Ip = ?

Example Problem:

A power transformer rated 50,000 KVA, 34.5/13.8 kvolts is

connected Y-Y. what are the line currents at full load.

Given:

Example Problem:

A power transformer is rated 50,000 KVA 34.5/13.8 kvolts is

connected Y-Grounded on the primary and delta on the

secondary. Determine the full load phase currents on the

secondary side.

Given:

Y (grounde) = connection

IpL

Ip

Example Problem:

What should be the turns ratio of the 3 transformers that

transform from 230 kvolts to 4160 volts if the transformer is to

be connected Y- & -Y

Given:

requirements to be met for ideal operation of two or more

transformers in parallel.

a)The voltage rating of both primary and secondary windings must

be identical.

Note: if this condition is not fulfilled or met, there will be a current

that will circulate through the transformer secondaries which

contribute to the transformer loss.

b.)

to their polarity.

Note: if this condition is not met, there will be a large current that

will circulate in the transformer secondaries and will

damage the windings.

c.) the equivalent impedance must be inversely proportional to

their respective KVA rating.

Note:

if this condition is not met, the transformer will not share

the load in proportion to their respective KVA ratings. A possibility

that the large transformer operates at a underload condition while

smaller transformer operates at overload conditions.

(Xes) referred to the secondary side must be the same.

Note:

if this condition is not met each transformer will operate at

different power factor with that of the connected load.

e.)

- to be connected to -

or

-Y to be connected to -Y

Note: if this condition is not met there will be a current that will

circulate will be a current that will circulate through the

secondary windings and will contribute to the transformer

losses.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

1. All circuit diagrams for convenient purposes must be referred

to the secondary winding.

OR

2.)

current.

Example Problem:

two transformer are connected in parallel supplying a common

load of 175 KVA @ 0.8 PF lag. Both transformer has a voltage

rating of 2300/230 V single phase and each rated 100 KVA.

Transformer 1 has equivalent impedance of 16 ohms and that

of transformer 2 is 13 ohms. Referred both to the primary. Find

KVA load in each transformer.

Given:

Example Problem:

Determine the KW ratio of the KW output of transformer T-1 to

that transformer T-2 when they are connected in parallel

supplying a load of 150 KW @ 0.8 PF lagging.

Given:

1. If given is percent (%) or per unit impedance, either in

absolute or with equal angle.

Example Problem:

A 125 KVA distribution transformer w/ 4% impedance is

connected in parallel w/ another transformer rated 75 KVA and

3%, both have the same voltage ratio. Neglect the resistance

of each transformer, the total load is 140 KVA at 80% PF

lagging, how much load does it carry?

1. If given is percent (%) or per unit impedance but of different

angle

2. Use vector addition.

MODIFIED FORMULAS:

Sample Problem:

A 500 KVA single phase transformer A w/ percentage

impedance of 0.01 + j 0.05 is to be connected in parallel w/ a

250 KVA transformer B w/ percentage impedance of 0.015 +

j 0.04. if they are serving single phase load rated 800 KVA @

0.8

PF

lagging,

determine

the

power

factor

of

each

ration.

Note: if the individual rated KVA rating of each transformer is not

given

Example Problem:

Meralco has two single phase transformer w/equal turns ratio

and ratings are operating at in parallel to supply a load of 280

kw @ 0.8 PF lagging. Transformer A has resistance of 2% and

a reactance 8% while transformer B: has a resistance of 1%

and reactance of 6%. Determine the power delivered by

transformer A and B to the load.

TURNS RATIO:

Where:

AUTO-TRANSFORMER

defined as a transformer in which part of the winding is

common to both primary and secondary.

its and electrically continuous winding w/one or more taps on a

magnetic core. One circuit is connected to the end of terminals

while the other is connected to one end terminal and to a part

way along the winding.

in general, an autotransformer is both magnetically and

electrically linked.

Notes:

a) Always assumed auto-transformer efficiency of 100% if not

specified.

b) If efficiency is equal to 100%

Example Problem:

An

auto-transformer

designed

for

4,000

to

2300

Calculate:

a) The transform power

b) The power conducted

volts

Example Problem:

A

5KVA,

2300/460

distribution

transformer

is

to

be

2300V to 2760V. When used to transform 5KVA. Calculate the

kilovolt-ampere load output.

Example Problem:

A 20 kva, 500 V load is to be supplied by an ideal step-up

auto-transformer from 400v source. Find the current in the

common winding.

l

o

a

d

AC MOTORS

1. Induction Motor (3) is simply a rotating electrical

machines which convert electrical power (energy output).

a) Synchronous Speed (Ns) is defined at which the

rotating flux rotates. It is the speed of synchronous

generator (as generator or alternator) that supplies all the

load connected to it or it is called the speed of incoming

source.

WHERE:

Ns = synchronous speed in RPM

f = frequency of the incoming source supplying the

induction motor. Stator frequency.

speed written on its nameplate in RPM. It is measured by

means of instrument Tachometer

c. Slip (S) rotor of an induction motor rotates somewhat less

than the synchronous speed

speed is known as SLIP.

1. STATOR stationary part; It is the one that receives

electrical power from the AC SOURCE by means of

conduction.

When

compared

to

transformer, it

is

2. ROTOR rotating part; it is the one that delivers the

mechanical power output to the load and takes power from

the stator via the airgap by means of a electromagnetic

induction.

When compared to a transformer it is considered to be the

secondary winding.

a) Squirrel cage type

b) Wound rotor type

air gap

STATOR

air gap

SPI

RPD

STATOR

ROTOR

RPO

RPI

SCL

COL

RCL

F&W

ROTOR

Example Problem

A 6 pole, 50 hz, 3 induction motor runs at 960 RPM while

delivering a shaft torque of 120 n-m. if friction and windage

loss amount to 180 watts, determine the rotor copper loss.

SPI

STATOR

SCL

CL

RPI

RPD

ROTOR

RCL

RPO

F&W

Example Problem:

A 3, 220 v, 60 Hz, 4 pole induction motor drives a Fan

which provides 40 m/sec of air requirement to furnace.

Assume an efficiency of 60% and 150mm of H 0 gage

pressure. Determine the current drawn by the induction motor

if eff. and power factor is 80% and 70% respectively.

FPO

-60%

-80%

SPI

STATOR

RPI

ROTOR

RPO

(RPO=FPI)

air

a) No Load Test this test is similar to open ckt test performed

in a transformer.

Purpose:

@ No load condition:

b.)

this test is similar to short circuit test performed in a

transformer. During this test the rotor is blocked and the rotor

windings are short circuited, cut slip rings if the motor has a

wound rotor. A reduced voltage is applied to the stator

terminals and is so adjusted that full load current flows in the

stator. The values of the current voltage and power input are

measured.

Purpose:

To determine the equivalent resistance per phase referred on

the stator side

c.)

Load Test

- Motor is loaded with its normal load or visual load.

- During this test, the motor is loaded. The problem should

clearly specified what is the specified load on the motor.

- This is not an assurance that the motor is tested at full

load.

Example Problem:

A 5 hp, 6 pole, 3, 60 Hz induction motor operates with a slip

of 2% and requires 11 amp and 3500 watts, when during its

visual load. When the rotor is blocked, 440 watts at 52 volts

are required to circulate a current of 14 amp. Calculate the

following when motor is driving its visual load.

a) Horsepower output

b) Torque Excerted

c) Efficiency (Assume Y-connected stator)

Given:

SPI

STATOR

SCL

CL

RPI

RPD

ROTOR

RCL

RPO

F&W

Example Problem:

A 440 v, 60 Hz, 4 pole, 3 wound rotor induction motor is

directly connected to a pump which delivers 1000 cfm of water

against an effective head of 8.7 ft. under this load, the motor

drains 15.62 kw at a power factor of 0.92 when rated at no

load. When the motor drains 803 watts, the rotor resistance

per phase is 0.022 ohm while stator resistance per phase is

0.202 ohm. The effective turn ration between stator and rotor

is 4:1. calculate the pump efficiency?

Given:

H20

8.7 ft

Pop

Example Problem:

A 4 pole, 60 Hz, 3 induction motor draws 8200 watts from

the line. The losses in the machines are:

SCL

= 300 watts

RCL

= 160 watts

CoL

= 400 watts

Calculate the torque output:

SPI

STATOR

SCL

CL

RPI

RPD

ROTOR

RCL

RPO

F&W

CASE 2:

Note: When the given data regarding core loss

and friction

power loss (SPL).

air gap

SPI

RPD

STATOR

SCL

SPL=(F&W)+CL

ROTOR

RCL

Example Problem:

A 6 pole, 3, 60 Hz induction motor takes 48 kw in power at

1140 RPM. The stator copper loss is 1.6 kw and stray power

losses are 1 kw. Find the eff.

SPI

STATOR

SCL

SPL

RPI

RPD = RPO

ROTOR

RCL

Example Problem:

A 230 v, 8, 4 pole, 60 Hz squirrel cage induction motor

operating at 90% efficiency & 85% PF and 2.5% slips drives a

pump for reservoir. Determine the current taken from the line

if the discharge rate is 475 GPM and the total head of which

the pump is working 200 ft. Assume pump efficiency of 80%.

water

reservior

SPI

Pom Pip

Pop

200 ft

This is exactly the same test applied on the alternator to

solve for value of ohmic resistance of the stator per phase.

When this test is applied blocked rotor test is no longer

necessary.

Blocked Rotor Test

Res effective or AC equivalent resistance per phase

referred to the stator. (Rotor is included)

During DC Resistance Test

Res effective or AC resistance per phase of the stator

alone. (Rotor is not included)

Open

Terminal

Stator

Winding

Stator

Winding

Example Problem:

A 400 V, 60 Hz, 6 Pole, Y connected 3 induction motor draws

75 kw with a line current of 100 amp, the core loss is 2 kw,

friction and windage loss is 1.2 kw, the stator resistance

between two terminals is 0.35 ohm. What is the efficiency if

the motor runs at a slip of 2.5%

Solution:

SPI

STATOR

SCL

+CL

RPI

RPD

ROTOR

RCL

RPO

F&W

RPI

(electrical)

ROTOR

RPO

RCL

(electrical)

F&W

(mechanical)

Example Problem:

A 40 Hp, 230 v, 8 pole, 25 Hz 3 induction motor is running at

355 RPM @ rated load. The torque lost by friction is 24 n-m. if

the total stator loss is 1000 watts. Calculate the eff.of the

motor at this load.

Solution:

RPI

ROTOR

RCL

RPO

1. All formulas derived are applicable to all type of AC motors and

DC motors.

2. During staring, the current by the motor is too high about (5 to

7times its full load value) simply because at the instant of

starting, the motor is not rotating and the slip is 1.0 and the

counter emf or back emf is zero.

3. Motors should be protected at the instant of starting to prevent

damage on the windings and to lessen the effect on the other

equipment connected on the same line wires.

Note: for small motors (usually 10 hp below) use across the line,

magnetic starter (full voltage starting method)

voltage:

The starting torque (Ts) is always proportional to the square of

the starting line voltage:

For two condition problem:

1st condition: use subscript 1

Ratio

Where:

Vs starting line voltage

Ts starting torque

Is - starting current

Td rated or full load torque developed

IL rated or full load current

Example Problem:

A 25 hp, 230 volt, 3 induction motor with 85% PF has a

starting current of 5.5 times its rated current. To reduced the

starting current, at Y- starter is installed. What will be the

new starting current?

Given:

Example Problem:

A 10 hp, 550v, 3 induction motor has a starting torque of

160% of full load torque and a starting current of 425% of full

load current. If the motor is used on 440v, 60hz system. What

will be the starting torque express in percent of full load value?

Example Problem

An induction motor of 30 hp, 220v, 3, draws 450% of rated

current with rated voltage and delivers during the starting

period of 130% of the normal torque. The full load efficiency of

the motor and full load PF is 80% and 70% respectively. If the

auto-transformer unit is used as a starting unit

and the

the motor. Find the starting current of the line.

1. Y- starter (Y-start ; -run)

2. Part winding method

3. Auto-transformer method

4. Line resistance method

5. Line reactance method

6. Wound rotor starting

Line 1

Line 2

Line 3

Start

OLR

Circuit

Breaker

Normally

Open

Overload

Relay

Motor

Stop

Coil

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

TYPES OF S.M.

1. Under-Excited Synchronous M. normally operates at a

lagging power factor.

2. Normally-Excited Synchronous M. operates at unity

power factor.

3. Over-Excited Synchronous M. operates at leading power

factor.

1. It runs a definite constant speed called synchronous speed.

2. It is not self-starting, it needs amortisseur winding.

3. It can be operated over a wide range of power factors hence it

can be used for power factor correction.

AMORTISSEUR WINDING it is case winding with bars

embedded in the rotor pole faces of a synchronous and shorted

at each end rings to make the rotor self starting in dumping

out hunting.

Field

Rheostat

field circuit

separately

Vf

excited by

DC source

Supply

armature

circuit

Voltage

Notations:

If

Vf

Xs synchronous reactance per phase of the armature

winding.

Zs synchronous impedance per phase of the armature

winding.

voltage)

I

phase.

Where:

- deflection angle

- torque angle

Electrical

Pin

Pd

Mechanical

Pd

ARMATURE

SPL

Po

Notes:

1. If the types of motor is not specified to be 3 or 1, always

consider the motor as 1.

2. If the synchronous motor is used for power factor correction

purposes. It is understood and considered to operate always at

leading power factor (over excited sm)

3. If the field winding is not mentioned, then it is considered as

ZERO.

Example Problem:

The output of a 200 v synchronous motor taking a current of

20 amp is 4 hp. Effective armature armature resistance is 0.5

ohms. The iron and friction losses amount to 400 watts. What

is the power factor of the machine.

Pin

Pd

Pd

ARMATURE

Example Problem:

A 20hp, 440v, 3, star connected sm has an armature

effective resistance per phase of 0.4 ohm at full load output,

the power factor is 0.9 leading, the iron and friction losses

amount to 500w. What is the value of armature line current?

Pin

Pd

ARMATURE

Pd

Example Problem:

A 500v, 1 sm gives a net mechanical power of 7.46 kw and

operates at 0.9 lagging PF, its effective resistance is 0.8 ohm.

If the iron and friction losses are 500 w and excitation losses

are 800 w. estimate the armature current. Calculate the

commercial efficiency.

Pin

Pd

ARMATURE

Example Problem:

A 2300-v, 3 star connected synchronous motor has a

resistance of 0.2 ohm per phase and a sm reactance of 2.2

ohm per phase. The motor is operating at 0.5 PF leading with a

line current of 200 amp. Determine the value of the generated

emf per phase.

Another Solution:

Example Problem:

A 100 v, synchronous motor having 40% reactance and a

negligible resistance is to be operated at rated load

a) Unity

b) 0.8 lag

c) 0.8 leading

What are the values of induced emf is?

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