Você está na página 1de 42

MPRL E&P Pte Lt

BOTTOM HOLE
ASSEMBLY
COMPONENTS
AND
PERFORMANCES

BHA
The lower portion of thedrillstring, consisting of
(from the bottom up in a vertical well) thebit, bit
sub, amud motor(in certain cases), stabilizers,
drillcollar, heavy-weightdrillpipe, jarring devices
("jars") and crossovers for various threadforms.
The bottomhole assembly must provide force for
the bit to break therock(weight on bit), survive a
hostile mechanical environment and provide the
drillerwith directional control of the well.

BHA
Oftentimes

the

amudmotor,directional

assembly
drillingand

includes
measuring

equipment,measurements-whiledrillingtools,logging while-drilling tools and other


specialized devices.

simple

BHA

consisting

of

bit,

various

crossovers, and drill collars may be relatively


inexpensive , while a complex one may cost ten or
more times that amount.

MPRL E&P Pte Lt


WHY WE USE BHA?
THE BOTTOM HOLE ASSEMBLY (BHA) PROVIDE THE FOLLOWING
FUNCTIONS:
- Provide weight for the bit (WOB).
- Provide strength needed to run in compression.
- Minimize bit stability problems from vibration, wobbling and jumping.
- Minimize directional control problems by providing stiffness to the
bottom hole assembly(BHA).
Today, the bottom-hole assembly serves several useful purposes, In
addition to the simple need to effectively load the bit with drill collar
weight.
Correctly designed, they can:
-Prevent doglegs and key seats.
-Produce a smooth bore and full size hole.
-Improve bit performance.
-Minimize drilling problems.
-Minimize harmful vibrations.

MPRL E&P Pte Lt


THE FOLLOWING FIGURE SHOW AN ADVANTAGE OF DRILL COLLARS
USING IN DRILL STRING.

ADEQUATE
DRILL COLLAR
WEIGHT
KEEPS DRILL
PIPE
STRAIGHT

IN FIGURE A;
THE DRILL STRING IS STABLE DUE
TO ENOUGH DRILL COLLAR
LENGTH.

IN FIGURE B;
THE DRILL STRING FACED
BUCKLING EFFECT DUE TO
DRILL PIEUNSUFFICIENT DRILL COLLAR
BUCKLINGLENGTH.

NOT ENOUGH
DRILL COLLAR
WEIGHT

MPRL E&P Pte Lt


A. BOTTOM HOLE ASSEMBLY COMPONENTS
THE BOTTOM HOLE ASSEMBLY IS THE PORTION OF DRILL
STRING BELOW
THE DRILL PIPES ;INCLUDING SOME BUT NOT NECESSARILY ALL OF
THE FOLLOWINGS:
I -BIT
II -DRILLING MUD MOTORS
III -STABILIZERS(STAB)
IV -DRILL COLLARS(DC)
V -REAMERS OR HOLE OPENER
VI -DRILLING JARS
VII -HEAVY WEIGHT DRILL PIPES (HWDP)
VIII-ASSORTED SUBS(CROSS OVER SUBS)
IX -DRILL PIPES

MPRL E&P Pte Lt

ARE MANY TYPES OF OIL WELL DRILLING BIT.

ING CUTTER BIT OR TRI-CONE BIT


1.A.ROCK BIT(STEEL TOOTH, MILL TOOTH BIT)
1.B.TCI BIT(TUNGESTEN CARBIDE INSERT BIT)
D CUTTER BIT
2.A. PDC BIT (POLY CRYSTALLINE DIAMOND COM
BICENTER BIT ALSO INCLUDED IN PDC TYPE.
2.B. DIAMOND BIT
D CUTTER BIT
3.A. HYBRID DRILL BIT(THE MODERNIZED PRODU

MPRL E&P Pte Lt

R
O
T
O
M
D
U
M
G
N
I
L
L
I
R
D

MPRL E&P Pte Lt


II.DRILLING MUD MOTOR
A DRILLING TOOL MADE UP IN THE DRILL STRING DIRECTLY
ABOVE THE BIT.
IT CAUSES THE BIT TO TURN WHILE THE DRILL STRING REMAINS
FIXED.
IT IS USED MOST OFTEN AS A DEFLECTION TOOL IN
DIRECTIONAL DRILLING,WHERE IT IS MADE UP BETWEEN THE BIT
AND A BENT SUB(OR, SOMETIMES,THE HOUSING OF THE MOTOR
ITSELF IS BENT).
TWO PRINCIPAL TYPES OF DOWN-HOLE

DRILLING MUD MOTOR

MPRL E&P Pte Lt

NERAL MUD MOTOR COMPONENTS

MPRL E&P Pte Lt

NERAL MUD MOTOR COMPONENTS

MPRL E&P Pte Lt

MPRL E&P Pte Lt

STABILI
ZER

MPRL E&P Pte Lt

III.STABILIZER
WHAT IS THE STABILIZER &WHY WE USE STABILIZER?
-A SHORT SUB WITH BLADES ATTACHED WHICH IS OF
OUTSIDE DIAMETER EQUAL TO,OR SLIGHTLY SMALLER
THAN THE DIAMETER OF THE HOLE BEING DRILLED.
-THE BLADE ARRANGEMENT ALLOWS FLUID RETURNS
WHILE SUPPORTING THE DRILL STRING AGAINST THE
WALLS OF HOLE.
-STABILIZER ARE USED AS A MEANS OF CONTRLLING THE
LOCATION OF THE CONTACT POINT BETWEEN THE HOLE AND
DRILL COLLARS.
-FOR A GIVEN HOLE DEVIATION,THE USE OF A
SINGLE,PROPERLY LOCATED STABILIZER WILL ALLOW A
HIGHER WEIGHT ON BIT.

MPRL E&P Pte Lt


THREE BASIC TYPES OF STABILIZERS.

VARIABLE
BLADE
STABILIZER.

NON-ROTATING
STABILIZER.

INTEGRAL
BLADE
STABILIZER
OR SPIRAL
STABILIZER.

STRAIGHT
STABILIZER
OR FIXED
BLADE
STABILIZER.

MPRL E&P Pte Lt


IV.DRILL COLLARS

MPRL E&P Pte Lt

IV.DRILL COLLARS

DRILL COLLARS ARE THICK-WALLED


HEAVY STEEL PIPE,WHICH REDUCES THE
TENDENCY OF BREAKING.
DUE TO SMALL CLEARANCE BETWEEN THE
DRILLED HOLE AND COLLARS IT IS POSSIBLE
TO MAINTAIN A STRAIGHT HOLE.
TO FURNISHED THE COMPRESSIVE
LOAD ON THE BIT,ALLOWING THE LIGHTER
DRILL PIPE TO REMAIN IN TENSION.
USING THESE,DRILLERS HAVE BEEN ABLE TO

MPRL E&P Pte Lt

HREE TYPES OF DRILL COLLARS

E DRILL COLLARS

SPIRAL DRILL COLLAR S

PLAIN D

MPRL E&P Pte Lt


V.REAMERS OR HOLE OPENER

MPRL E&P Pte Lt

REAMERS OR HOLE OPENER

HIS TOOLS THAT ARE RUN IMMEDIATELY ABOVE A BIT TO MAINTAIN

R ENLARGE THE HOLE SIZE.THE CUTTING ACTION IS BY ROTATING

ONES BUILT FROM THE CENTRAL STEM.

OTH TYPES PERFORM SIMILAR FUNCTIONS,BUT THE CONES OF AN

NDER-REAMER ARE BUILT INTO COLLAPSIBLE ARMS WHICH ARE

HELD OUT WHILE DRILLING BY THE PRESSURE OF THE DRILLING

FLUID BEING CIRCULATED DOWN THROUGH THE CENTER OF THE TOOL.

MPRL E&P Pte Lt

REAMERS OR HOLE OPENER

IN THIS WAY,IT MAY BE RUN IN OR PULLED OUT THROUGH A SMALLR

CTION BOREHOLE
THE COLLARS ARE SO MUCH SMALLER THAN THE HOLE,THEY BEND

ND WHIP ,LOADING FIRST ONE CUTTER,AND THEN THE NEXT.

THEY PUT A TERRIFIC SIDE LOAD ON THE PILOT BIT,AND THEN

OLE OPENER BODY.

THE VIBRATION DAMPNER,WITH THE STABILIZER CAN HELP ELIMINATE

HIS.

MPRL E&P Pte Lt


V.REAMERS OR HOLE OPENER

MPRL E&P Pte Lt

REAMERS OR HOLE OPENER

PDC UNDER REAMER

CONE UNDER REAMER

MPRL E&P Pte Lt

PDC UNDER REAMERS

MPRL E&P Pte Lt

REAMERS OR HOLE OPENER

MPRL E&P Pte Lt

VI.DRILLING JARS
DRILLING JAR IS USED WHEN THE DRILLSTRING IS STUCK OR
WHEN A FISH IS CAUGHT IN AN OVERSHOT AND CANNOT BE
PULLED FROM THE BOREHOLE.
IN NORMAL DRILLING,THE JAR IS PLACED IN THE HEAVY
WEIGHT PIPE SECTION,
WHILE IN FISHING IT IS LOCATED DIRECTLY ABOVE THE
FISHING TOOL
JARING PROVIDES A METHOD OF GIVING AN UPWARD JERK
TO FREE PIPE.IT WORKS SIMILAR TO A TRIP-HAMMER.

MPRL E&P Pte Lt

VI.DRILLING JARS

MPRL E&P Pte Lt

VII.HEAVY WEIGHT DRILL PIPE


AN INTERMEDIATE WEIGHT DRILL
STRING MEMBER ATTACHED TO SPECIAL
EXTRA LENGTH TOOLS JOINT DRILL PIPE
DIMENSION FOR HANDLING.
CAN BE RAN WITH COMPRESSION AS
DRILL COLLAR.
PROVIDE STABILITY AND MUCH LESS
WALL CONTACT.
HEAVYIWEIGHT DRILL PIPE SHOULD NOT
BE USED FOR BIT WEIGHT IN VERTICALS
HOLES LARGER THAN THOSE LISTED
BELOW:
5 HWDP-MAX VERTICAL HOLE 10 1/16
INCHES.
4 HWDP-MAX VERTICAL HOLE 9
1/16 INCHES.
4 HWDP-MAX VERTICAL HOLE 8 1/8
INCHES.

MPRL E&P Pte Lt

VII.HEAVY WEIGHT DRILL PIPE

MPRL E&P Pte Lt


VIII.ASSORTED SUBS( CROSS
OVER SUBS)

MPRL E&P Pte Lt


VIII.ASSORTED SUBS( CROSS
OVER SUBS)

MPRL E&P Pte Lt

DRILL PIPE

LL PIPE ARE THE ESSENTIAL PART OF DRILL STRING .


API(AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUE) STANDARD FOR DRILL PIPE .

SIDE DIAMETER (O.D) OF API DRILL PIPE IS THE SAME FOR EACH SIZE.

DE DIAMETER IS VARIES WITH THE NOMINAL WEIGHT PER FOOT LENGTH

ET ON THE ENDS FOR ADDED STRENGTH.

TOOL JOINTS ARE SHRUNK OR WELDED ON THE ENABLE LENGTHS OF DR


BE SCREWED TOGETHER TO MAKE UP THE DRILL STRING.

BHA Variations

Rotary assembly
Rotary assembliesare commonly used where formations
are predictable and the rig economics are an issue.
In such an assembly the weight of the drill collars gives
the BHA the tendency to sag or flex to the low side of
the hole,
collar stiffness length and stabilizer diameter and
placement are engineered as a means of controlling the
flex of the BHA. this will bring about the desired hold,
build or drop tendency.
The ability to vary the directional tendency of the
assembly comes from varying the weight on the bit.
A fixed assembly has only one directional tendency. The
weight on bit allows you to tune that tendency.

BHA Variations

The bottom-hole assembly (BHA) can be:


slick with no stabilizers
a pendulum bottom-hole assembly for
reducing the deviation of a well
packed with stabilizers for a straight hole /
a short lock assembly
afulcrumfor increasing the deviation of
the well / a long lock assembly
Bottom-hole assemblies are also described as
specialized, such as articulated,
steerable, and
oriented or non-oriented.

BHA Variations

Fulcrum / Long Lock


This assembly is used to build angle.
The assembly usually incorporates a near bit stabilizer.
Behind this would be a selection of drill collars and Heavy
Weight Drill Pipe (HWDP).
The length of the section AFTER the near bit stabilizer
would determine the extent of the angle build rate.
After the appropriate length of pipe after the near bit
stabilizer you would place a drill string stabilizer.
In short the longer the gap between the near bit and the
drill string stabilizer the greater the angle building rate.
Care must be taken to not have this section too long as the
pipe may sag too much and rub against the borehole wall.
This could result in key seating and pipe digging into the
borehole wall.

BHA Variations

Stabilization / Short Lock


This assembly is usually used to maintain borehole
angle. This assembly is very rigid allowing little
movement of the bit.
Such an assembly would mean that the stabilizers
are closely packed: a near bit stabilizer within 030
feet of the drill bit, and two more spaced 30 and
60 feet beyond it. If a short drill collar is used, then
the stabilizers can be even closer together.
The shorter the distance between the stabilizers
means that the drill collars bend less and the
weight on bit (WOB) pushes directly on the bit,
hence maintaining the angle.

BHA Variations

Pendulum assembly
A pendulum assembly is used to reduce the
angle build rate or reduce well-bore angle.
In this assembly there is no near bit assembly.
The front portion of the (BHA) is allowed to
hang as a result of its own weight. In such a
case the first stabilizer is placed 3045 feet
behind the bit.
This hanging means that there is a force
acting on the low side of the hole, which
causes the deviation.

BHA configurations
There are three types of BHA
configurations.
These configurations addressed are
usually concerned with the use or
layout of drill collars, heavy weight
drill pipe and standard drill pipe.

Type 1
Type 1, standard simple
configuration, uses only drill pipe and
drill collars.
In this instance the drill collars
provide the necessary weight on the

Type 2
Type 2 uses heavy weight drill pipe
as a transition between the drill
collars and the drill pipe.
Weight on bit is achieved by the drill
collars.

Type 3
Type 3 uses the drill collars to
achieve directional control.
The heavy weight drill pipe applies
the weight on the bit.
Such a layout promotes faster rig
floor BHA handling.
It may also reduce the tendency for
differential sticking.

BHA FOR
HORIZONAL/VERTICAL

In most cases the above three types of configurations


usually apply to straight/vertical wellbores at most low to
medium angle wellbores.

For high angle and horizontal wellbore careful weight


control of the BHA is a must.

In this instance the weight may be applied by running the


drill pipe in compression in the high angle section.

The high angle may help to stabilize the drill pipe allowing it